OMIA:000145-9615 : Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in Canis lupus familiaris

In other species: domestic cat

Categories: Respiratory system phene

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Cross-species summary: BOAS


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Brložnik, M., Nemec Svete, A., Erjavec, V., Domanjko Petrič, A. :
Echocardiographic parameters in French Bulldogs, Pugs and Boston Terriers with brachycephalic obstructive airways syndrome. BMC Vet Res 19:49, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36793024 . DOI: 10.1186/s12917-023-03600-9.
Song, A., Phillips, H., Oliveira, C.R., McCoy, A.M. :
CT volumetric analysis permits comparison of tongue size and tongue fat in different canine brachycephalic and mesaticephalic breeds. Vet Radiol Ultrasound :, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36787184 . DOI: 10.1111/vru.13221.
Zong, S., Du, P., Li, H., Wang, M., Xiao, H. :
Advances in animal models of obstructive sleep apnea. Front Med (Lausanne) 10:988752, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36824607 . DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2023.988752.
2022 Conte, A., Berlato, D., Rasotto, R., Bass, J., Bussadori, R., Nicoli, S., Murgia, D. :
Comparison of harmonic shears, diode laser, and scissor cutting and suturing for caudal palatoplasty in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Vet J 280:105802, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35151883 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2022.105802.
Kenny, D.D., Freemantle, R., Jeffery, A., Tivers, M.S. :
Impact of an educational intervention on public perception of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in brachycephalic dogs. Vet Rec 190:e1430, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35182434 . DOI: 10.1002/vetr.1430.
Mitze, S., Barrs, V.R., Beatty, J.A., Hobi, S., Bęczkowski, P.M. :
Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome: much more than a surgical problem. Vet Q :1-17, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36342210 . DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2022.2145621.
Sebbag, L., Sanchez, R.F. :
The pandemic of ocular surface disease in brachycephalic dogs: The brachycephalic ocular syndrome. Vet Ophthalmol :, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36585820 . DOI: 10.1111/vop.13054.
2021 Geiger, M., Schoenebeck, J.J., Schneider, R.A., Schmidt, M.J., Fischer, M.S., Sánchez-Villagra, M.R. :
Exceptional changes in skeletal anatomy under domestication: The case of brachycephaly. Integr Org Biol 3:obab023, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34409262 . DOI: 10.1093/iob/obab023.
Mondino, A., Delucchi, L., Moeser, A., Cerdá-González, S., Vanini, G. :
Sleep disorders in dogs: A pathophysiological and clinical review. Top Companion Anim Med 43:100516, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33556640 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tcam.2021.100516.
Niskanen, J.E., Reunanen, V., Salonen, M., Bannasch, D., Lappalainen, A.K., Lohi, H., Hytönen, M.K. :
Canine DVL2 variant contributes to brachycephalic phenotype and caudal vertebral anomalies. Hum Genet 140:1535-1545, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33599851 . DOI: 10.1007/s00439-021-02261-8.
O'Neill, D.G., Packer, R.M.A., Francis, P., Church, D.B., Brodbelt, D.C., Pegram, C. :
French Bulldogs differ to other dogs in the UK in propensity for many common disorders: a VetCompass study. Canine Med Genet 8:13, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34911586 . DOI: 10.1186/s40575-021-00112-3.
2020 Ekenstedt, K.J., Crosse, K.R., Risselada, M. :
Canine brachycephaly: anatomy, pathology, genetics and welfare. J Comp Pathol 176:109-115, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32359622 . DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2020.02.008.
Stordalen, M.B., Silveira, F., Fenner, J.V.H., Demetriou, J.L. :
Outcome of temporary tracheostomy tube-placement following surgery for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in 42 dogs. J Small Anim Pract :, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32175595 . DOI: 10.1111/jsap.13127.
2019 Ravn-Mølby, E.M., Sindahl, L., Nielsen, S.S., Bruun, C.S., Sandøe, P., Fredholm, M. :
Breeding French bulldogs so that they breathe well-A long way to go. PLoS One 14:e0226280, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31841527 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226280.
Riggs, J., Liu, N.C., Sutton, D.R., Sargan, D., Ladlow, J.F. :
Validation of exercise testing and laryngeal auscultation for grading brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in pugs, French bulldogs, and English bulldogs by using whole-body barometric plethysmography. Vet Surg 48:488-496, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30666670 . DOI: 10.1111/vsu.13159.
2018 Fawcett, A., Barrs, V., Awad, M., Child, G., Brunel, L., Mooney, E., Martinez-Taboada, F., McDonald, B., McGreevy, P. :
Consequences and Management of Canine Brachycephaly in Veterinary Practice: Perspectives from Australian Veterinarians and Veterinary Specialists. Animals (Basel) 9:, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30577619 . DOI: 10.3390/ani9010003.
Ladlow, J., Liu, N.C., Kalmar, L., Sargan, D. :
Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Vet Rec 182:375-378, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29599258 . DOI: 10.1136/vr.k1403.
2017 Lilja-Maula, L., Lappalainen, A.K., Hyytiäinen, H.K., Kuusela, E., Kaimio, M., Schildt, K., Mölsä, S., Morelius, M., Rajamäki, M.M. :
Comparison of submaximal exercise test results and severity of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in English bulldogs. Vet J 219:22-26, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28093105 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2016.11.019.
Liu, N.C., Troconis, E.L., Kalmar, L., Price, D.J., Wright, H.E., Adams, V.J., Sargan, D.R., Ladlow, J.F. :
Conformational risk factors of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs. PLoS One 12:e0181928, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28763490 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181928.
2016 Heidenreich, D., Gradner, G., Kneissl, S., Dupré, G. :
Nasopharyngeal Dimensions From Computed Tomography of Pugs and French Bulldogs With Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome. Vet Surg 45:83-90, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26731598 . DOI: 10.1111/vsu.12418.
Liu, N.C., Adams, V.J., Kalmar, L., Ladlow, J.F., Sargan, D.R. :
Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography Characterizes Upper Airway Obstruction in 3 Brachycephalic Breeds of Dogs. J Vet Intern Med 30:853-65, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27159898 . DOI: 10.1111/jvim.13933.
Oechtering, G.U., Pohl, S., Schlueter, C., Lippert, J.P., Alef, M., Kiefer, I., Ludewig, E., Schuenemann, R. :
A Novel Approach to Brachycephalic Syndrome. 1. Evaluation of Anatomical Intranasal Airway Obstruction. Vet Surg 45:165-72, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26790550 . DOI: 10.1111/vsu.12446.
Oechtering, G.U., Pohl, S., Schlueter, C., Schuenemann, R. :
A Novel Approach to Brachycephalic Syndrome. 2. Laser-Assisted Turbinectomy (LATE). Vet Surg 45:173-81, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26790634 . DOI: 10.1111/vsu.12447.
Shaver, S.L., Barbur, L.A., Jimenez, D.A., Brainard, B.M., Cornell, K.K., Radlinsky, M.G., Schmiedt, C.W. :
Evaluation of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Anesthetized Dogs with Brachycephalic Syndrome. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc :, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27841676 . DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6281.
2015 Haimel, G., Dupré, G. :
Brachycephalic airway syndrome: a comparative study between pugs and French bulldogs. J Small Anim Pract 56:714-9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26563910 . DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12408.
Kaye, B.M., Boroffka, S.A., Haagsman, A.N., Ter Haar, G. :
Computed tomographic, radiographic, and endoscopic tracheal dimensions in English bulldogs with grade 1 clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome Vet Radiol Ultrasound 56:609-16, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26202379 . DOI: 10.1111/vru.12277.
Liu, N.C., Sargan, D.R., Adams, V.J., Ladlow, J.F. :
Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography. PLoS One 10:e0130741, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26079684 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130741.
O'Neill, D.G., Jackson, C., Guy, J.H., Church, D.B., McGreevy, P.D., Thomson, P.C., Brodbelt, D.C. :
Epidemiological associations between brachycephaly and upper respiratory tract disorders in dogs attending veterinary practices in England. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:10, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401338 . DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0023-8.
2013 Rancan, L., Romussi, S., Garcia, P., Albertini, M., Vara, E., Sánchez de la Muela, M. :
Assessment of circulating concentrations of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome. Am J Vet Res 74:155-60, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23270361 . DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.74.1.155.
Sabino, C.V., Holowaychuk, M., Bateman, S. :
Management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in a French Bulldog using airway pressure release ventilation. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 23:447-54, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23855595 . DOI: 10.1111/vec.12071.
2012 Lodato, D.L., Hedlund, C.S. :
Brachycephalic airway syndrome: pathophysiology and diagnosis. Compend Contin Educ Vet 34:E3, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22847322 .
Lodato, D.L., Hedlund, C.S. :
Brachycephalic airway syndrome: management. Compend Contin Educ Vet 34:E4, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22935992 .
Packer, R.M.A., Hendricks, A., Burn, C.C. :
Do dog owners perceive the clinical signs related to conformational inherited disorders as 'normal' for the breed? A potential constraint to improving canine welfare. Animal Welfare 21(Suppl. 1):81-93, 2012.
Planellas, M., Cuenca, R., Tabar, M.D., Bertolani, C., Poncet, C., Closa, J.M., Lorente, J., Cerón, J.J., Pastor, J. :
