OMIA 000473-9615 : Hip dysplasia in Canis lupus familiaris

In other species: domestic cat , cattle , pig , sheep , rabbit , raccoon dog , Rhesus monkey

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s)s (MIM numbers): 142669 , 142700 , 244510 , 265050 , 615612

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Cross-species summary: Laxity of the hip joint, resulting from a shallow acetabulum and/or a small, mis-shapen head of the femur. In severe cases, affected animals are lame.

Species-specific name: Canine hip dysplasia

Species-specific symbol: CHD

History: The first reports of this disorder were written by Dr Gerry B. Schnelle, a veterinary graduate of the University of Pennsylvania. A pioneer in the development of radiology, Dr Schnelle described hip dysplasia in papers published in 1935 and 1937 (listed at the bottom of the Reference section below). In 1955, almost the entire content of the January issue of The Journal of Canine Genetics (published by the Society for the Advancement of Canine Genetics, 1127 W. College, Independence, Mo) was devoted to this disorder (Grounds et al., 1955).

Inheritance: This disorder is a classic example of a multifactorial trait; it is definitely familial, but is equally definitely NOT due to a single gene. Heritability of liability has been estimated on many occasions. The most comprehensive review of CHD heritability published to date is by Janutta and Distl, 2006) who present 105 estimates ranging from 0.00 to 0.93, based on 125,166 dogs, with an average of around 0.35. The most comprehensive large-scale analysis of CHD data is the one by Oberbauer et al. (2017) who estimated the heritability of CHD (scored according to the OFA criteria [see below] on 1,056,852 dogs representing 60 breeds) as ranging from 0.46 to 0.75, with an average of 0.57.

Mapping: The first genome scan for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) was conducted by Chase et al. (2003) on 286 Portuguese water dogs, each genotyped with "ca. 500 molecular genetic markers" and phenotyped for Norberg angle as a measure of joint laxity, resulting in the discovery of two putative QTL, both "on canine chromosome 1 (CFA1), separated by about 95 Mb".

Another genome scan was conducted by Todhunter et al. (2005) on "152 dogs from three generations of a crossbred pedigree based on trait-free Greyhound and dysplastic Labrador Retriever founders", each genotyped with "240 microsatellite markers distributed in 38 autosomes and the X chromosome", resulting in identification of putative QTL on chromosomes "4, 9, 10, 11 (p < 0.01), 16, 20, 22, 25, 29 (p < 0.01), 30, 35, and 37" for one or more of the traits "maximum passive hip laxity (the distraction index), the dorsolateral subluxation score, and the Norberg angle."

Marschall and Distl (2007) reported a genome scan on "11 paternal half-sib families, including a total of 459 purebred German Shepherd dogs with sires, dams, and offspring . . . [each] genotyped for 261 microsatellites . . . equidistantly distributed over all 38 autosomes and the X chromosome with an average marker distance of 11.7 cM.", with the following results: "At the genome-wide level of significance at p < 0.05, QTL for CHD were located on nine different canine chromosomes: 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 16, 19, 26, and 33. The minimal QTL regions containing the CHD genes spanned on average 5 Mb with a range between 1 and 8.2 Mb." The results of this study were incorporated into a genotypic test for CHD patented by Distl and Marschall (EP 2 123 777 B1; filed in 2009). The test involves calculation of a "numerical breeding value" as the weighted sum of information from up to 17 polymorphic markers, to be used in predicting the CHD phenotype of individual dogs and predicting the average CHD phenotype of the progeny of particular matings. Noting that the markers used in this patented test appear never to have been validated in published papers, Manz et al. (2017) reported a validation test of the "numerical breeding value" as a predictor of individual phenotype, concluding that "the genetic test patented by Distl et al. (2009) is unsuitable for individual CHD risk assessment". It is important to note that Manz et al. (2017) did not assess the value of the patented test as a predictor of average CHD phenotype of the progeny of particular animals or particular matings.

In what appears to be the first GWAS for canine hip dysplasia (and osteoarthritis), Zhou et al. (2010) genotyped 721 dogs from eight breeds with the Illumina CanineSNP20 Bead SNP chip, yielding 21,445 informative SNPs. QTL were identified on chromosomes CFA3, 11 and 30 for hip dysplasia; and on CFA17 and 37 for osteoarthritis.

Pfahler and Distl (2012) reported a GWAS on 174 Bernese Mountain dogs that had been phenotyped on the FCI's 5-point hip-dysplasia scale, each genotyped with the Illumina HD beadchip, which yielded 96,412 SNPs for inclusion in the analysis. Two regions were highlighted on chromosome CFA14 and one on CFA37. Based on known function, the list of genes in those regions was reduced to just two functional positional candidates which are undergoing close examination.

Zhu et al. (2012) reported a GWAS on 366 dogs from their Labrador Retriever-Greyhound mapping resource (each genotyped with 21,455 SNPs), which identified "Putative QTL for . . . [Norberg Angle] NA . . . on 11 chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 19, 21, 32, 36, and 39)".

From a GWAS on 48 affected and 30 non-affected Dutch Labrador Retrievers, each genotyped with the Illumina Infinium CanineSNP20 BeadChip (yielding 17,859 informative SNPs), Lavrijsen et al. (2014) reported that "Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32."

From a GWAS on "96 German Shepherd Dogs affected by mild, moderate and severe CHD and 96 breed, sex, age and birth year matched controls", each genotyped with the 127K Affymetrix SNP chip (yielding 47,729 informative SNPs), Fels and Distl (2014) "identified five SNPs associated with CHD scores on dog chromosomes (CFA) 19, 24, 26 and 34". A subsequent study involving the genotyping of these five SNPs in "843 German Shepherd Dogs including 277 unaffected dogs and 566 CHD-affected dogs" showed that the five SNPs "explained 20–32% of the phenotypic variance of CHD in German Shepherd Dogs employed for validation", and provided genome-wide validation of the three SNPs on "CFA24, 26 and 34".

Control: In order to devise a sensible control strategy, it is essential to distinguish between the trait that we wish to improve (the breeding objective) and the trait that is actually measured (called the selection criterion). In the case of hip dysplasia, the breeding objective is clinical expression of hip dysplasia, i.e. lameness. However, since clinical expression is very difficult to measure, and may not be expressed at an early age, the selection criterion in most hip dysplasia control programmes is 'radiographic' hip dysplasia (RHD), which is readily assessible at an early age. The fact that RHD is assessed subjectively does not detract from its usefulness as a selection criterion. All that is required is that RHD be measured on an arbitrary scale, and that this measurement has a positive genetic correlation with clinical hip dysplasia. Although no estimates of this correlation have been made, the available evidence indicates that it is positive and sufficiently high to justify the use of RHD as the selection criterion in control programmes. The heritability is sufficiently high to justify a selection programme based on simple mass selection, i.e. selection of individuals according to their own phenotype. However, selection is more effective if the data are subjected to a proper quantitative genetic analysis using mixed models to calculate an Estimated Breeding Values (EBV) for each animal, which provides the best possible prediction (based just on phenotypic information) of the RHD score to be expected in the offspring of that animal.

Three of the major scoring schemes used around the world involve evaluation of a hip-extended radiograph.

One of these was devised for the British Veterinary Association (BVA) and the German Shepherd League (Willis, 1989, p. 165), and is now the standard BVA/KC (Kennel Club) scheme for almost all breeds in the UK, New Zealand and Australia. It involves the scoring of nine different features on each hip, as assessed from a hip-extended radiograph. For one of the nine traits (Caudal acetabular edge), the score is on a scale from 0 (ideal) to 5 (worst); for the other eight traits the score is from 0 (ideal) to 6 (worst), giving a total potential range of scores for each hip from 0 to 53, and a total dog score ranging from 0 to 106 (Dennis, 2012). With such a large range of possible scores, selection on RHD is essentially the same as selection on a continuously varying trait such as body weight; in effect, this scoring scheme has changed RHD from a threshold trait to a conventional multifactorial (quantitative trait). This provides a substantial advantage to breeders wishing to decrease the incidence and severity of hip dysplasia.

The other two hip-extended schemes involve multiple thresholds rather than a continuous score.

The scheme run by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) in the USA classifies dogs into one of seven categories: Normal (Excellent, Good, Fair), Borderline, and Dysplastic (Mild, Moderate, Severe).

The scheme run by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) places dogs into one of five classes: A (Normal), B (Transitional), C (Light), D (Medium), E (Severe).

Another major scoring scheme is PennHIP, developed by Dr Gail Smith while at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, and launched in 1993. As stated on its web site (http://info.antechimagingservices.com/pennhip/navigation/general/what-is-PennHIP.html), this scheme "consists of three separate radiographs: the distraction view, the compression view and the hip-extended view. The distraction view and compression view are used to obtain accurate and precise measurements of joint laxity and congruity. The hip-extended view is used to obtain supplementary information regarding the existence of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip joint". The scheme uses a single continuous predictive parameter, namely the Distraction Index (DI), which is calculated from measurements taken on the worse (looser) of the two hips as viewed in the distraction radiograph (Smith et al., 1993, 1995). In other words, the actual PennHIP score is based on only half the available information (from just one hip rather than from both hips) from only one of three radiographs taken. This limitation of the PennHip scheme was reinforced in the review by Reagan (2017). In addition to exhibiting a disconcerting misunderstanding about the meaning of heritability, this review repeats the often-quoted claim that the heritability of DI is higher than the heritability of the OFA score, and that therefore response to selection under the PennHip scheme will be greater than selection under the OFA scheme. This claim is problematic on several counts. First, the range of DI heritabilities quoted by Reagan (2017) (0.61 to 0.83) omits an estimate of 0.50 reported by Todhunter et al. (2003); and the range of heritabilities quoted by Reagan (2017) for the OFA trait (0.22 to 0.76) is misleadingly incomplete: as mentioned in the inheritance section above, the range from the most comprehensive review of heritability estimates for OFA and comparable extended-hip traits is actually 0.00 to 0.93, with an average of around 0.35 (Janutta and Distl, 2006). And the range of extended-hip heritabilities from a recent large-scale analysis of OFA data by Oberbauer et al. (2017) is 0.46 to 0.75, with an average of 0.57. Furthermore, the range of DI heritabilities is actually based on only three published estimates of DI heritability, estimated from a total of only 3.078 dogs, whereas the 105 estimates for OFA and comparable traits reviewed by Janutta and Distl (2006) are based on 125,166 dogs; and the Oberbauer et al. (2017) range is for estimates from each of 60 breeds derived from a total of more than 1 million records (actually 1,056,852)! This comparison highlights the unfortunate reality that the exceedingly rich and valuable PennHip data set collected on presumably tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of dogs since 1993 has not yet been subjected to a published quantitative genetic analysis. It would be an immense service to the global dog breeding community if such a study were undertaken not just on the DI record from the worse hip, but on the DI of both hips and all the other invaluable data collected from all three PennHip radiographs. Second, even if the heritability of DI is higher in a particular breed, this does not automatically mean that selection on DI will be more effective, because response to selection is not determined solely by heritability.

As if to highlight the unprecedented potential of the PennHIP data set for genetic analysis, Smith (2018) emphasises the existence of "a non-biased database of genetic information" as the first "essential element" of the PennHIP scheme. It is to be hoped that this exceedingly rich resource will soon be subjected to the genetic analysis it so richly deserves, which will so greatly inform all schemes for the control of canine hip dysplasia.

As noted in the Mapping section above, the results of Distl and Marschall (2007) were incorporated into a genotypic test for CHD patented by Distl and Marschall (EP 2 123 777 B1; filed in 2009). The test involves calculation of a "numerical breeding value" as the weighted sum of information from up to 17 polymorphic markers, to be used in predicting the CHD phenotype of individual dogs and predicting the average CHD phenotype of the progeny of particular matings. Noting that the markers used in this patented test appear never to have been validated in published papers, Manz et al. (2017) reported a validation test of the "numerical breeding value" as a predictor of individual phenotype, concluding that "the genetic test patented by Distl et al. (2009) is unsuitable for individual CHD risk assessment". It is important to note that Manz et al. (2017) did not assess the value of the patented test as a predictor of average CHD phenotype of the progeny of particular animals or particular matings.

References


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2019 Leighton, E.A., Holle, D., Biery, D.N., Gregor, T.P., McDonald-Lynch, M.B., Wallace, M.L., Reagan, J.K., Smith, G.K. :
Genetic improvement of hip-extended scores in 3 breeds of guide dogs using estimated breeding values: Notable progress but more improvement is needed. PLoS One 14:e0212544, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30794614. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212544.
Wang, S., Strandberg, E., Viklund, Å., Windig, J.J., Malm, S., Lewis, T., Laloë, D., Leroy, G. :
Genetic improvement of canine hip dysplasia through sire selection across countries. Vet J 248:18-24, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31113557. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2019.03.009.
2018 Broeckx, B.J.G., Vezzoni, A., Bogaerts, E., Bertal, M., Bosmans, T., Stock, E., Deforce, D., Peelman, L., Saunders, J.H. :
Comparison of Three Methods to Quantify Laxity in the Canine Hip Joint. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 31:23-29, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29325189. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT17-05-0064.
Broeckx, B.J.G., Vezzoni, A., Bogaerts, E., Bertal, M., Bosmans, T., Stock, E., Deforce, D., Peelman, L., Saunders, J.H. :
Reply to the Letter: 'Le Scientisme, c'est la Prétention indue au Monopole de vérité, alors que le Propre de la Science c'est de dire: il n'y a pas de Monopole' (Edgar Morin). Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 31:313-314, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29972848. DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1653959.
Edwards, S.M., Woolliams, J.A., Hickey, J.M., Blott, S.C., Clements, D.N., Sánchez-Molano, E., Todhunter, R.J., Wiener, P. :
Joint Genomic Prediction of Canine Hip Dysplasia in UK and US Labrador Retrievers. Front Genet 9:101, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29643866. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00101.
Oberbauer, A.M., Daniels, R., Levy, K., Famula, T.R., Mundell, P., Kelley, R. :
Maternal omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on offspring hip joint conformation. PLoS One 13:e0202157, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30092106. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202157.
Smith, G.K. :
'Imitation is the Sincerest of Flattery'…Except When It Negatively Impacts Canine and Client Welfare. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 31:311-312, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29972849. DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1653961.
Tikekar, A., Soo, M., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Worth, A.J. :
Provisional heritability estimates of four distraction index traits in a breeding population of German Shepherd dogs. N Z Vet J :1-16, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30122125. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2018.1512429.
Tolhurst, P. :
Benefits to breeds by using the hip and elbow health scheme. Vet Rec 183:136, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30054418. DOI: 10.1136/vr.k3279.
2017 Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T.P., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders. Canine Genet Epidemiol 4:6, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28560045. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-017-0044-6.
Butler, J.R., Gambino, J. :
Canine Hip Dysplasia: Diagnostic Imaging. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 47:777-793, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28576269. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2017.02.002.
Fealey, M.J., Li, J., Todhunter, R.J., Krotscheck, U., Hayashi, K., McConkey, M.J., Boyko, A.R., Hayward, J.J., Todhunter, R.J. :
Genetic mapping of principal components of canine pelvic morphology. Canine Genet Epidemiol 4:4, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28352471. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-017-0043-7.
Harper, T.A.M., Butler, J.R. :
Hip Dysplasia: Where Are We Now and How Do We Treat? Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 47:xi-xii, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28576276. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2017.04.001.
Henderson, E.R., Wills, A., Torrington, A.M., Moores, A.P., Thomson, D., Arthurs, G., Brown, G., Denny, H.R., Scott, H.W., MacQueen, I., Dunne, J., Onyett, J., Walker, J.D., Prior, J., Owen, M.R., Burton, N., Whitelock, R., Girling, S., Morrison, S., Gilbert, S., Langley-Hobbs, S.J., Gemmill, T.J., Störk, C.K., Bright, S., Comerford, E., Pettitt, R., Macdonald, N., Innes, J.F. :
Evaluation of variables influencing success and complication rates in canine total hip replacement: results from the British Veterinary Orthopaedic Association Canine Hip Registry (collation of data: 2010-2012). Vet Rec 181:18, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28386028. DOI: 10.1136/vr.104036.
Huang, M., Hayward, J.J., Corey, E., Garrison, S.J., Wagner, G.R., Krotscheck, U., Hayashi, K., Schweitzer, P.A., Lust, G., Boyko, A.R., Todhunter, R.J. :
A novel iterative mixed model to remap three complex orthopedic traits in dogs. PLoS One 12:e0176932, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28614352. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176932.
King, M.D. :
Etiopathogenesis of Canine Hip Dysplasia, Prevalence, and Genetics. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 47:753-767, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28460694. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2017.03.001.
Kirberger, R.M. :
Phenotypic hip and elbow dysplasia trends in Rottweilers and Labrador retrievers in South Africa (2007-2015): Are we making progress? J S Afr Vet Assoc 88:e1-e10, 2017. Pubmed reference: 29227139.
Loder, R.T., Todhunter, R.J. :
The Demographics of Canine Hip Dysplasia in the United States and Canada. J Vet Med 2017:5723476, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28386583. DOI: 10.1155/2017/5723476.
Manz, E., Tellhelm, B., Krawczak, M. :
Prospective evaluation of a patented DNA test for canine hip dysplasia (CHD). PLoS One 12:e0182093, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28771576. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182093.
Oberbauer, A.M., Keller, G.G., Famula, T.R. :
Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds. PLoS One 12:e0172918, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28234985. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172918.
Pascual-Garrido, C., Guilak, F., Rai, M.F., Harris, M.D., Lopez, M.J., Todhunter, R.J., Clohisy, J.C. :
Canine hip dysplasia: A natural animal model for human developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Orthop Res :, 2017. Pubmed reference: 29227567. DOI: 10.1002/jor.23828.
Reagan, J.K. :
Canine Hip Dysplasia Screening Within the United States: Pennsylvania Hip Improvement Program and Orthopedic Foundation for Animals Hip/Elbow Database. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 47:795-805, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28434528. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2017.02.003.
Syrcle, J. :
Hip Dysplasia: Clinical Signs and Physical Examination Findings. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 47:769-775, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28389035. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2017.02.001.
Wang, S., Leroy, G., Malm, S., Lewis, T., Viklund, Å., Strandberg, E., Fikse, W.F. :
Genetic correlations of hip dysplasia scores for Golden retrievers and Labrador retrievers in France, Sweden and the UK. Vet J 226:51-56, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28911842. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2017.07.006.
2016 Carapeba, G.O., Cavaleti, P., Nicácio, G.M., Brinholi, R.B., Giuffrida, R., Cassu, R.N. :
Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid Compared to Traditional Conservative Treatment in Dogs with Osteoarthritis Associated with Hip Dysplasia. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016:2076921, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27847523. DOI: 10.1155/2016/2076921.
Hayward, J.J., Castelhano, M.G., Oliveira, K.C., Corey, E., Balkman, C., Baxter, T.L., Casal, M.L., Center, S.A., Fang, M., Garrison, S.J., Kalla, S.E., Korniliev, P., Kotlikoff, M.I., Moise, N.S., Shannon, L.M., Simpson, K.W., Sutter, N.B., Todhunter, R.J., Boyko, A.R. :
Complex disease and phenotype mapping in the domestic dog. Nat Commun 7:10460, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26795439. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10460.
Martins, J., Colaço, B.J., Ferreira, A.J., Ginja, M.M. :
Analysis of pelvic rotation on the standard hip ventrodorsal extended radiographic view. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 29:68-74, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26548580. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-15-02-0025.
Teixeira, L.R., Luna, S.P., Matsubara, L.M., Cápua, M.L., Santos, B.P., Mesquita, L.R., Faria, L.G., Agostinho, F.S., Hielm-Björkman, A. :
Owner assessment of chronic pain intensity and results of gait analysis of dogs with hip dysplasia treated with acupuncture. J Am Vet Med Assoc 249:1031-1039, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27767433. DOI: 10.2460/javma.249.9.1031.
2015 [No authors listed] :
Hip, hip, hooray! Vet Rec 177:536, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26612905. DOI: 10.1136/vr.h6373.
Anon. :
Canine health screening - making a difference to dogs. Vet Rec 177:584, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26667425. DOI: 10.1136/vr.h6685.
Bartolomé, N., Segarra, S., Artieda, M., Francino, O., Sánchez, E., Szczypiorska, M., Casellas, J., Tejedor, D., Cerdeira, J., Martínez, A., Velasco, A., Sánchez, A. :
A Genetic Predictive Model for Canine Hip Dysplasia: Integration of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) and Candidate Gene Approaches. PLoS One 10:e0122558, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25874693. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122558.
Fortrie, R.R., Verhoeven, G., Broeckx, B., Duchateau, L., Janssens, L., Samoy, Y., Schreurs, E., Saunders, J., van Bree, H., Vandekerckhove, P., Coopman, F. :
Intra- and interobserver agreement on radiographic phenotype in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Surg 44:467-73, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25414132. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2014.12309.x.
Ginja, M., Gaspar, A.R., Ginja, C. :
Emerging insights into the genetic basis of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Med (Auckl) 6:193-202, 2015. Pubmed reference: 30101106. DOI: 10.2147/VMRR.S63536.
Humphreys, H.S., McEwan, N.R. :
Canine hip dysplasia in Tibetan terriers. Vet Rec 176:387, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25820325. DOI: 10.1136/vr.102886.
Keen, T. :
Celebrating 50 years of the BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia Scheme. Vet Rec 177:474, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26543224. DOI: 10.1136/vr.h5961.
Kimeli, P., Mbugua, S.W., Cap, R.M., Kirui, G., Abuom, T.O., Mwangi, W.E., Kipyegon, A.N., Mande, J.D. :
A retrospective study on findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya. Vet World 8:1326-30, 2015. Pubmed reference: 27047038. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1326-1330.
Komsta, R., Łojszczyk-Szczepaniak, A., Dębiak, P. :
Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, canine hip dysplasia, and sacroiliac joint degenerative changes on ventrodorsal radiographs of the pelvis in police working German shepherd dogs. Top Companion Anim Med 30:10-5, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26041591. DOI: 10.1053/j.tcam.2015.02.005.
Soo, M., Worth, A. :
Canine hip dysplasia: phenotypic scoring and the role of estimated breeding value analysis. N Z Vet J 63:69-78, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25072401. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2014.949893.
Sánchez-Molano, E., Pong-Wong, R., Clements, D.N., Blott, S.C., Wiener, P., Woolliams, J.A. :
Genomic prediction of traits related to canine hip dysplasia. Front Genet 6:97, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25821457. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00097.
Wilson, B.J., Nicholas, F.W. :
Canine hip dysplasia - towards more effective selection. N Z Vet J 63:67-8, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25397887. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2015.985562.
2014 Comhaire, F. H. :
The relation between canine hip dysplasia, genetic diversity and inbreeding by breed. Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine 4:67-71, 2014.
Coopman, F., Broeckx, B., Verelst, E., Deforce, D., Saunders, J., Duchateau, L., Verhoeven, G. :
Combined prevalence of inherited skeletal disorders in dog breeds in Belgium. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 27:395-7, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25078710. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-13-11-0140.
Fels, L., Distl, O. :
Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in German Shepherd Dogs. PLoS One 9:e96618, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24802516. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096618.
Fels, L., Marschall, Y., Philipp, U., Distl, O. :
Multiple loci associated with canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in German shepherd dogs. Mamm Genome 25:262-9, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24691653. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-014-9507-1.
Lavrijsen, I.C., Heuven, H.C., Meij, B.P., Theyse, L.F., Nap, R.C., Leegwater, P.A., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Prevalence and co-occurrence of hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia in Dutch pure-bred dogs. Prev Vet Med 114:114-22, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24588976. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.02.001.
Lavrijsen, I.C., Leegwater, P.A., Martin, A.J., Harris, S.J., Tryfonidou, M.A., Heuven, H.C., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in labrador retrievers. PLoS One 9:e87735, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24498183. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087735.
Marx, C., Silveira, M.D., Selbach, I., da Silva, A.S., Braga, L.M., Camassola, M., Nardi, N.B. :
Acupoint injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction and allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells to treat hip dysplasia in dogs. Stem Cells Int 2014:391274, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25180040. DOI: 10.1155/2014/391274.
Soo, M., Sneddon, N., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Worth, A. :
Genetic evaluation of the total hip score of four populous breeds of dog, as recorded by the New Zealand Veterinary Association Hip Dysplasia Scheme (1991-2011). N Z Vet J :1-22, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25211093. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2014.961581.
Sánchez-Molano, E., Woolliams, J.A., Blott, S.C., Wiener, P. :
Assessing the impact of genomic selection against hip dysplasia in the Labrador Retriever dog. J Anim Breed Genet 131:134-45, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24134497. DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12056.
Sánchez-Molano, E., Woolliams, J.A., Pong-Wong, R., Clements, D.N., Blott, S.C., Wiener, P. :
Quantitative trait loci mapping for canine hip dysplasia and its related traits in UK Labrador Retrievers. BMC Genomics 15:833, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25270232. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-833.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Broeckx, B.J., Coopman, F., Verhoeven, G.E., Van Haeringen, W., van de Goor, L., Bosmans, T., Gielen, I., Saunders, J.H., Soetaert, S.S., Van Bree, H., Van Neste, C., Van Nieuwerburgh, F., Van Ryssen, B., Verelst, E., Van Steendam, K., Deforce, D. :
The prevalence of nine genetic disorders in a dog population from belgium, the Netherlands and Germany. PLoS One 8:e74811, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24069350. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074811.
Chalmers, H.J., Nykamp, S., Lerer, A. :
The Ontario Veterinary College Hip Certification Program - Assessing inter- and intra-observer repeatability and comparison of findings to those of the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals. Can Vet J 54:42-6, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23814300.
Deisenroth, A., Nolte, I., Wefstaedt, P. :
[Use of gold implants as a treatment of pain related to canine hip dysplasia - a review. Part 2: Clinical trials and case reports]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 41:244-54, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23958708.
Denham, E.M. :
Hip dysplasia, and tibia and femur lengths in Newfoundland dogs. Vet Rec 173:614, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24362809. DOI: 10.1136/vr.f7565.
Duana, F., Ogdenbc, D., Xud, L., Liue, K., Lust, G., Sandlerg, J., Dykesb, N.L., Zhuh, L., Harris, S., Jones, P., Todhunter, R.J., Zhangj, Z. :
Principal component analysis of canine hip dysplasia phenotypes and their statistical power for genome-wide association mapping. Journal of Applied Statistics 40:235-251, 2013.
Fikse, W.F., Malm, S., Lewis, T.W. :
Opportunities for international collaboration in dog breeding from the sharing of pedigree and health data. Vet J 197:873-5, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23932651. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.04.025.
Freeman, B., Evans, V.B., McEwan, N.R. :
Canine hip dysplasia in Irish water spaniels: two decades of gradual improvement. Vet Rec 173:72, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23764842. DOI: 10.1136/vr.101152.
Greene, L.M., Marcellin-Little, D.J., Lascelles, B.D. :
Associations among exercise duration, lameness severity, and hip joint range of motion in Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1528-33, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683017. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1528.
Hou, Y., Wang, Y., Lu, X., Zhang, X., Zhao, Q., Todhunter, R.J., Zhang, Z. :
Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia Achieved Modest Genetic Improvement of 74 Dog Breeds over 40 Years in USA. PLoS One 8:e76390, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24124555. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076390.
Hou, Y., Wang, Y., Lu, X., Zhang, X., Zhao, Q., Todhunter, R.J., Zhang, Z. :
Correction: Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia Achieved Modest Genetic Improvement of 74 Dog Breeds over 40 Years in USA. PLoS One 8:, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24204480. DOI: 10.1371/annotation/92e1aa00-169b-45dc-9866-61034e061f6d.
Janssens, L., De Ridder, M., Verhoeven, G., Gielen, I., van Bree, H. :
Comparing Norberg angle, linear femoral overlap and surface femoral overlap in radiographic assessment of the canine hip joint. J Small Anim Pract :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24372260. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12171.
Krontveit, R.I., Sævik, B.K. :
Challenges in tackling inherited skeletal disorders in the dog. Vet J 196:8-9, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23228513. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.11.005.
Lewis, T.W., Blott, S.C., Woolliams, J.A. :
Comparative analyses of genetic trends and prospects for selection against hip and elbow dysplasia in 15 UK dog breeds. BMC Genet 14:16, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23452300. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-14-16.
Malm, S., Sørensen, A.C., Fikse, W.F., Strandberg, E. :
Efficient selection against categorically scored hip dysplasia in dogs is possible using best linear unbiased prediction and optimum contribution selection: a simulation study. J Anim Breed Genet 130:154-64, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23496016. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2012.01013.x.
Miqueleto, N.S., Rahal, S.C., Agostinho, F.S., Siqueira, E.G., Araújo, F.A., El-Warrak, A.O. :
Kinematic analysis in healthy and hip-dysplastic German Shepherd dogs. Vet J 195:210-5, 2013. Pubmed reference: 22809462. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.06.021.
Pinna, S., Pizzuti, E., Carli, F. :
Effects of intertrochanteric varus osteotomy on Norberg angle and percent coverage of the femoral head in displastic dogs. J Vet Sci 14:185-91, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23814471. DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2013.14.2.185.
Torres de la Riva, G., Hart, B.L., Farver, T.B., Oberbauer, A.M., Messam, L.L., Willits, N., Hart, L.A. :
Neutering dogs: effects on joint disorders and cancers in golden retrievers. PLoS One 8:e55937, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23418479. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055937.
Wilson, B.J., Nicholas, F.W., James, J.W., Wade, C.M., Raadsma, H.W., Thomson, P.C. :
Genetic correlations among canine hip dysplasia radiographic traits in a cohort of Australian German Shepherd Dogs, and implications for the design of a more effective genetic control program. PLoS One 8:e78929, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24244386. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078929.
Wilson, B.J., Nicholas, F.W., James, J.W., Wade, C.M., Thomson, P.C. :
Estimated breeding values for canine hip dysplasia radiographic traits in a cohort of Australian german shepherd dogs. PLoS One 8:e77470, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24204838. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077470.
2012 Dennis, R. :
Interpretation and use of BVA/KC hip scores in dogs In Practice 34:178–194, 2012. DOI: 10.1136/inp.e2270.
Gatineau, M., Dupuis, J., Beauregard, G., Charette, B., Breton, L., Beauchamp, G., d'Anjou, M.A. :
Palpation and dorsal acetabular rim radiographic projection for early detection of canine hip dysplasia: a prospective study. Vet Surg 41:42-53, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22188178. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00926.x.
Hartmann, P., Stock, K.F., Distl, O. :
[Multivariate prediction of breeding values for canine hip and elbow dysplasia as well as humeral osteochondrosis in the Bernese mountain dog]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 125:432-40, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23045807.
Karbe, G.T., Biery, D.N., Gregor, T.P., Giger, U., Smith, G.K. :
Radiographic hip joint phenotype of the Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Vet Surg 41:34-41, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23253037. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00938.x.
Kirkby, K.A., Lewis, D.D. :
Canine hip dysplasia: reviewing the evidence for nonsurgical management. Vet Surg 41:2-9, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22150604. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00928.x.
Krontveit, R.I., Nødtvedt, A., Sævik, B.K., Ropstad, E., Trangerud, C. :
Housing- and exercise-related risk factors associated with the development of hip dysplasia as determined by radiographic evaluation in a prospective cohort of Newfoundlands, Labrador Retrievers, Leonbergers, and Irish Wolfhounds in Norway. Am J Vet Res 73:838-46, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22620698. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.73.6.838.
Krontveit, R.I., Trangerud, C., Nødtvedt, A., Dohoo, I., Moe, L., Sævik, B.K. :
The effect of radiological hip dysplasia and breed on survival in a prospective cohort study of four large dog breeds followed over a 10 year period. Vet J 193:206-11, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22093911. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.10.015.
Krontveit, R.I., Trangerud, C., Sævik, B.K., Skogmo, H.K., Nødtvedt, A. :
Risk factors for hip-related clinical signs in a prospective cohort study of four large dog breeds in Norway. Prev Vet Med 103:219-27, 2012. Pubmed reference: 21982689. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.09.018.
Lopez, M.J. :
Advances in hip dysplasia. Vet Surg 41:1, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23253034. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00941.x.
Malm, S., Sørensen, A.C., Fikse, W.F., Strandberg, E. :
Efficient selection against categorically scored hip dysplasia in dogs is possible using best linear unbiased prediction and optimum contribution selection: a simulation study Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics :, 2012. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2012.01013.x.
Ogden, D.M., Scrivani, P.V., Dykes, N., Lust, G., Friedenberg, S.G., Todhunter, R.J. :
The S-measurement in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Surg 41:78-85, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22091931. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00874.x.
Pfahler, S., Distl, O. :
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Canine Hip Dysplasia and Canine Elbow Dysplasia in Bernese Mountain Dogs. PLoS One 7:e49782, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23189162. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049782.
Smith, G.K., Karbe, G.T., Agnello, K.A., McDonald-Lynch, M.B. :
Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Control of Canine Hip Dysplasia. Chap 59 in Vol. 1 of Tobias, K.M. and Johnston, S.A. (Eds) Veterinary Surgery: Small Animal, Elsevier/Saunders, St Louis :824-848, 2012.
Smith, G.K., Lawler, D.F., Biery, D.N., Powers, M.Y., Shofer, F., Gregor, T.P., Karbe, G.T., McDonald-Lynch, M.B., Evans, R.H., Kealy, R.D. :
Chronology of hip dysplasia development in a cohort of 48 labrador retrievers followed for life. Vet Surg 41:20-33, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23253036. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00935.x.
Stock, K.F., Dammann, M., Distl, O. :
Selection for conformation and conformational homogeneity of litters in the German shepherd dog. J Anim Sci 90:1088-96, 2012. Pubmed reference: 21984716. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2011-3855.
Verhoeven, G., Fortrie, R., Van Ryssen, B., Coopman, F. :
Worldwide screening for canine hip dysplasia: where are we now? Vet Surg 41:10-9, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23253035. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00929.x.
Vostrý, L., Capková, Z., Sebková, N., Přibyl, J. :
Estimation of genetic parameters for hip dysplasia in Czech Labrador Retrievers. J Anim Breed Genet 129:60-9, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22225585. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2011.00946.x.
Wilson, B.J., Nicholas, F.W., James, J.W., Wade, C.M., Tammen, I., Raadsma, H.W., Castle, K., Thomson, P.C. :
Heritability and phenotypic variation of canine hip dysplasia radiographic traits in a cohort of Australian German shepherd dogs. PLoS One 7:e39620, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22761846. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039620.
Worth, A.J., Bridges, J.P., Cave, N.J., Jones, G. :
Seasonal variation in the hip score of dogs as assessed by the New Zealand Veterinary Association hip dysplasia scheme. N Z Vet J 60:110-4, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22191435. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2011.636730.
Zhu, L., Chen, S., Jiang, Z., Zhang, Z., Ku, H., Li, X., McCann, M., Harris, S., Lust, G., Jones, P., Todhunter, R.J. :
Identification of quantitative trait loci for canine hip dysplasia by two sequential multipoint linkage analyses. Journal of Applied Statistics 39:1719-1731, 2012.
2011 Anderson, A. :
Treatment of hip dysplasia. J Small Anim Pract 52:182-9, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21906059. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01049.x.
Clayton-Jones, G. :
Hip dysplasia. J Small Anim Pract 52:179-80, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21906058. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01056.x.
Comhaire, F.H., Schoonjans, F.A. :
Canine hip dyslasia: the significance of the Norberg angle for healthy breeding. J Small Anim Pract 52:536-42, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21967100. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01105.x.
D'Amico, LL., Xie, L., Abell, LK., Brown, KT., Lopez, MJ. :
Relationships of hip joint volume ratios with degrees of joint laxity and degenerative disease from youth to maturity in a canine population predisposed to hip joint osteoarthritis. Am J Vet Res 72:376-83, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21355741. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.72.3.376.
Friedenberg, SG., Zhu, L., Zhang, Z., Foels, WB., Schweitzer, PA., Wang, W., Fisher, PJ., Dykes, NL., Corey, E., Vernier-Singer, M., Jung, SW., Sheng, X., Hunter, LS., McDonough, SP., Lust, G., Bliss, SP., Krotscheck, U., Gunn, TM., Todhunter, RJ. :
Evaluation of a fibrillin 2 gene haplotype associated with hip dysplasia and incipient osteoarthritis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 72:530-40, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21453155. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.72.4.530.
Guo, G., Zhou, Z., Wang, Y., Zhao, K., Zhu, L., Lust, G., Hunter, L., Friedenberg, S., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Harris, S., Jones, P., Sandler, J., Krotscheck, U., Todhunter, R., Zhang, Z. :
Canine hip dysplasia is predictable by genotyping. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 19:420-429, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21215318. DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2010.12.011.
Hedhammar, Å.A., Indrebø, A. :
Rules, regulations, strategies and activities within the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) to promote canine genetic health. Vet J 189:141-6, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21757380. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.011.
Keller, G.G., Dziuk, E., Bell, J.S. :
How the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) is tackling inherited disorders in the USA: using hip and elbow dysplasia as examples. Vet J 189:197-202, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21741865. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.019.
Lewis, T.W., Ilska, J.J., Blott, S.C., Woolliams, J.A. :
Genetic evaluation of elbow scores and the relationship with hip scores in UK Labrador retrievers. Vet J 189:227-33, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21737324. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.024.
Stock, KF., Klein, S., Tellhelm, B., Distl, O. :
Genetic analyses of elbow and hip dysplasia in the German shepherd dog. J Anim Breed Genet 128:219-29, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21554416. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2010.00901.x.
Vanden Berg-Foels, W.S., Schwager, S.J., Todhunter, R.J., Reeves, A.P. :
Femoral Head Shape Differences During Development May Identify Hips at Risk of Degeneration. Ann Biomed Eng :, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21909817. DOI: 10.1007/s10439-011-0393-3.
Wilson, B., Nicholas, F.W., Thomson, P.C. :
Selection against canine hip dysplasia: success or failure? Vet J 189:160-8, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21727013. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.014.
Wilson, BJ., Nicholas, FW., James, JW., Wade, CM., Tammen, I., Raadsma, HW., Castle, K., Thomson, PC. :
Symmetry of hip dysplasia traits in the German Shepherd Dog in Australia. J Anim Breed Genet 128:230-43, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21554417. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2010.00903.x.
Woolliams, J.A., Lewis, T.W., Blott, S.C. :
Canine hip and elbow dysplasia in UK Labrador retrievers. Vet J 189:169-76, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21737322. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.015.
Worth, A., Bridges, J., Jones, G. :
Trends in the phenotypic hip status of selected breeds of dog as measured by the New Zealand Veterinary Association Hip Dysplasia scheme (1990-2008). N Z Vet J 59:67-74, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21409732. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2011.552854.
2010 Bernarde, A. :
Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis and juvenile pubic symphysiodesis associated with pectineus myotomy: short-term outcome in 56 dysplastic puppies. Vet Surg 39:158-64, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20210962. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2010.00644.x.
Cachon, T., Genevois, JP., Remy, D., Carozzo, C., Viguier, E., Maitre, P., Arnault, F., Fau, D. :
Risk of simultaneous phenotypic expression of hip and elbow dysplasia in dogs: a study of 1,411 radiographic examinations sent for official scoring. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 23:28-30, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19997665. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-08-11-0116.
Crispin, SM., Turner, BM. :
Changes to the BVA/KC Canine Health Schemes. Vet Rec 166:28, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20045860. DOI: 10.1136/vr.b5576.
Fischer, A., Flöck, A., Tellhelm, B., Failing, K., Kramer, M., Thiel, C. :
Static and dynamic ultrasonography for the early diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. J Small Anim Pract 51:582-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20973786. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.00995.x.
Ginga, M.M.D., Silvestre, A.M., Gonzalo-Orden, J.M., Ferreira, A.J.A. :
Diagnosis, genetic control and preventive management of canine hip dysplasia: A review The Veterinary Journal 184:269-276, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19428274. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.04.009.
Hartmann, P., Stock, KF., Distl, O. :
[Multivariate genetic analysis of canine hip and elbow dysplasia as well as humeral osteochondrosis in the Bernese mountain dog]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 123:488-95, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21141279.
Hou, Y., Wang, Y., Lust, G., Zhu, L., Zhang, Z., Todhunter, RJ. :
Retrospective analysis for genetic improvement of hip joints of cohort labrador retrievers in the United States: 1970-2007. PLoS One 5:e9410, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20195372. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009410.
Lewis, TW., Blott, SC., Woolliams, JA. :
Genetic Evaluation of Hip Score in UK Labrador Retrievers. PLoS One 5:e12797, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21042573. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012797.
Lewis, TW., Woolliams, JA., Blott, SC. :
Genetic Evaluation of the Nine Component Features of Hip Score in UK Labrador Retrievers. PLoS One 5:e13610, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21042594. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013610.
Lust, G. :
Canine hip dysplasia: another perspective. Vet J 183:247-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19959383. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.11.005.
Maitre, P., Genevois, JP., Remy, D., Carozzo, C., Arnault, F., Buttin, P., Viguier, E., Fau, D. :
Description of the type of chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform hip dysplasia screening radiographs. A retrospective study based on 3302 radiographs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 23:, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20585709. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-10-01-0004.
Malm, S., Fikse, F., Egenvall, A., Bonnett, BN., Gunnarsson, L., Hedhammar, A., Strandberg, E. :
Association between radiographic assessment of hip status and subsequent incidence of veterinary care and mortality related to hip dysplasia in insured Swedish dogs. Prev Vet Med 93:222-32, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19819036. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.09.017.
Powers, MY., Karbe, GT., Gregor, TP., McKelvie, P., Culp, WT., Fordyce, HH., Smith, GK. :
Evaluation of the relationship between Orthopedic Foundation for Animals' hip joint scores and PennHIP distraction index values in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:532-41, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20807130. DOI: 10.2460/javma.237.5.532.
Roberts, T., McGreevy, PD. :
Selection for breed-specific long-bodied phenotypes is associated with increased expression of canine hip dysplasia. Vet J 183:266-72, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20097111. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.12.017.
Runge, JJ., Kelly, SP., Gregor, TP., Kotwal, S., Smith, GK. :
Distraction index as a risk factor for osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in four large dog breeds. J Small Anim Pract 51:264-9, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20536696. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.00937.x.
Sarierler, M., Yildirim, IG., Ocal, MK. :
Effect of triple pelvic osteotomy on the proximal femoral geometry in dysplastic dogs. Res Vet Sci :, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21176929. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.11.003.
Sondel, JA. :
Sensitivity versus specificity of PennHIP as a screening test for osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:899; author reply 899-900, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20960695.
Stock, KF., Distl, O. :
Simulation study on the effects of excluding offspring information for genetic evaluation versus using genomic markers for selection in dog breeding. J Anim Breed Genet 127:42-52, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20074186. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2009.00809.x.
Verhoeven, GE., Fortrie, RR., Duchateau, L., Saunders, JH., Van Ryssen, B., Van Bree, H., Coopman, F. :
The effect of a technical quality assessment of hip-extended radiographs on interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 51:498-503, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20973381.
Zhou, Z., Sheng, X., Zhang, Z., Zhao, K., Zhu, L., Guo, G., Friedenberg, SG., Hunter, LS., Vandenberg-Foels, WS., Hornbuckle, WE., Krotscheck, U., Corey, E., Moise, NS., Dykes, NL., Li, J., Xu, S., Du, L., Wang, Y., Sandler, J., Acland, GM., Lust, G., Todhunter, RJ. :
Differential genetic regulation of canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. PLoS One 5:e13219, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20949002. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013219.
2009 Cave, NJ., Bridges, JP., Cogger, N., Farman, RS. :
A survey of diseases of working farm dogs in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 57:305-12, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19966889. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2009.60926.
Chase, K., Jones, P., Martin, A., Ostrander, EA., Lark, KG. :
Genetic Mapping of Fixed Phenotypes: Disease Frequency as a Breed Characteristic. J Hered :, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19321632. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esp011.
Clements, DN., Short, AD., Barnes, A., Kennedy, LJ., Ferguson, JF., Butterworth, SJ., Fitzpatrick, N., Pead, M., Bennett, D., Innes, JF., Carter, SD., Ollier, WE. :
A candidate gene study of canine joint diseases. J Hered 101:54-60, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19965910. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esp088.
Comhaire, F.H., Criel, A.C., Dassy, C.A., Guévar, P.G., Snaps, F.R. :
Precision, reproducibility, and clinical usefulness of measuring the Norberg angle by means of computerized image analysis. Am J Vet Res 70:228-35, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19231956. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.70.2.228.
Distl, O., Marschall, Y. :
Analysis for the genetic disposition for hip dysplasia in Canidae. European Patent Office Bulletin 2013/52, p. 672; https://google.com/patents/EP2123777B1?cl=en :, 2009.
Ginja, M.M., Silvestre, A.M., Colaço, J., Gonzalo-Orden, J.M., Melo-Pinto, P., Orden, M.A., Llorens-Pena, M.P., Ferreira, A.J. :
Hip dysplasia in Estrela mountain dogs: prevalence and genetic trends 1991-2005. Vet J 182:275-82, 2009. Pubmed reference: 18722145. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.06.014.
Ginja, MM., Ferreira, AJ., Jesus, SS., Melo-Pinto, P., Bulas-Cruz, J., Orden, MA., San-Roman, F., Llorens-Pena, MP., Gonzalo-Orden, JM. :
Comparison of clinical, radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging methods for early prediction of canine hip laxity and dysplasia. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 50:135-43, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19400458.
Gold, RM., Gregor, TP., Huck, JL., McKelvie, PJ., Smith, GK. :
Effects of osteoarthritis on radiographic measures of laxity and congruence in hip joints of Labrador Retrievers. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234:1549-54, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19527128. DOI: 10.2460/javma.234.12.1549.
Guerrero, TG., Montavon, PM. :
Zurich cementless total hip replacement: retrospective evaluation of 2nd generation implants in 60 dogs. Vet Surg 38:70-80, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19152619. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00466.x.
Hach, V., Delfs, G. :
Initial experience with a newly developed cementless hip endoprosthesis. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 22:153-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19290398.
Katic, N., Bockstahler, BA., Mueller, M., Peham, C. :
Fourier analysis of vertical ground reaction forces in dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by degenerative disease of the hip joint and in dogs without lameness. Am J Vet Res 70:118-26, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19119957. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.70.1.118.
Kishimoto, M., Yamada, K., Pae, SH., Muroya, N., Watarai, H., Anzai, H., Shimizu, J., Iwasaki, T., Miyake, Y., Wisner, ER. :
Quantitative evaluation of hip joint laxity in 22 Border Collies using computed tomography. J Vet Med Sci 71:247-50, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19262043.
Lister, SA., Roush, JK., Renberg, WC., Stephens, CL. :
Ground reaction force analysis of unilateral coxofemoral denervation for the treatment of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 22:137-41, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19290395.
Lohi, H., Nicholas, FW. :
Unlocking the genetic make-up of canine hip dysplasia: we can work it out. Vet J 181:77-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19285441. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.02.007.
Lopez, MJ., Davis, KM., Jeffrey-Borger, SL., Markel, MD., Rettenmund, C. :
Interobserver repeatability of measurements on computed tomography images of lax canine hip joints from youth to maturity. Vet Surg 38:920-6, 2009. Pubmed reference: 20017848. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2009.00580.x.
Phavaphutanon, J., Mateescu, RG., Tsai, KL., Schweitzer, PA., Corey, EE., Vernier-Singer, MA., Williams, AJ., Dykes, NL., Murphy, KE., Lust, G., Todhunter, RJ. :
Evaluation of quantitative trait loci for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. Am J Vet Res 70:1094-101, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19719424. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.70.9.1094.
Risler, A., Klauer, JM., Keuler, NS., Adams, WM. :
Puppy line, metaphyseal sclerosis, and caudolateral curvilinear and circumferential femoral head osteophytes in early detection of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 50:157-66, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19400461.
Smith, GK. :
PennHIP more than "complementary" to FCI hip screening method. J Small Anim Pract 50:105-6, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19200269. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00738.x.
Verhoeven, GE., Coopman, F., Duchateau, L., Bosmans, T., Van Ryssen, B., Van Bree, H. :
Interobserver agreement on the assessability of standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographs and its effect on agreement in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia and on routine FCI scoring. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 50:259-63, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19507387.
Worth, AJ., Laven, RA., Erceg, VH. :
An assessment of the agreement between the New Zealand Veterinary Association Hip Dysplasia Scoring System and the PennHIP Distraction Index in German Shepherd dogs. N Z Vet J 57:338-45, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19966893. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2009.64720.
Zhang, Z., Zhu, L., Sandler, J., Friedenberg, SS., Egelhoff, J., Williams, AJ., Dykes, NL., Hornbuckle, W., Krotscheck, U., Moise, NS., Lust, G., Todhunter, RJ. :
Estimation of heritabilities, genetic correlations, and breeding values of four traits that collectively define hip dysplasia in dogs. Am J Vet Res 70:483-92, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19335104. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.70.4.483.
Zhu, L., Zhang, Z., Friedenberg, S., Jung, SW., Phavaphutanon, J., Vernier-Singer, M., Corey, E., Mateescu, R., Dykes, N., Sandler, J., Acland, G., Lust, G., Todhunter, R. :
The long (and winding) road to gene discovery for canine hip dysplasia. Vet J 181:97-110, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19297220. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.02.008.
2008 Aleksiewicz, R., Budzińska, Z., Nowicki, M., Adamiak, Z., Lisiecka, B. :
Canine hip dysplasia of selected breeds--results obtained by two Polish clinics based on radiological examination conducted in 1997-2006. Pol J Vet Sci 11:139-42, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18683543.
Andreen, T., Bengtsson, K., Lundman, K., Taube, A. :
Pain relief in dogs with hip dysplasia. Vet Rec 162:796; author reply 796, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18552336.
Comhaire, FH., Snaps, F. :
Comparison of two canine registry databases on the prevalence of hip dysplasia by breed and the relationship of dysplasia with body weight and height. Am J Vet Res 69:330-3, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18312130. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.69.3.330.
Coopman, F., Verhoeven, G., Saunders, J., Duchateau, L., Van Bree, H. :
Prevalence of hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia and humeral head osteochondrosis in dog breeds in Belgium. Vet Rec 163:654-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19043090.
Engler, J., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
[Estimation of genetic parameters for radiographic signs of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers] Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 121:359-64, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18822607.
Genevois, JP., Remy, D., Viguier, E., Carozzo, C., Collard, F., Cachon, T., Maitre, P., Fau, D. :
Prevalence of hip dysplasia according to official radiographic screening, among 31 breeds of dogs in France. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 21:21-4, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18288340. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-07-02-0014.
Ginja, M.M.D., Silvestre, A.M., Ferreira, A.J.A., Gonzaol-Orden, J.M., Orden, M.A., Melo-Pinto, P., Llorens-Pena, M.P., Colaco, J. :
Passive hip laxity in Estrela Mountain Dog - distraction index, heritability and breeding values Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 56:303-312, 2008.
Ginja, MM., Gonzalo-Orden, JM., Melo-Pinto, P., Bulas-Cruz, J., Orden, MA., San Roman, F., Llorens-Pena, MP., Ferreira, AJ. :
Early hip laxity examination in predicting moderate and severe hip dysplasia in Estrela Mountain Dog. J Small Anim Pract 49:641-6, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18684138. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00629.x.
Janutta, V., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
Genetic and phenotypic trends in canine hip dysplasia in the German population of German shepherd dogs. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 121:102-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18412027.
Lopez, MJ., Lewis, BP., Swaab, ME., Markel, MD. :
Relationships among measurements obtained by use of computed tomography and radiography and scores of cartilage microdamage in hip joints with moderate to severe joint laxity of adult dogs. Am J Vet Res 69:362-70, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18312135. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.69.3.362.
Malm, S., Fikse, WF., Danell, B., Strandberg, E. :
Genetic variation and genetic trends in hip and elbow dysplasia in Swedish Rottweiler and Bernese Mountain Dog. J Anim Breed Genet 125:403-12, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19134076. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2008.00725.x.
Nganvongpanit, K., Itthiarbha, A., Ong-Chai, S., Kongtawelert, P. :
Evaluation of serum chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan: biomarkers for osteoarthritis in canine hip dysplasia. J Vet Sci 9:317-25, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18716453.
Palierne, S., Mathon, D., Asimus, E., Concordet, D., Meynaud-Collard, P., Autefage, A. :
Segmentation of the canine population in different femoral morphological groups. Res Vet Sci 85:407-17, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18367219. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2008.02.010.
Steinetz, B.G., Williams, A.J., Lust, G., Schwabe, C., Büllesbach, E.E., Goldsmith, L.T. :
Transmission of relaxin and estrogens to suckling canine pups via milk and possible association with hip joint laxity. Am J Vet Res 69:59-67, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18167088. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.69.1.59.
Vezzoni, A., Dravelli, G., Vezzoni, L., De Lorenzi, M., Corbari, A., Cirla, A., Nassuato, C., Tranquillo, V. :
Comparison of conservative management and juvenile pubic symphysiodesis in the early treatment of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 21:267-79, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18536855.
Wigger, A., Tellhelm, B., Kramer, M., Rudorf, H. :
Influence of femoral head and neck conformation on hip dysplasia in the German Shepherd dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 49:243-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18546779.
Witsberger, TH., Villamil, JA., Schultz, LG., Hahn, AW., Cook, JL. :
Prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 232:1818-24, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18598150. DOI: 10.2460/javma.232.12.1818.
Zhu, L., Zhang, Z., Feng, F., Schweitzer, P., Phavaphutanon, J., Vernier-Singer, M., Corey, E., Friedenberg, S., Mateescu, R., Williams, A., Lust, G., Acland, G., Todhunter, R. :
Single nucleotide polymorphisms refine QTL intervals for hip joint laxity in dogs. Anim Genet 39:141-146, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18261189. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01691.x.
2007 Bockstahler, B.A., Henninger, W., Müller, M., Mayrhofer, E., Peham, C., Podbregar, I. :
Influence of borderline hip dysplasia on joint kinematics of clinically sound Belgian Shepherd dogs. Am J Vet Res 68:271-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17331016. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.68.3.271.
Corfield, GS., Read, RA., Eastley, KA., Richardson, JL., Robertson, ID., Day, R. :
Assessment of the hip reduction angle for predicting osteoarthritis of the hip in the Labrador Retriever. Aust Vet J 85:212-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17547632. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2007.00143.x.
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Hip and sacroiliac disease: selected disorders and their management with physical therapy. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 22:183-94, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18198787. DOI: 10.1053/j.ctsap.2007.09.007.
Fanchon, L., Grandjean, D. :
Accuracy of asymmetry indices of ground reaction forces for diagnosis of hind limb lameness in dogs. Am J Vet Res 68:1089-94, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17916016. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.68.10.1089.
Flückiger, M. :
Scoring radiographs for canine hip dysplasia – the big three organizations in the world. European Journal of Companion Animal Practice 17:135-140, 2007.
Genevois, JP., Cachon, T., Fau, D., Carozzo, C., Viguier, E., Collard, F., Remy, D. :
Canine hip dysplasia radiographic screening. Prevalence of rotation of the pelvis along its length axis in 7,012 conventional hip extended radiographs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 20:296-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18038007.
Ginja, MM., Llorens-Pena, MP., Gonzalo-Orden, JM., Ferreira, AJ. :
Mechanical devices to help in PennHIP examination. Acta Vet Hung 55:199-205, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17555284. DOI: 10.1556/AVet.55.2007.2.5.
Hays, L., Zhang, Z., Mateescu, RG., Lust, G., Burton-Wurster, NI., Todhunter, RJ. :
Quantitative genetics of secondary hip joint osteoarthritis in a Labrador Retriever-Greyhound pedigree. Am J Vet Res 68:35-41, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17199416. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.68.1.35.
Kasarda, R., Meszaros, G., Kadlecik, O., Buleca, J., Jr. :
Impact of inbreeding and heritability of canine hip dysplasia in German shepherd population Folia Veterinaria 51:142-145, 2007.
Lee, SA., Lee, SG., Cho, KO., Hyun, C. :
Isolation, characterization and molecular screening of canine SLC26A2 (sulphate transporter) in German Shepherd dogs with hip dysplasia. J Genet 86:285-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18305349.
Liu, T., Todhunter, RJ., Wu, S., Hou, W., Mateescu, R., Zhang, Z., Burton-Wurster, NI., Acland, GM., Lust, G., Wu, R. :
A random model for mapping imprinted quantitative trait loci in a structured pedigree: an implication for mapping canine hip dysplasia. Genomics 90:276-84, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17531439. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.04.004.
Malm, S., Strandberg, E., Danell, B., Audell, L., Swenson, L., Hedhammar, A. :
Impact of sedation method on the diagnosis of hip and elbow dysplasia in Swedish dogs. Prev Vet Med 78:196-209, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17112612. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.10.005.
Marschall, Y., Distl, O. :
Mapping quantitative trait loci for canine hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs. Mamm Genome 18:861-70, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18027024. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-007-9071-z.
Silvestre, A.M., Ginja, M.M., Ferreira, A.J., Colaço, J. :
Comparison of estimates of hip dysplasia genetic parameters in Estrela Mountain Dog using linear and threshold models. J Anim Sci 85:1880-4, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17468417. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2007-0166.
Szabo, SD., Biery, DN., Lawler, DF., Shofer, FS., Powers, MY., Kealy, RD., Smith, GK. :
Evaluation of a circumferential femoral head osteophyte as an early indicator of osteoarthritis characteristic of canine hip dysplasia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:889-92, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17867972. DOI: 10.2460/javma.231.6.889.
Turner, B. :
BVA/KC hip and elbow dysplasia schemes. Vet Rec 160:64, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17220527.
Verhoeven, G., Coopman, F., Duchateau, L., Saunders, JH., van Rijssen, B., Van Bree, H. :
Interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia using the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic method. J Small Anim Pract 48:387-93, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17610468. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2007.00364.x.
Vezzoni, A. :
Definition and clinical diagnosis of Canine Hip Dysplasia; early diagnosis and treatment options. Journal of European Companion Animal Practice 17:126-132, 2007.
Zhang, Z., Todhunter, RJ., Buckler, ES., Van Vleck, LD. :
Technical note: Use of marker-based relationships with multiple-trait derivative-free restricted maximal likelihood. J Anim Sci 85:881-5, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17085728. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2006-656.
2006 Clements, DN., Carter, SD., Innes, JF., Ollier, WE. :
Genetic basis of secondary osteoarthritis in dogs with joint dysplasia. Am J Vet Res 67:909-18, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16649929. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.67.5.909.
Culp, WT., Kapatkin, AS., Gregor, TP., Powers, MY., McKelvie, PJ., Smith, GK. :
Evaluation of the Norberg angle threshold: a comparison of Norberg angle and distraction index as measures of coxofemoral degenerative joint disease susceptibility in seven breeds of dogs. Vet Surg 35:453-9, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16842290. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2006.00174.x.
Dunn, K. :
Half a century of small animal orthopaedics. J Small Anim Pract 47:494-5, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16938924.
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Comparison of digitized and conventional radiographic images for assessment of hip joint conformation in dogs. Am J Vet Res 67:1546-51, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16948599. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.67.9.1546.
Genevois, JP., Chanoit, G., Carozzo, C., Remy, D., Fau, D., Viguier, E. :
Influence of anaesthesia on canine hip dysplasia score. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 53:415-7, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16970631. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.2006.00845.x.
Ginja, MM., Ferreira, AJ., Silvestre, M., Gonzalo-Orden, JM., Llorens-Pena, MP. :
Repeatability and reproducibility of distraction indices in PennHIP examinations of the hip joint in dogs. Acta Vet Hung 54:387-92, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17020141. DOI: 10.1556/AVet.54.2006.3.8.
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Inheritance of canine hip dysplasia: review of estimation methods and of heritability estimates and prospects on further developments. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 113:6-12, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16475548.
Janutta, V., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
Complex Segregation Analysis of Canine Hip Dysplasia in German Shepherd Dogs J Hered 97:13-20, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16267165. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esi128.
Leppänen, M.K., McKusick, B.C., Granholm, M.M., Westerholm, F.C., Tulamo, R., Short, C.E. :
Clinical efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine, butorphanol or diazepam for canine hip radiography. J Small Anim Pract 47:663-9, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17076790. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00030.x.
Liu, T., Todhunter, RJ., Lu, Q., Schoettinger, L., Li, H., Littell, RC., Burton-Wurster, N., Acland, GM., Lust, G., Wu, R. :
Modeling extent and distribution of zygotic disequilibrium: implications for a multigenerational canine pedigree. Genetics 174:439-53, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16849601. DOI: 10.1534/genetics.106.060137.
Sallander, MH., Hedhammar, A., Trogen, ME. :
Diet, exercise, and weight as risk factors in hip dysplasia and elbow arthrosis in Labrador Retrievers. J Nutr 136:2050S-2052S, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16772494.
Smith, GK., Paster, ER., Powers, MY., Lawler, DF., Biery, DN., Shofer, FS., McKelvie, PJ., Kealy, RD. :
Lifelong diet restriction and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis of the hip joint in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:690-3, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16948575. DOI: 10.2460/javma.229.5.690.
Tsai, KL., Murphy, KE. :
Clinical and genetic assessments of hip joint laxity in the Boykin spaniel. Can J Vet Res 70:148-50, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16639948.
Vanden Berg-Foels, WS., Todhunter, RJ., Schwager, SJ., Reeves, AP. :
Effect of early postnatal body weight on femoral head ossification onset and hip osteoarthritis in a canine model of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Pediatr Res 60:549-54, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16988183. DOI: 10.1203/01.pdr.0000243546.97830.a0.
2005 Boissevain, L. :
[Hip dyslexia] Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 130:311, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15938450.
Citi, S., Vignoli, M., Modenato, M., Rossi, F., Morgan, JP. :
A radiological study of the incidence of unilateral canine hip dysplasia. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 147:173-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15861924.
Demko, J., McLaughlin, R. :
Developmental orthopedic disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 35:1111-35, v, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16129135. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2005.05.002.
Fujita, Y., Hara, Y., Nezu, Y., Yamaguchi, S., Schulz, KS., Tagawa, M. :
Direct and indirect markers of cartilage metabolism in synovial fluid obtained from dogs with hip dysplasia and correlation with clinical and radiographic variables. Am J Vet Res 66:2028-33, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16379642. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.2028.
Harasen, G. :
Coxofemoral luxations part 1: diagnosis and closed reduction. Can Vet J 46:368, 370, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15943127.
Holsworth, IG., Schulz, KS., Kass, PH., Scherrer, WE., Beale, BS., Cook, JL., Hornof, WJ. :
Comparison of arthroscopic and radiographic abnormalities in the hip joints of juvenile dogs with hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:1087-94, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16220668.
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BVA/KC hip and elbow dysplasia schemes. Vet Rec 157:853, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16377793.
Jaeger, GT., Larsen, S., Moe, L. :
Stratification, blinding and placebo effect in a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of gold bead implantation in dogs with hip dysplasia. Acta Vet Scand 46:57-68, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16108213.
Kim, NS., Alam, MR., Jeong, IS., Lee, JI., Choi, IH. :
Total hip replacement in a dog. J Vet Sci 6:169-71, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15933440.
Mateescu, RG., Zhang, Z., Tsai, K., Phavaphutanon, J., Burton-Wurster, NI., Lust, G., Quaas, R., Murphy, K., Acland, GM., Todhunter, RJ. :
Analysis of allele fidelity, polymorphic information content, and density of microsatellites in a genome-wide screening for hip dysplasia in a crossbreed pedigree. J Hered 96:847-53, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16251522. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esi109.
Mäki, K., Liinamo, A.-E., Groen, A.F., Bijma, P., Ojala, M. :
Genetic responses for hip and elbow dysplasia, behaviour traits and appearance from alternative breeding schemes in a dog population Animal Welfare 14:117-124, 2005.
Paster, ER., LaFond, E., Biery, DN., Iriye, A., Gregor, TP., Shofer, FS., Smith, GK. :
Estimates of prevalence of hip dysplasia in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and the influence of bias on published prevalence figures. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:387-92, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15702688.
Powers, MY., Martinez, SA., Lincoln, JD., Temple, CJ., Arnaiz, A. :
Prevalence of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a population of dogs with lameness previously attributed to hip dysplasia: 369 cases (1994-2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:1109-11, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16220671.
Todhunter, RJ., Mateescu, R., Lust, G., Burton-Wurster, NI., Dykes, NL., Bliss, SP., Williams, AJ., Vernier-Singer, M., Corey, E., Harjes, C., Quaas, RL., Zhang, Z., Gilbert, RO., Volkman, D., Casella, G., Wu, R., Acland, GM. :
Quantitative trait loci for hip dysplasia in a cross-breed canine pedigree. Mamm Genome 16:720-30, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16245029. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-005-0004-4.
van Hagen, MA., Ducro, BJ., van den Broek, J., Knol, BW. :
Incidence, risk factors, and heritability estimates of hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a birth cohort of boxers. Am J Vet Res 66:307-12, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15757132.
2004 Chase, K., Lawler, DF., Adler, FR., Ostrander, EA., Lark, KG. :
Bilaterally asymmetric effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs): QTLs that affect laxity in the right versus left coxofemoral (hip) joints of the dog (Canis familiaris). Am J Med Genet A 124:239-47, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14708095. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.20363.
Kapatkin, AS., Gregor, TP., Hearon, K., Richardson, RW., McKelvie, PJ., Fordyce, HH., Smith, GK. :
Comparison of two radiographic techniques for evaluation of hip joint laxity in 10 breeds of dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:542-6, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14989547.
Mäki, K., Janss, L.L., Groen, A.F., Liinamo, A.E., Ojala, M. :
An indication of major genes affecting hip and elbow dysplasia in four Finnish dog populations. Heredity (Edinb) 92:402-8, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14997179. DOI: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800434.
Powers, MY., Biery, DN., Lawler, DE., Evans, RH., Shofer, FS., Mayhew, P., Gregor, TP., Kealy, RD., Smith, GK. :
Use of the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte as an early marker for future development of osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:233-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15323379.
Smith, GK. :
Questions conclusions in article on dorsolateral subluxation method. Am J Vet Res 65:130, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14672422.
Smith, GK. :
Value before cost when screening for canine hip dysplasia. J Small Anim Pract 45:273-4, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14692548.
Wood, JL., Lakhani, KH., Henley, WE. :
An epidemiological approach to prevention and control of three common heritable diseases in canine pedigree breeds in the United Kingdom. Vet J 168:14-27, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15982911. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2004.05.006.
2003 Guilliard, M.J. :
Hip dysplasia in dogs Veterinary Record 152:120, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12572947.
Hamann, H, Kirchhoff, T, Distl, O :
Bayesian analysis of heritability of canine hip dysplasia in German Shepherd Dogs Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 120:258-268, 2003.
Todhunter, R.J., Bertram, J.E., Smith, S., Farese, J.P., Williams, A.J., Manocchia, A., Erb, H.N., Dykes, N.L., Burton-Wurster, N.I., Lust, G. :
Effect of dorsal hip loading, sedation, and general anesthesia on the dorsolateral subluxation score in dogs Veterinary Surgery 32:196-205, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12784195. DOI: 10.1053/jvet.2003.50035.
Todhunter, R.J., Casella, G., Bliss, S.P., Lust, G., Williams, A.J., Hamilton, S., Dykes, N.L., Yeager, A.E., Gilbert, R.O., Burton-Wurster, N.I., Mellersh, C.C., Acland, G.M. :
Power of a Labrador Retriever-Greyhound pedigree for linkage analysis of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis American Journal of Veterinary Research 64:418-24, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12693530.
Todhunter, RJ., Bliss, SP., Casella, G., Wu, R., Lust, G., Burton-Wurster, NI., Williams, AJ., Gilbert, RO., Acland, GM. :
Genetic structure of susceptibility traits for hip dysplasia and microsatellite informativeness of an outcrossed canine pedigree. J Hered 94:39-48, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12692161.
Wood, JL., Lakhani, KH. :
Hip dysplasia in labrador retrievers: the effects of age at scoring. Vet Rec 152:37-40, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12553578.
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Effect of month of birth on hip dysplasia in labrador retrievers and Gordon setters. Vet Rec 152:69-72, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12570308.
2002 Bliss, S., Todhunter, R.J., Quaas, R., Casella, G., Wu, R.L., Lust, G., Williams, A.J., Hamilton, S., Dykes, N.L., Yeager, A., Gilbert, R.O., Burton-Wurster, N.I., Acland, G.M. :
Quantitative genetics of traits associated with hip dysplasia in a canine pedigree constructed by mating dysplastic Labrador Retrievers with unaffected Greyhounds American Journal of Veterinary Research 63:1029-1035, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12118665.
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Gait analysis of dysplastic dogs treated with acupuncture Veterinary Medicine 97:655, 2002.
Kapatkin, AS, Fordyce, HH, Mayhew, PD, Smith, GK :
Canine hip dysplasia: The disease and its diagnosis Compendium On Continuing Education For The Practicing Veterinarian 24:526-537, 2002.
Kapatkin, AS, Mayhew, PD, Smith, GK :
Canine hip dysplasia: Evidence-based treatment Compendium On Continuing Education For The Practicing Veterinarian 24:590-599, 2002.
Kapatkin, AS, Mayhew, PD, Smith, GK :
Genetic control of canine hip dysplasia Compendium On Continuing Education For The Practicing Veterinarian 24:681-687, 2002.
Kealy, RD., Lawler, DF., Ballam, JM., Mantz, SL., Biery, DN., Greeley, EH., Lust, G., Segre, M., Smith, GK., Stowe, HD. :
Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:1315-20, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11991408.
Kinzel, S., Hein, S., von, Scheven, C., Kupper, W. :
10 years experience with denervation of the hip joint capsule in the treatment of canine hip joint dysplasia and arthrosis Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 115:53-56, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11852684.
Kinzel, S., Von, Scheven, C., Buecker, A., Stopinski, T., Kupper, W. :
Clinical evaluation of denervation of the canine hip joint capsule: a retrospective study of 117 dogs Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 15:51-56, 2002.
LaFond, E., Breur, G.J., Austin, C.C. :
Breed susceptibility for developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 38:467-477, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12220032.
Lust, G., Todhunter, R.J., Erb, H.N., Dykes, N.L., Williams, A.J., Burton-Wurster, N.I., Farese, J.P. :
Question diagnostic technique for hip dysplasia - Response Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220:21-22, 2002.
Maki, K., Groen, A.F., Liinamo, A.E., Ojala, M. :
Genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations Animal Science 75:197-207, 2002.
Mayhew, P.D., McKelvie, P.J., Biery, D.N., Shofer, F.S., Smith, G.K. :
Evaluation of a radiographic caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte on the femoral neck and its relationship to degenerative joint disease and distraction index in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220:472-476, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11860241.
Meomartino, L., Fatone, G., Potena, A., Brunetti, A. :
Morphometric assessment of the canine hip joint using the dorsal acetabular rim view and the centre-edge angle Journal of Small Animal Practice 43:2-6, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11833819.
Patricelli, A.J., Dueland, R.T., Adams, W.M., Fialkowski, J.P., Linn, K.A., Nordheim, E.V. :
Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis in dysplastic puppies at 15 and 20 weeks of age Veterinary Surgery 31:435-444, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12209414.
Rettenmaier, J.L., Keller, G.G., Lattimer, J.C., Corley, E.A., Ellersieck, M.R. :
Prevalence of canine hip dysplasia in a veterinary teaching hospital population. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 43:313-8, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12174992.
Shields, S.L., Schulz, K.S., Hagan, C.E., Kass, P. :
The effects of acetabular cup temperature and duration of cement pressurization on cement porosity in a canine total hip replacement model Veterinary Surgery 31:167-173, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11884962.
Smith, G.K., Biery, D.N., Kapatkin, A.S., Laster, L.L., Powers, M.Y., Fordyce, H.H., Mayhew, P.D. :
Question diagnostic technique for hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220:20-21, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12680440.
Wood, J.L.N., Lakhani, K.H., Rogers, K. :
Heritability and epidemiology of canine hip-dysplasia score and its components in Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom Preventive Veterinary Medicine 55:95-108, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12350314.
2001 Baltzer, W.I., Schulz, K.S., Stover, S.M., Taylor, K.T., Kass, P.H. :
Biomechanical analysis of suture anchors and suture materials used for toggle pin stabilization of hip joint luxation in dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:721-728, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11341392.
Charette, B., Dupuis, J., Beauregard, G., Breton, L., Pare, J. :
Palpation and dorsal acetabular rim radiographic view for early detection of canine hip dysplasia Part 1: Standardization and measurement repeatability on six-month-old dogs Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 14:125-132, 2001.
Dueland, R.T., Adams, W.M., Fialkowski, J.P., Patricelli, A.J., Mathews, K.G., Nordheim, E.V. :
Effects of pubic symphysiodesis in dysplastic puppies Veterinary Surgery 30:201-217, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11340551.
Glyde, M. :
Dislocation of the hip joint: Part I Irish Veterinary Journal 54:581-584, 2001.
Hielm-Bjorkman, A., Raekallio, M., Kuusela, E., Saarto, E., Markkola, A., Tulamo, R.M. :
Double-blind evaluation of implants of gold wire at acupuncture points in the dog as a treatment for osteoarthritis induced by hip dysplasia Veterinary Record 149:452-456, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11688748.
Hughes, P.L. :
Hip dysplasia in the New Zealand Huntaway and Heading Dog New Zealand Veterinary Journal 49:138-141, 2001.
Janssens, L.A.A., Moens, Y., Coppens, P., Peremans, K., Vinck, H. :
A follow-up study of dogs with hip dysplasia and hip joint laxity treated by triple pelvic osteotomy Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 70:36-43, 2001.
Jones, D.G.C. :
Hip disease and pet insurance Veterinary Record 148:155, 2001.
Lust, G., Todhunter, R.J., Erb, H.N., Dykes, N.L., Williams, A.J., Burton-Wurster, N.I., Farese, J.P. :
Repeatability of dorsolateral subluxation scores in dogs and correlation with macroscopic appearance of hip osteoarthritis American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:1711-1715, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11703012.
Lust, G., Todhunter, R.J., Erb, H.N., Dykes, N.L., Williams, A.J., Burton-Wurster, N.I., Farese, J.P. :
Comparison of three radiographic methods for diagnosis of hip dysplasia in eight-month-old dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219:1242-1246, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11697367.
Maki, K., Groen, A.F., Liinamo, A.E., Ojala, M. :
Population structure, inbreeding trend and their association with hip and elbow dysplasia in dogs Animal Science 73:217-228, 2001.
Ohlerth, S., Lang, J., Busato, A., Gaillard, C. :
Estimation of genetic population variables for six radiographic criteria of hip dysplasia in a colony of Labrador Retrievers American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:846-852, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11400839.
Smith, G.K., Mayhew, P.D., Kapatkin, A.S., McKelvie, P.J., Shofer, F.S., Gregor, T.P. :
Evaluation of risk factors for degenerative joint disease associated with hip dysplasia in German Shepherd Dogs, Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, and Rottweilers Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219:1719-1724, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11767921.
2000 Adams, W.M. :
Radiographic diagnosis of hip dysplasia in the young dog Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 30:267-+, 2000.
Adams, W.M. :
Radiographic diagnosis of hip dysplasia in the young dog (vol 30, pg 275, 2000) Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 30:X, 2000.
Adams, W.M., Dueland, R.T., Daniels, R., Fialkowski, J.P., Nordheim, E.V. :
Comparison of two palpation, four radiographic and three ultrasound methods for early detection of mild to moderate canine hip dysplasia Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 41:484-490, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11130786.
Anon. :
AVA's hip and elbow dysplasia scheme Australian Veterinary Journal 78:374, 2000.
Black, A.P. :
Triple pelvic osteotomy for juvenile canine hip dysplasia Australian Veterinary Journal 78:820-821, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11194466.
Dietschi, E., Gaillard, C., Schawalder, P. :
Canine hip dysplasia grading with special comments to the Swiss grading system in view of the estimation of breeding values Part 2: Material and methods, results and discussion, references [German] Kleintierpraxis 45:169-182, 2000.
Dietschi, E., Gaillard, C., Schwalder, P. :
Canine hip dysplasia grading with special comments to the Swiss grading system in view of the estimation of breeding values - Part 1: Development and criteria [German] Kleintierpraxis 45:81-93, 2000.
Douglas, I.H. :
Modified De Vita pinning technique for the management of canine hip luxation: preliminary findings Australian Veterinary Journal 78:538-542, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10979509.
Dyce, J., Wisner, E.R., Wang, Q., Olmstead, M.L. :
Evaluation of risk factors for luxation after total hip replacement in dogs Veterinary Surgery 29:524-532, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11098785.
Everts, R.E., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Rothuizen, J., van, Oost, B.A. :
Bone disorders in the dog: A review of modern genetic strategies to find the underlying causes [Review] Veterinary Quarterly 22:63-70, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10789512.
Gantke, S., Matis, U., Bottcher, P., Erhardt, W. :
Cardiac output during total hip replacement in dogs Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 13:49-58, 2000.
Genevois, J.P., Fau, D., Brunon, G., Crance, L., Remy, D. :
Hip dysplasia: epidemiologic considerations based on the analysis of 9738 radiographs Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 151:829-834, 2000.
Hart, T. :
Dysplasia laxity Australian Veterinary Journal 78:817, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11194463.
Kealy, RD., Lawler, DF., Ballam, JM., Lust, G., Biery, DN., Smith, GK., Mantz, SL. :
Evaluation of the effect of limited food consumption on radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:1678-80, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11229495.
Leppanen, M., Maki, K., Juga, J., Saloniemi, H. :
Factors affecting hip dysplasia in German shepherd dogs in Finland: efficacy of the current improvement programme Journal of Small Animal Practice 41:19-23, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10713978.
Leppanen, M., Maki, K., Juga, J., Saloniemi, H. :
Estimation of heritability for hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs in Finland Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics-Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 117:97-103, 2000.
Leppanen, M, Maki, K, Juga, J, Saloniemi, H :
Estimation of heritability for hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs in Finland Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 117:97-103, 2000.
Maki, K., Liinamo, A.E., Ojala, M. :
Estimates of genetic parameters for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish Rottweilers Journal of Animal Science 78:1141-1148, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10834565.
Moses, P.A. :
Alternative surgical methods for treating juvenile canine hip dysplasia Australian Veterinary Journal 78:822-824, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11194467.
Poy, N.S.J., DeCamp, C.E., Bennett, R.L., Hauptman, J.G. :
Additional kinematic variables to describe differences in the trot between clinically normal dogs and dogs with hip dysplasia American Journal of Veterinary Research 61:974-978, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10951993.
Reed, A.L., Keller, G.G., Vogt, D.W., Ellersieck, M.R., Corley, E.A. :
Effect of dam and sire qualitative hip conformation scores on progeny hip conformation Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217:675-680, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10976298.
Sebestyen, P., Marcellin-Little, D.J., DeYoung, B.A. :
Femoral medullary infarction secondary to canine total hip arthroplasty Veterinary Surgery 29:227-236, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10871224.
Skurla, C.T., Egger, E.L., Schwarz, P.D., James, S.P. :
Owner assessment of the outcome of total hip arthroplasty in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217:1010-1012, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11019706.
Swainson, SW., Conzemius, MG., Riedesel, EA., Smith, GK., Riley, CB. :
Effect of public symphysiodesis on pelvic development in the skeletally immature greyhound. Vet Surg 29:178-90, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10730711.
Wood, J.L.N., Lakhani, K.H., Dennis, R. :
Heritability and epidemiology of canine hip-dysplasia score in flat-coated retrievers and Newfoundlands in the United Kingdom Preventive Veterinary Medicine 46:75-86, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10878296.
Wood, J.L.N., Lakhani, K.H., Dennis, R. :
Heritability of canine hip-dysplasia score and its components in Gordon Setters Preventive Veterinary Medicine 46:87-97, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10878297.
1999 Anon. :
Joint AVA/ANKC hip dysplasia scheme Australian Veterinary Journal 77:554, 1999.
Arnbjerg, J. :
Recent information about hip dysplasia Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 29:921-+, 1999.
Farese, J.P., Lust, G., Williams, A.J., Dykes, N.L., Todhunter, R.J. :
Comparison of measurements of dorsolateral subluxation of the femoral head and maximal passive laxity for evaluation of the coxofemoral joint in dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 60:1571-1576, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10622171.
Fluckiger, M.A., Friedrich, G.A., Binder, H. :
A radiographic stress technique for evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs Veterinary Surgery 28:1-9, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10025634.
Leppanen, M., Saloniemi, H. :
Controlling canine hip dysplasia in Finland Preventive Veterinary Medicine 42:121-131, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10551430.
Morgan, J.P., Wind, A., Davidson, A.P. :
Bone dysplasias in the Labrador retriever: A radiographic study Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 35:332-340, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10416779.
Puerto, D.A., Smith, G.K., Gregor, T., LaFond, E., Conzemius, M.G., Cabell, L.W., McKelvie, P.J. :
Relationships between results of the Ortolani method of hip joint palpation and distraction index, Norberg angle, and hip score in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214:497-501, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10029850.
Roe, S.C. :
Force plate analysis of dogs with bilateral hip dysplasia treated with a unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy: A long-term review of cases Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 12:A72, 1999.
Roush, J.K. :
Prevalency data regarding hip dysplasia in dogs needs clarification - Response Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214:27-28, 1999.
Saunders, J.H., Godefroid, T., Snaps, F.R., Francois, A., Farnir, F., Balligand, M. :
Comparison of ventrodorsal and dorsoventral radiographic projections for hip dysplasia diagnosis Veterinary Record 145:109-110, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10461737.
Smith, G.K. :
Prevalency data regarding hip dysplasia in dogs needs clarification Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214:27, 1999. Pubmed reference: 9887933.
Smith, GK., Gregor, TP., Fordyce, H. :
A stress-radiographic method to evaluate dogs for passive hip laxity. Vet Surg 28:117-9, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10100766.
Tano, C.A., Dobson, H. :
Force plate analysis of dogs with bilateral hip dysplasia treated with a unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy: A long-term review of cases Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 12:A72-A73, 1999.
Todhunter, R.J., Acland, G.M., Olivier, M., Williams, A.J., Vernier-Singer, M., Burton-Wurster, N., Farese, J.P., Grohn, Y.T., Gilbert, R.O., Dykes, N.L., Lust, G. :
An outcrossed canine pedigree for linkage analysis of hip dysplasia Journal of Heredity 90:83-92, 1999. Pubmed reference: 9987910.
Wang, X., Miller, A.B., Lepine, A.J., Scott, J.D., Murphy, K.E. :
Analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for identifying genetic markers associated with canine hip dysplasia Journal of Heredity 90:99-103, 1999. Pubmed reference: 9987913.
1998 Adams, W.M., Dueland, R.T., Meinen, J., Obrien, R.T., Giuliano, E., Nordheim, E.V. :
Early detection of canine hip dysplasia - comparison of two palpation and five radiographic methods Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 34:339-347, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9657168.
Day, M.J., Butterworth, S.J., Palmer, M.R., Case, C.P. :
Characterization of wear debris associated with aseptic loosening of a canine hip prosthesis Journal of Comparative Pathology 119:89-93, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9717131.
Dejardin, L.M., Perry, R.L., Arnoczky, S.P. :
The effect of triple pelvic osteotomy on the articular contact area of the hip joint in dysplastic dogs - an in vitro experimental study Veterinary Surgery 27:194-202, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9605231.
Farese, J.P., Todhunter, R.J., Lust, G., Williams, A.J., Dykes, N.L. :
Dorsolateral subluxation of hip joints in dogs measured in a weight-bearing position with radiography and computed tomography Veterinary Surgery 27:393-405, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9749508.
Fluckiger, M.A., Friedrich, G.A., Binder, H. :
Correlation between hip joint laxity and subsequent coxarthrosis in dogs Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin - Reihe A 45:199-207, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9697420.
Huaman, G.G., Koch, H., Brunnberg, L. :
Examination of radiographs of the hip joints of three dog breeds in regard of hip dysplasia using digital picture analysis [German] Kleintierpraxis 43:101 ff., 1998.
Langenbach, A., Green, P., Giger, U., Rhodes, H., Gregor, TP., LaFond, E., Smith, G. :
Relationship between degenerative joint disease and hip joint laxity by use of distraction index and Norberg angle measurement in a group of cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:1439-43, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9828940.
Mazriar, C., Bargai, U., Waner, T. :
Hip dysplasia of dogs in Israel: current status and assessment of the efficacy of 25 years of the control scheme Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 53:69-72, 1998.
Montgomery, R. :
Canine hip dysplasia Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 20:781 ff., 1998.
Ohlerth, S., Busato, A., Gaillard, C., Fluckiger, M., Lang, J. :
Epidemiologic and genetic study of canine hip dysplasia in a colony of Labrador Retrievers [German] Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 105:378-383, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9818525.
Rasmussen, L.M., Kramek, B.A., Lipowitz, A.J. :
Preoperative variables affecting long-term outcome of triple pelvic osteotomy for treatment of naturally developing hip dysplasia in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213:80 ff., 1998.
Schulz, K.S. :
Transverse plane evaluation of the effects of surgical technique on stem positioning and geometry of reconstruction in canine total hip replacement (vol 59, pg 1071, 1998) American Journal of Veterinary Research 59:1208, 1998.
Schulz, K.S., Vasseur, P.B., Stover, S.M., Kass, P.H. :
Transverse plane evaluation of the effects of surgical technique on stem positioning and geometry of reconstruction in canine total hip replacement American Journal of Veterinary Research 59:1071-1079, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9706215.
Sharma, A.K., Patil, S.N., Marudwar, S.S., Dhakate, M.S., Pawde, A.M. :
Osteoarticular allograft in canine hip reconstruction - a preliminary study Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68:609-611, 1998.
Smith, G.K., Hill, C.M., Gregor, T.P., Olson, K. :
Reliability of the hip distraction index in two-month-old german shepherd dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212:1560 ff., 1998.
Smith, GK. :
Canine hip dysplasia: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and genetic control. Vet Q 20 Suppl 1:S22-4, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9651986.
Smith, GK., Laster, LL., Biery, DN., Rhodes, WH. :
OFA reliability figures questioned. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:487-8, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9491150.
Tano, C.A., Cockshutt, J.R., Dobson, H., Miller, C.W., Holmberg, D.L., Taves, C.L. :
Force plate analysis of dogs with bilateral hip dysplasia treated with a unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy - a long-term review of cases Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 11:85-93, 1998.
1997 Aichinger, O. :
Hip dysplasia - purebreds or illness [German] Tierarztliche Umschau 52:153 ff., 1997.
Cardinet, G.H., Kass, P.H., Wallace, L.J., Guffy, M.M. :
Association between pelvic muscle mass and canine hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1466 ff., 1997.
Cardinet, G.H., Lust, G. :
The international symposium on hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1417-1418, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9303915.
Corley, E.A., Keller, G.G., Lattimer, J.C., Ellersieck, M.R. :
Reliability of early radiographic evaluations for canine hip dysplasia obtained from the standard ventrodorsal radiographic projection Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211:1142-1146, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9364228.
Edwards, M.R., Egger, E.L., Schwarz, P.D. :
Aseptic loosening of the femoral implant after cemented total hip arthroplasty in dogs - 11 cases in 10 dogs (1991-1995) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211:580 ff., 1997.
Farquhar, T., Bertram, J., Todhunter, J., Burtonwurster, N., Lust, G. :
Variations in composition of cartilage from the shoulder joints of young adult dogs at risk for developing canine hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1483 ff., 1997.
Fluckiger, M., Friedrich, G.A. :
Canine hip dysplasia - a new radiographic technique for the diagnosis of hip joint laxity [German] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 139:183-185, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9173519.
Gibbs, C. :
The BVA/KC scoring scheme for control of hip dysplasia - interpretation of criteria (vol 141, pg 275, 1997) Veterinary Record 141:576, 1997.
Gibbs, C. :
The BVA/KC scoring scheme for control of hip dysplasia - interpretation of criteria Veterinary Record 141:275-284, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9316245.
Hassinger, K.A., Smith, G.K., Conzemius, M.G., Saunders, H.M., Hill, C.M., Gregor, T.P. :
Effect of the oestrus cycle on coxofemoral joint laxity Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 10:69-74, 1997.
Hazewinkel, H.A.W. :
Evaluation of images in hip dysplasia - reply [Dutch] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 122:413 ff., 1997.
Jones, D.G.C. :
Submissions to the BVA/KC hip dysplasia scheme Veterinary Record 140:464, 1997.
Kaneene, J.B., Mostosky, U.V., Padgett, G.A. :
Retrospective cohort study of changes in hip joint phenotype of dogs in the United States Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211:1542-1544, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9412680.
Kealy, RD., Lawler, DF., Ballam, JM., Lust, G., Smith, GK., Biery, DN., Olsson, SE. :
Five-year longitudinal study on limited food consumption and development of osteoarthritis in coxofemoral joints of dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:222-5, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9018356.
Kinzel, S., Kupper, W. :
Denervation of the hip joint in the management of canine hip dysplasia and arthrosis [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:26-29, 1997.
Kothbauer, O. :
Implantation of gold particles into acupuncture points for treatment of painful hip processes in dogs - three cases [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 84:47-52, 1997.
LaFond, E., Smith, GK., Gregor, TP., McKelvie, PJ., Shofer, FS. :
Synovial fluid cavitation during distraction radiography of the coxofemoral joint in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:1294-7, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9143532.
Ledecky, V., Sevcik, A., Capik, I., Trbolova, A. :
Analysis of hip joint dysplasia development in dogs Veterinarni Medicina 42:1-4, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9123778.
Leighton, E.A. :
Genetics of canine hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1474-1479, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9154200.
Loeffler, K., Tellhelm, B., Oloff, S. :
New statement on the hip dysplasia of dogs - standpoint in opposition [Hungarian] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 119:607-608, 1997.
Loeffler, K., Tellhelm, B., Oloff, S. :
Current news on hip dysplasia in the dog [German] Tierarztliche Umschau 52:164, 1997.
Lust, G. :
An overview of the pathogenesis of canine hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1443 ff., 1997.
Madsen, J.S. :
The joint capsule and joint laxity in dogs with hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1463 ff., 1997.
Morgan, S.J. :
Pathologic alterations in canine hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1446 ff., 1997.
Murphy, S.T., Lewis, D.D., Kerwin, S.C. :
Traumatic coxofemoral luxation in dysplastic dogs managed with a triple pelvic osteotomy - results in four dogs Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 10:136-140, 1997.
Neuteboom, J.G. :
Evaluation of images in hip dysplasia [Dutch] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 122:413, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9534766.
Obrien, R.T., Dueland, R.T., Adams, W.C., Meinen, J. :
Dynamic ultrasonographic measurement of passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 33:275-281, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9138240.
Plante, J., Dupuis, J., Beauregard, G., Bonneau, N.H., Breton, L. :
Long-term results of conservative treatment, excision arthroplasty and triple pelvic osteotomy for the treatment of hip dysplasia in the immature dog .2. analysis of the ground reaction forces Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 10:130-135, 1997.
Smith, G.K. :
Advances in diagnosing canine hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1451 ff., 1997. Pubmed reference: 9154196.
Smith, G.K., Lafond, E., Gregor, T.P., Lawler, D.F., Nie, R.C. :
Within- and between-examiner repeatability of distraction indices of the hip joints in dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 58:1076-1077, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9328657.
Smith, G.K., Lafond, E., Heyman, S.J., Cofone, M.A., Gregor, T.P. :
Biomechanical characterization of passive laxity of the hip joint in dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 58:1078-1082, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9328658.
Swenson, L., Audell, L., Hedhammar, A. :
Prevalence and inheritance of and selection for hip dysplasia in seven breeds of dogs in Sweden and benefit - cost analysis of a screening and control program Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:207 ff., 1997.
Todhunter, R.J., Zachos, T.A., Gilbert, R.O., Erb, H.N., Williams, A.J., Burtonwurster, N., Lust, G. :
Onset of epiphyseal mineralization and growth plate closure in radiographically normal and dysplastic labrador retrievers Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1458 ff., 1997.
Tolhuysen, I. :
The influence of hindleg extension on the degree of hip dysplasia [German] Kleintierpraxis 42:123 ff., 1997.
Torel, M. :
New statement on the hip dysplasia of dogs [Hungarian] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 119:605-607, 1997.
Toth, J., Sagi, L., Tamas, L. :
Standpoint of the surgical and ophthalmologic chair and clinics at the university of veterinary science budapest on the pathogenesis and judgment of hip joint dysplasia in dogs [Hungarian] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 119:608-610, 1997.
Willis, M.B. :
A review of the progress in canine hip dysplasia control in Britain Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1480 ff., 1997.
1996 Arrick, R.H. :
Debate over total hip replacement for dogs continues Veterinary Medicine 91:692, 1996.
Banfield, C.M., Bartels, J.E., Hudson, J.A., Wright, J.C., Hathcock, J.T., Montgomery, R.D. :
A retrospective study of canine hip dysplasia in 116 military working dogs .1. Angle measurements and Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) grading Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 32:413-422, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8875357.
Banfield, C.M., Bartels, J.E., Hudson, J.A., Wright, J.C., Montgomery, R.D., Hathcock, J.T. :
A retrospective study of canine hip dysplasia in 116 military working dogs .2. clinical signs and performance data Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 32:423-430, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8875358.
Bennett, R.L., Decamp, C.E., Flo, G.L., Hauptman, J.G., Stajich, M. :
Kinematic gait analysis in dogs with hip dysplasia American Journal of Veterinary Research 57:966-971, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8807004.
Boutrand, J.P., Davoust, B., Cabassu, J.P., Mesure, S., Deparis, X., Genevois, J.P. :
Gait comparison of normal versus dysplastic adult German Shepherds by use of a force plate [German] Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 147:813-818, 1996.
Cook, J.L., Tomlinson, J.L., Constantinescu, G.M. :
Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of canine hip dysplasia Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 18:853 ff., 1996.
Dejardin, L.M., Perry, R.L., Arnoczky, S.P., Torzilli, P.A. :
The effect of triple pelvic osteotomy on hip force in dysplastic dogs - a theoretical analysis Veterinary Surgery 25:114-120, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8928388.
Gasse, H., Engelke, E., Waibl, H. :
Innervation of the canine hip joint capsule [German] Kleintierpraxis 41:883-886, 1996.
Jones, D.G.C. :
BVA Kennel Club hip dysplasia scheme Veterinary Record 139:195, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8873403.
Kawamata, T., Niiyama, M., Taniyama, H. :
Open reduction and stabilisation of coxofemoral joint luxation in dogs and cats, using a stainless steel rope inserted via a ventral approach to the hip joint Australian Veterinary Journal 74:460-464, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9006865.
Klimt, U. :
HD, secondary factors and ectopic causes [German] Kleintierpraxis 41:928 ff., 1996.
Mclaughlin, R., Tomlinson, J. :
Alternative surgical treatments for canine hip dysplasia Veterinary Medicine 91:137-143, 1996.
Mclaughlin, R., Tomlinson, J. :
Treating canine hip dysplasia with triple pelvic osteotomy Veterinary Medicine 91:126 ff., 1996.
Mclaughlin, R., Tomlinson, J. :
Radiographic diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia Veterinary Medicine 91:36 ff., 1996.
Oakes, M.G., Lewis, D.D., Elkins, A.D., Hosgood, G., Dial, S.M., Oliver, J. :
Evaluation of shelf arthroplasty as a treatment for hip dysplasia in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208:1838-1845, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8675471.
Randolph, J.W. :
Debate over total hip replacement for dogs continues Veterinary Medicine 91:692, 1996.
Riley, S.M., Miller, C.W., Dobson, H., Binnington, A.G. :
Surgical procedure simulation via three dimensional computer aided reconstruction of dysplastic canine hips Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 9:152-157, 1996.
Schawalder, P., Spreng, D., Dietschi, E., Dolf, G., Gaillard, C. :
Contributions to the biomechanics of the hip joint with new aspects concerning the diagnosis of hip dysplasia - constructive criticism of hd diagnosis and current practices with respect to the future [German] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 138:511-522, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9026908.
Schawalder, P., Spreng, D., Dietschi, E., Dolf, G., Gallard, C. :
Secondary influences and ectopic causes of canine hip dysplasia [German] Kleintierpraxis 41:625 ff., 1996.
Stur, I., Koppel, E., Schroder, K. :
Population genetical aspects of hip dysplasia (HD)-diagnostics in dogs - evaluation under consideration of differing HD-findings [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 83:91-97, 1996.
Tomlinson, J., Mclaughlin, R. :
Total hip replacement - the best treatment for dysplastic dogs with osteoarthrosis Veterinary Medicine 91:118 ff., 1996.
Tomlinson, J., Mclaughlin, R. :
Canine hip dysplasia - developmental factors, clinical signs, and initial examination steps Veterinary Medicine 91:26 ff., 1996.
Tomlinson, J., Mclaughlin, R. :
Medically managing canine hip dysplasia Veterinary Medicine 91:48-53, 1996.
Torel, M. :
Topical notes on canine hip dysplasia .1. [German] Tierarztliche Umschau 51:455-458, 1996.
Torel, M. :
Topical notes on canine hip dysplasia [German] Tierarztliche Umschau 51:785-790, 1996.
Torel, M. :
Topical notes on canine hip dysplasia .2. [German] Tierarztliche Umschau 51:523 ff., 1996.
Torel, M. :
Topical notes on canine hip dysplasia [German] Tierarztliche Umschau 51:716 ff., 1996.
Torel, M. :
Topical notes on canine hip dysplasia [German] Tierarztliche Umschau 51:644-647, 1996.
Vanbree, H., Verschooten, F. :
Veterinary research at a clinical laboratory - diagnosis and treatment of joint diseases in the dog - past and present [Dutch] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 65:308-309, 1996.
Vollmerhaus, B., Roos, H. :
The transverse movement of the temporo-mandibular joint (translation movement) of the dog, also with reference to dysplasia of this joint in the dachshund [German] Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 25:145-149, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9027241.
Weinauer, U. :
Synopsis of central offices for the interpretation of x-rays within the scope of examinations on hip-joint dysplasia in the dog [German] Kleintierpraxis 41:209 ff., 1996.
1995 Diethelm, G., Harari, J., Tucker, R.L. :
What is your diagnosis - bilateral hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207:1163-1164, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7559060.
Fluckiger, M., Lang, J., Binder, H., Busato, A., Boos, J. :
Control of canine hip dysplasia in Switzerland. A retrospective analysis of the results of the past 24 years Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 137:243-250, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7481714.
Fries, C.L., Remedios, A.M. :
The pathogenesis and diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia: a review. Can Vet J 36:494-502, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7585436.
Madsen, J.S., Svalastoga, E. :
Early Diagnosis of Hip Dysplasia - A Stress-Radiographic Study Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 8:114-117, 1995.
Popovitch, C.A., Smith, G.K., Gregor, T.P., Shofer, F.S. :
Comparison of susceptibility for hip dysplasia between rottweilers and German shepherd dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206:648-650, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7744685.
Remedios, A.M., Fries, C.L. :
Treatment of canine hip dysplasia - a review [Review] Canadian Veterinary Journal 36:503-509, 1995.
Smith, G.K., Popovitch, C.A., Gregor, T.P., Shofer, F.S. :
Evaluation of risk factors for degenerative joint disease associated with hip dysplasia in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206:642-647, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7744684.
1994 Brass, A., Nolte, I. :
Comparison on Different Treatments of Hip Dislocation in the Dog and Cat Kleintierpraxis 39:469-482, 1994.
Craige, J.E. :
Canine Hip Dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204:1323, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8050963.
David, T., Schemel, A., Arndt, J., Kornberg, L., Juhasz, C., Juhasz, T., Tsur, I., Susztak, B., Marienberg, W., Haider, U. :
Treatment of Canine Hip Dysplasia by Triple Pelvic Osteotomy with Axial Tilting and Turning of the Acetabulum - Results of a Multicentre Study Praktische Tierarzt 75:973, 1994.
Dehaan, J.J., Goring, R.L., Beale, B.S. :
Evaluation of Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan for the Treatment of Hip Dysplasia in Dogs Veterinary Surgery 23:177-181, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8066981.
Devile, C.P. :
Submissions to the BVA/KC hip dysplasia scheme Veterinary Record 135:316, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7817519.
Devile, P. :
BVA Kennel Club Hip Dysplasia Scheme Veterinary Record 135:119-120, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8737484.
Hilsenroth, R. :
Canine Hip Dysplasia Canine Practice 19:1, 1994.
Jones, D.G.C. :
Hip dysplasia scheme Veterinary Record 135:560, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7886894.
Keller, G.G., Corley, E.A. :
Impact of Video Images on OFA Evaluation of Hip Status Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 35:19-21, 1994.
Kendik, Z., Dioszegi, Z., Nemeth, T. :
Triple Pelvic Osteotomy for the Treatment of Hip Joint Dysplasia in Dogs Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 49:108-113, 1994.
Koppel, E., Lorinson, D. :
Value of General Anaesthesia in Evaluation of Hip Dysplasia Kleintierpraxis 39:5-15, 1994.
Lussier, B., Lanthier, T., Martineaudoize, B. :
Evaluation of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer shelf arthroplasty for the surgical correction of hip dysplasia in normal dogs Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire 58:173-180, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7954118.
Lust, G., Todhunter, R.J. :
Canine Hip Dysplasia - Reply Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204:1323, 1994.
Madsen, J.S., Oxlund, H., Svalastoga, E., Schwarz, P. :
Collagen type III:I composition in hip joints of dogs susceptible to hip dysplasia Journal of Small Animal Practice 35:625-628, 1994.
Madsen, J.S., Svalastoga, E. :
Inclination and Anteversion of Collum-Femoris in Hip Dysplasia and Coxarthritis Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 35:115-119, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7942375.
Massat, B.J., Vasseur, P.B. :
Clinical and radiographic results of total hip arthroplasty in dogs: 96 cases (1986-1992) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205:448-454, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7961072.
Otto, K., Matis, U. :
Changes in cardiopulmonary variables and platelet count during anesthesia for total hip replacement in dogs Veterinary Surgery 23:266-273, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8091629.
Veit, C. :
The X-Ray Examination on the Hip-Joint Dysplasia in the Standing Position of the Dog Kleintierpraxis 39:19, 1994.
1993 Anon. :
Hip Dysplasia and Elbow Disease in Sight of the Federation- Cynologique-Internationale .1 Kleintierpraxis 38:194, 1993.
Bloebaum, R.D., Ota, D.T., Skedros, J.G., Mantas, J.P. :
Comparison of Human and Canine External Femoral Morphologies in the Context of Total Hip Replacement Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 27:1149-1159, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8126013. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.820270905.
Brass, W. :
Hip Joint Dysplasia and Disease of the Elbow in the Sight of the Federation Cynologique Internationale .2 Kleintierpraxis 38:270, 1993.
Davidson, A., Hornof, W., Lavrischeff, K., Brown, S.G. :
What Is Your Diagnosis - Radiographic Diagnosis - Bilateral Hip Dysplasia and Possible Osteolytic Lesion in the Left Ischium Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203:1129-1130, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8244857.
Dehaan, J.J., Beale, B.S., Parker, R.B. :
Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Hip Dysplasia .1 Canine Practice 18:24-28, 1993.
Fluckiger, M. :
A Standardized Evaluation System for Canine Hip Dysplasia Radiographs - Suggestion for Objectivization of a Subjective Process Kleintierpraxis 38:693, 1993.
Heyman, S.J., Smith, G.K., Cofone, M.A. :
Biomechanical Study of the Effect of Coxofemoral Positioning on Passive Hip Joint Laxity in Dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 54:210-215, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8430930.
Kealy, R.D., Lawler, D.F., Monti, K.L., Biery, D., Helms, R.W., Lust, G., Olsson, S.E., Smith, G.K. :
Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Subluxation of the Femoral Head in Growing Dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 54:555-562, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8484574.
Koch, D.A., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Nap, R.C., Meij, B.P., Wolvekamp, W.T.C. :
Radiographic Evaluation and Comparison of Plate Fixation After Triple Pelvic Osteotomy in 32 Dogs with Hip Dysplasia Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 6:9-15, 1993.
Lust, G., Williams, A.J., Burtonwurster, N., Pijanowski, G.J., Beck, K.A., Rubin, G., Smith, G.K. :
Joint Laxity and Its Association with Hip Dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers American Journal of Veterinary Research 54:1990-1999, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8116927.
Meisen, N., Fluckiger, M. :
Labeling of Dog HD X-Rays Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 135:172, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8316819.
Reddy, N.R.J., Ranganath, L., Ranganath, B.N., Jayadevappa, S.M., Umesh, K.G., Yathiraj, S. :
Observations on the Occurrence of Hip Dysplasia in Dogs Indian Veterinary Journal 70:287-288, 1993.
Shott, S. :
Comments on Study of Coxofemoral Joint Laxity American Journal of Veterinary Research 54:2185, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8135960.
Smith, G.K. :
Comments on Study of Coxofemoral Joint Laxity - Reply American Journal of Veterinary Research 54:2185-2186, 1993.
Smith, G.K., Gregor, T.P., Rhodes, W.H., Biery, D.N. :
Coxofemoral Joint Laxity from Distraction Radiography and Its Contemporaneous and Prospective Correlation with Laxity, Subjective Score, and Evidence of Degenerative Joint Disease from Conventional Hip-Extended Radiography in Dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 54:1021-1042, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8368595.
1992 Bell, D.R., Brown, C.J. :
BVA/Kennel Club Hip Dysplasia Scheme Veterinary Record 130:148, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1557893.
Corley, EA. :
Role of the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals in the control of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22:579-93, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1604774.
Deyoung, D.J., Schiller, R.A. :
Radiographic Criteria for Evaluation of Uncemented Total Hip Replacement in Dogs Veterinary Surgery 21:88-98, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1626388.
Hazewinkel, H.A.W. :
Diagnosis and Conservative Treatment of Hip Dysplasia in Young Dogs Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 117:S33-S34, 1992.
Kealy, R.D., Olsson, S.E., Monti, K.L., Lawler, D.F., Biery, D.N., Helms, R.W., Lust, G., Smith, G.K. :
Effects of Limited Food Consumption on the Incidence of Hip Dysplasia in Growing Dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 201:857-863, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1399793.
Klimt, U., Tellhelm, B., Fritsch, R. :
The Importance of the Morgan-Line for the Examination on Hip- Joint Dysplasia in Dog Kleintierpraxis 37:211-217, 1992.
Lanting, F. :
Canine hip dysplasia and the breeder. A layman's point of view. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22:739-43, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1604782.
Loeffler, K. :
A Synopsis of the Central Places of Interpretation of X-Rays Within the Scope of Examination for Hip Joint Dysplasia in Dogs Kleintierpraxis 37:707-720, 1992.
Lust, G., Williams, A.J., Burtonwurster, N., Beck, K.A., Rubin, G. :
Effects of Intramuscular Administration of Glycosaminoglycan Polysulfates on Signs of Incipient Hip Dysplasia in Growing Pups American Journal of Veterinary Research 53:1836-1843, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1456530.
Meij, B.P. :
Differential Diagnosis of Hip Dysplasia Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 117:S35-S37, 1992.
Meij, B.P., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Nap, R.C. :
Results of Extra-Articular Stabilisation Following Open Reduction of Coxofemoral Luxation in Dogs and Cats Journal of Small Animal Practice 33:320-326, 1992.
Muller, D. :
Biocompatible Osteoconductive Polymer (BOP) Shelf Arthroplasty for the Surgical Treatment of Hip Dysplasia Praktische Tierarzt 73:422, 1992.
Nap, R.C. :
Surgical Therapy for Canine Hip Dysplasia Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 117:S34, 1992.
Smith, C. :
Treatments for Hip Dysplasia Spark Controversy - Research Roundup Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 201:205-209, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1500308.
Stur, I., Potscher, L., Kreiner, M., Mayrhofer, G. :
Selection Criteria Concerning Hip Dysplasia (HD) in Dogs Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 79:271-276, 1992.
1991 Anon. :
The Judgement of X-Rays on Hip Joint Dysplasia Kleintierpraxis 36:391-393, 1991.
Anon. :
BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia Scoring Scheme Veterinary Record 128:63-64, 1991.
Bartling, U., Vonbardeleben, C. :
Alae Ossis Sacri of the Dog As Individual Characteristic for Proof of Identity in Radiography on Dysplasia of the Hip Joint Kleintierpraxis 36:431, 1991.
David, T., Kasper, M. :
Triple Pelvic Osteotomy with Axial Acetabular Rotation in Canine Hip Dysplasia Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 78:49-63, 1991.
Delgado-Baeza, E., Sanz-Laguna, A., Miralles-Flores, C. :
Experimental trauma of the triradiate epiphysis of the acetabulum and hip dysplasia. Int Orthop 15:335-9, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1809714.
Distl, O., Grussler, W., Schwarz, J., Krausslich, H. :
[Analysis of environmentally-conditioned and genetic influences on the frequency of hip joint dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs] Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe A - Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 38:460-471, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1950236.
Hanssen, I. :
Hip Dysplasia in Dogs in Relation to Their Month of Birth Veterinary Record 128:425-426, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1853536.
Keller, G.G. :
Stress Radiography - An Aid for Early Detection of Canine Hip Dysplasia Canine Practice 16:5, 1991.
Madsen, J.S., Reimann, I., Svalastoga, E. :
Delayed Ossification of the Femoral Head in Dogs with Hip Dysplasia Journal of Small Animal Practice 32:351-354, 1991.
Mclaughlin, R.M., Miller, C.W., Taves, C.L., Hearn, T.C., Palmer, N.C., Anderson, G.I. :
Force Plate Analysis of Triple Pelvic Osteotomy for the Treatment of Canine Hip Dysplasia Veterinary Surgery 20:291-297, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1962411.
Rettenmaier, J.L., Constantinescu, G.M. :
Canine Hip Dysplasia Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 13:643, 1991.
Slocum, B., Slocum, T.D. :
Examination of the Canine Hip Canine Practice 16:5, 1991.
1990 Braden, TD., Prieur, WD., Kaneene, JB. :
Clinical evaluation of intertrochanteric osteotomy for treatment of dogs with early-stage hip dysplasia: 37 cases (1980-1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:337-41, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2298662.
Katcherian, G. :
Pelvic Osteotomy and Distal Transfer of the Greater Trochanter for Luxation of the Hip Canine Practice 15:7-12, 1990.
Lingaas, F., Klemetsdal, G. :
Breeding Values and Genetic Trend for Hip Dysplasia in the Norwegian Golden Retriever Population Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics-Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 107:437-443, 1990.
Loeffler, K. :
List of the Central Interpretation Agencies for X-Ray Pictures Within the Scope of Examinations for Hip Joint Dysplasia in the Dog Kleintierpraxis 35:671, 1990.
Madsen, J.S., Jensen, L.T., Strom, H., Horslevpetersen, K., Svalastoga, E. :
Procollagen Type-III Aminoterminal Peptide in Serum and Synovial Fluid of Dogs with Hip Dysplasia and Coxarthrosis American Journal of Veterinary Research 51:1544-1546, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2240774.
Schawalder, P., Spiess, B. :
The Acetabular Angle of Inclination (an Spherical Angle) and the Acetabular Angle of Aditus (AE Spherical Angle) in Dog Kleintierpraxis 35:112, 1990.
Slocum, B., Devine, T.M. :
Dorsal Acetabular Rim Radiographic View for Evaluation of the Canine Hip Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 26:289-296, 1990.
Smith, G.K., Biery, D.N., Gregor, T.P. :
New Concepts of Coxofemoral Joint Stability and the Development of a Clinical Stress-Radiographic Method for Quantitating Hip Joint Laxity in the Dog Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196:59-70, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2295555.
Sorjonen, D.C., Milton, J.L., Steiss, J.E., Hathcock, J.T., Dunbar, M. :
Hip Dysplasia with Bilateral Ischiatic Nerve Entrapment in a Dog Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 197:495-497, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2211295.
1989 Brass, W. :
Hip dysplasia in dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 30:166-170, 1989.
Farrow, CS., Back, RT. :
Radiographic evaluation of nonanesthetized and nonsedated dogs for hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 194:524-6, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2921201.
Hanssen, I., Lunde, H., Gjessing, LR. :
Plasma amino acids in dogs with osteochondrosis or hip dysplasia. Acta Vet Scand 30:111-2, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2782228.
Keller, G.G., Corley, E.A. :
Canine Hip Dysplasia - Investigating the Sex Predilection and the Frequency of Unilateral CHD Veterinary Medicine 84:1162-1166, 1989.
Loeffler, K. :
Requirements to Radiography for Diagnosis of Hip Dysplasia in Dogs Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 76:300-302, 1989.
Tellhelm, B., Brass, W. :
X-Rays of the Canine Hip Dysplasia - Quality and Judgement Kleintierpraxis 34:551, 1989.
1988 Andersen, S., Andresen, E., Christensen, K. :
Hip dysplasia selection index exemplified by data from German Shepherd dogs Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 105:112-119, 1988.
Bargai, U., Waner, T., Beck, Y. :
Canine hip dysplasia in Israel: sixteen years of a control scheme Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 44:202-207, 1988.
Krempl. H., Muller, S., Stur, I. :
Hip joint dysplasia investigated in a Hovawart population Animalis Familiaris 3:3-9, 1988.
1987 Bennett, D. :
Hip dysplasia and ascorbate therapy: fact or fancy? Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 2:152-7, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3331825.
Corley, EA. :
Hip dysplasia: a report from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 2:141-51, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3455001.
Hein, H. :
Hip dysplasia--puppy assessment scheme. Vet Rec 121:183, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3660560.
Kim, YH. :
Acetabular dysplasia and osteoarthritis developed by an eversion of the acetabular labrum. Clin Orthop Relat Res :289-95, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3802648.
Lingaas, F., Heim, P. :
[A genetic investigation on the incidence of hip dysplasia in Norwegian dog breeds] Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 99:617-623, 1987.
Riser, WH. :
A half century of canine hip dysplasia. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 2:87-91, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3455003.
Slocum, B., Devine, T. :
Pelvic osteotomy in the dog as treatment for hip dysplasia. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 2:107-16, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3454998.
Tarvin, G., Lippincott, CL. :
Excision arthroplasty for treatment of canine hip dysplasia using the biceps femoris muscle sling: an evaluation of 92 cases. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 2:158-60, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3455002.
Wallace, LJ. :
Canine hip dysplasia: past and present. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 2:92-106, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3331826.
1986 Cameron, DB. :
Interpretation on canine hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:919-20, 1986. Pubmed reference: 3710902.
Hedhammar, A. :
[Current situation regarding the eradication of hip dysplasia in Sweden] Svensk Veterinartidning 38:68-77, 1986.
Lyons, AR. :
Hip dysplasia or congenital subluxation. Vet Rec 118:436, 1986. Pubmed reference: 3705407.
Renwick, JH. :
Hip dysplasia in greyhounds. Vet Rec 119:536, 1986. Pubmed reference: 3811167.
Schrader, SC. :
Triple osteotomy of the pelvis and trochanteric osteotomy as a treatment for hip dysplasia in the immature dog: the surgical technique and results of 77 consecutive operations. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189:659-65, 1986. Pubmed reference: 3759632.
Willis, MB. :
Hip scoring: review of 1985-86. Vet Rec 118:461-2, 1986. Pubmed reference: 3716111.
1985 Corley, EA., Hogan, PM. :
Trends in hip dysplasia control: analysis of radiographs submitted to the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, 1974 to 1984. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187:805-9, 1985. Pubmed reference: 4055498.
Distl, O., Windisch, E., Kräusslich, H. :
[Occurrence and heredity of hip dysplasia in Hovawart and boxer dogs in West Germany]. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 32:551-60, 1985. Pubmed reference: 3933219.
Hauptman, J., Cardinet, GH., Morgan, JP., Guffy, MM., Wallace, LJ. :
Angles of inclination and anteversion in hip dysplasia in the dog. Am J Vet Res 46:2033-6, 1985. Pubmed reference: 4062003.
Lust, G., Rendano, VT., Summers, BA. :
Canine hip dysplasia: concepts and diagnosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187:638-40, 1985. Pubmed reference: 3910629.
Mackenzie, S.A. :
Why heritability estimates differ - canine hip dysplasia Canine Practice 12:19-22, 1985.
Mackenzie, S.A., Oltenacu, E.A.B., Leighton, E. :
Heritability estimate for temperament scores in German Shepherd dogs and its genetic correlation with hip dysplasia Behavior Genetics 15:475-482, 1985. