Each of the following people deserves special thanks for their contributions.

Victor McKusick, creator of Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), on which OMIA is modelled, provided moral support from the very first time the possibility of OMIA was raised by Frank at the International Congress of Genetics in Moscow in 1978. Jan Graham spent three years from 1980, chasing up old references and entering them into a bibliographic database constructed on a University of Sydney mainframe computer, under the UNIX operating system. Steve Brown worked wonders on the mainframe. Around 1990, the bibliographic information was moved to the SCIMATE bibliographic database on an IBM-compatible 286 microcomputer. A year or so later, the bibliographic information was moved again to a powerful relational database called Advanced Revelation (ARev), first on the microcomputer and then onto Frank's laptop. Steve's ARev software was in regular use for more than 20 years.

Carolyn Bucholtz, from ANGIS, took the flat file exported from ARev and worked her wonders in creating the original OMIA web page, populating it with the flat file behind the then OMIM birx search engine kindly provided by Dennis Benson and Randy Huntzinger from NCBI. Victor McKusick solved a pivotal problem that enabled the web page to be made public. Its birthdate is 26th May 1995. David Lipman, from NCBI, and staff from Johns Hopkins University (in particular Joanna Amberger) enabled reciprocal linking of OMIM with OMIA, which came into operation on 16th October 1997. Camson Huynh, from ANGIS, took over web responsibilities from Carolyn. Later, Dao Mai, also from ANGIS, wrote code for automatically replacing the flat file. Carolyn's web site was in constant use for almost 10 years. Paul le Tissier contributed much enthusiasm and many ideas during the development of the ARev database, and beyond.

At the request of the USDA's National Agricultural Library (NAL) in Washington, OMIA was made available to the NAL, who packaged it into ACeDB software, linked it with the Agricola bibliographic database and with OMIM, and made it available (on 16th August, 1995) on the home page of USDA's Agricultural Genomic Information Server. Gail Juvik, Stephen M. Beckstrom-Sternberg and Jon T. Krainak were the enthusiastic drivers of this initiative, which continued until the NAL's genomics databases were transferred to Cornell University at the end of 1999. Maria Nemchuk continued the operation at Cornell, until it, too, was decommissioned in 2002.

In 2002, Paul McGreevy, a colleague in the Faculty of Veterinary Science at the University of Sydney, organised an assessment exercise for first-year Veterinary Science students to prepare text entries for some of the clinical fields (in lay terms) that had laid blank for so long, in relation to inherited disorders of dogs. Because OMIA then still resided on a laptop, it was not possible to add the student's text to the OMIA fields. Instead, a separate database called Listing of Inherited Disorders in Animals (LIDA) was created by a team comprising Paul McGreevy, Federico Costa, Paul Della Torre, Peter Thomson and Frank. This database also contains lists of breeds affected by each disorder, obtained from the web site of the Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights. The plan is to expand LIDA to become a means for collecting, analysing and presenting real-time genetic epidemiology data on the incidence of inherited disorders in various animal species.

Early in 2004, Mike Poidinger, then Head of ANGIS, generously took all the tables exported from the ARev database on Frank's laptop and placed them in a new MySQL database on an ANGIS server. He also picked up the Medline URLs for thousands of references. Johann Lenffer took Mike's creation and, under the guidance of Mike and Shoba Ranganathan (Biotechnology Research Institute, Macquarie University), developed it into a database with interactive web page that was ready for beta-testing. Late in 2004, Kao Castle took over from Johann, bringing the database and new web page to the stage where Carolyn's original web page could be retired.

Early in 2005, Matthew Mailman from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) expressed interest in linking OMIA to a phenotype database under development at NCBI. This has proved to be the beginning of a very fruitful collaboration, culminating in a mirror of OMIA being hosted at NCBI as an Entrez database. Matt deserves special thanks for all his efforts in bringing this development to fruition, as does Kao Castle for working closely with Matt, albeit across the Pacific Ocean.

In August 2005, substantial help was also received from Stefan Gregory, a programmer in ANGIS; from Johann, who rejoined the team again after completing his honours research project; and from Arjun Rao, a medical practitioner who, in addition to providing several enhancements, put his clinical knowledge to very good use in mapping OMIA entries to the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and expanding the capacity of the Ontology.

With all the help outlined above, by mid-September 2005 we reached the stage where Carolyn's original web page could be retired, and the two new versions of OMIA - the new ANGIS interface and the NCBI Entrez mirror (OMIA@NCBI) - were launched.

Imke Tammen, Yizhou Chen, Mohammad Shariflou and Bethany Wilson are amongst several colleagues and students who have contributed ideas and text; each contributor is acknowledged in the entry to which they have contributed.

Early in 2007, the master OMIA database was transferred to a new server funded through the SheepGenomics program by Meat and Livestock Australia (MLA) and Australian Wool Innovation (AWI). Oscar Luo (SheepGenomics) set up the server and transferred all the data and applications to it, with substantial and on-going help from Dao Mai (ANGIS). Jonathan Usmar (SheepGenomics) was responsible for maintenance of the site (in collaboration with Dao Mai), and for various enhancements, from then until the end of 2009.

In July 2007, Matt Mailman's direct involvement with OMIA ended when he moved from NCBI. It is a pleasure to record a very sincere thank you to Matt for all his efforts in establishing OMIA@NCBI. His OMIA responsibilities were taken over by Donna Maglott, Mike Feolo and Rinat Bagoutdinov, all of whom immediately set about working with Oscar Luo to lay the groundwork for an automatic weekly update of OMIA@NCBI from the Sydney master database. In November 2007, Xuan Zhang became the person responsible for OMIA@NCBI. After various delays due to pressures of other commitments at the Sydney end, in February 2008 a very fruitful collaboration between Xuan and Jonathan Usmar came to fruition in the activation of an automatic weekly update of OMIA@NCBI from a dump of the entire OMIA database in Sydney.

In March 2010, consequent upon the closure of ANGIS by the University of Sydney, the master OMIA database was transferred to a virtual server hosted by Information and Communications Technology (ICT) at the University of Sydney. Under the very capable hands of Matthew Hobbs (a colleague within the Faculty of Veterinary Science), this task was achieved with input from Jonathan Usmar and ICT colleagues Stuart Johnston, Ivan Teliatnikov, Rowena Foss, Madeleine McCabe and Greg Rudd.

Commencing in August 2010, Matthew Hobbs began a major overhaul of the OMIA master database and development of a new website with improved curation tools, based on a django, a high-level Python Web framework. On 10th August 2011, Matthew's new version of OMIA was launched.

From July until September 2011, a team assembled by Dr Vicki Meyers-Wallen (from the Baker Institute of Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University) greatly expanded 55 OMIA entries comprising 46 canine disorders and 9 feline disorders. Other members of the team were Martha MaloneyHuss, a veterinary student at Cornell, and the following colleagues from other institutions: Dr. Mark Haskins, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. John Fyfe, Michigan State University; Dr. Paula Henthorn, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Margret Casal, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Meg Sleeper, University of Pennsylvania. The contributions by each member of the team are gratefully acknowledged.

In February 2012, links from OMIM to OMIA were reinstated with the new OMIM web resource, thanks to very fruitful interaction between Fran├žois Schiettecatte (FS Consulting, LLC; consultant to OMIM) and Matthew Hobbs (OMIA). The links are automatically updated from the OMIA list of animal disorders and other traits for which there is strong evidence of human homology. The links are accessible from the Animal Models section of the Links tool on relevant OMIM pages. Thanks are also due to Joanna S. Amberger (Program Manager, OMIM) through whom this valuable enhancement was organised.

In June 2012, Matthew Hobbs created a "printing pipeline" for generating a hard-copy printed version of the entire contents of OMIA.

In April 2013, OMIA data relating to every disorder/trait with a known causal/key mutation were incorporated into Ensembl ( Every new Ensembl release will contain updated OMIA information. Thanks to Fiona Cunningham, Andrew Yates, William McLaren and Laura Clark from EMBL-EBI, Hinxton, UK, for this important development.

Commencing in December 2013, Carrie Finno revised and updated the horse entries in the context of preparing an updated version of the review of equine inherited disorders by Finno et al. (2009; Vet J 179:336-47).

On 16th April 2014, NCBI decommissioned their OMIA mirror, due to funding constraints. Frank Nicholas takes this opportunity to thank all the NCBI staff (and especially Xuan Zhang) who, since February 2008, have enabled the NCBI mirror to be maintained, and who have provided behind-the-scenes help in many ways. Discussions are underway for the establishment of links to OMIA from various relevant NCBI resources.

In March 2016, Frank Nicholas became aware of PubTator, "a Web-based tool for accelerating manual literature curation . . . through the use of advanced text-mining techniques". One of PubTator's developers, Zhiyong Lu, from NCBI, kindly agreed to prepare a PubTator search that would capture PubMed references that involve (any human gene symbol OR any word in the OMIM "dictionary") AND any vertebrate animal species except humans, mice, rats and zebrafish. A weekly update of this search was inaugurated on 11 August 2016. Frank is very grateful to Zhiyong for all the effort he put into enabling OMIA searches to be conducted via PubTator, and to Chih-Hsuan Wei, the main developer of this exceedingly helpful tool.

Consequent upon an initial suggestion by Cali Willet (a colleague in the University of Sydney's Informatics Hub), an OMIA enhancement project was commenced on 20th July 2017 within the University's Centre for Translational Data Science and Sydney Informatics Hub. The project was conducted by Josh Stretton under the supervision of Jared Berghold and then Peter Thiem. The project involved incorporating existing information on likely causal variants into the OMIA db, displaying this information in a tabular, readily-downloadable format, and creating curation tools for incorporating information on new likely causal variants. The resultant new version of OMIA went public on 11 December 2017.


Grateful thanks are extended to:
  • H.G. Slater Foundation, for a grant of A$2000 in 1979, that assisted in the initial establishment of the mainframe database.
  • (Australian) Commonwealth Special Research Grant, for a grant of A$46,386 in 1980-1982, that enabled Jan Graham to enter references into the mainframe database.
  • International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), for a grant of A$9,423 in 1983, that helped to fund the development of the mainframe database.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, for a grant of A$8,990 in 1993, that helped fund the initial development of OMIA as a web resource.
  • Friends of the [Queensland] Veterinary School Inc, for a donation of A$1,483.64 (courtesy of Professor Keith Hughes) in 1996, for the development of OMIA.
  • American Humane Association, for funding Martha MaloneyHuss to upgrade many canine and feline entries, under the supervision of Dr Vicki Meyers-Wallen (College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University), in the northern summer of 2011.
  • University of Sydney, for providing the services of software engineer Josh Stretton (via the University's Centre for Translation Data Science and Sydney Informatics Hub) for two days per week from August to December 2017. Josh's efforts resulted in the launch of a new version of OMIA on 11 December 2017, presenting information on likely causal variants in a standard sortable and downloadable format.