Evaluation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and cardiac troponin 1 levels in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstructive syndrome. BMC Vet Res 8:152, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22937913 . DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-152.
White, R.N. :
Surgical management of laryngeal collapse associated with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in dogs. J Small Anim Pract 53:44-50, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22122300 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01156.x.
2011 Pichetto, M., Arrighi, S., Roccabianca, P., Romussi, S. :
The anatomy of the dog soft palate. II. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in brachycephalic breeds with grade I brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 294:1267-72, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21634020 . DOI: 10.1002/ar.21417.
Senn, D., Sigrist, N., Forterre, F., Howard, J., Spreng, D. :
Retrospective evaluation of postoperative nasotracheal tubes for oxygen supplementation in dogs following surgery for brachycephalic syndrome: 36 cases (2003-2007). J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 21:261-7, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21631712 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2011.00612.x.
Trappler, M., Moore, K. :
Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and nonsurgical management. Compend Contin Educ Vet 33:E1-4; quiz E5, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21870353 .
Trappler, M., Moore, K. :
Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome: surgical management. Compend Contin Educ Vet 33:E1-7; quiz E8, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21870354 .
2010 Bernaerts, F., Talavera, J., Leemans, J., Hamaide, A., Claeys, S., Kirschvink, N., Clercx, C. :
Description of original endoscopic findings and respiratory functional assessment using barometric whole-body plethysmography in dogs suffering from brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome. Vet J 183:95-102, 2010. Pubmed reference: 18952471 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.09.009.
Dunié-Mérigot, A., Bouvy, B., Poncet, C. :
Comparative use of CO₂ laser, diode laser and monopolar electrocautery for resection of the soft palate in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Vet Rec 167:700-4, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21257486 . DOI: 10.1136/vr.c5107.
Fasanella, FJ., Shivley, JM., Wardlaw, JL., Givaruangsawat, S. :
Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome in dogs: 90 cases (1991-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:1048-51, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21034343 . DOI: 10.2460/javma.237.9.1048.
2009 Njikam, I.M., Huault, M., Pirson, V., Detilleux, J. :
The Influence of Phylogenic Origin on the Occurrence of Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome in a Large Retrospective Study. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine 7(3):138-143, 2009.
Portier, K., Viguier, E. :
Fatal tracheal collapse in a dog with brachycephalic syndrome during gastric endoscopic examination. Vet Rec 165:412-4, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19801596 .
2007 Riecks, T.W., Birchard, S.J., Stephens, J.A. :
Surgical correction of brachycephalic syndrome in dogs: 62 cases (1991-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:1324-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17472557 . DOI: 10.2460/javma.230.9.1324.
2006 Poncet, C.M., Dupre, G.P., Freiche, V.G., Bouvy, B.M. :
Long-term results of upper respiratory syndrome surgery and gastrointestinal tract medical treatment in 51 brachycephalic dogs. J Small Anim Pract 47:137-42, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16512845 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00057.x.
Torrez, C.V., Hunt, G.B. :
Results of surgical correction of abnormalities associated with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in dogs in Australia. J Small Anim Pract 47:150-4, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16512847 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00059.x.
1997 Lorinson, D., Bright, R.M., White, R.A.S. :
Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome - a review of 118 cases Canine Practice 22:18-21, 1997.
1992 Hendricks, JC. :
Brachycephalic airway syndrome. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22:1145-53, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1523786 .
1991 Wykes, PM. :
Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Probl Vet Med 3:188-97, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1802247 .
1989 Harvey, C.E. :
Inherited and congenital airway conditions in dogs and cats Journal of Small Animal Practice 30:184-187, 1989.
1985 Aron, D.N., Crowe, D.T. :
Upper airway obstruction. General principles and selected conditions in the dog and cat. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 15:891-917, 1985. Pubmed reference: 2416110 .

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  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005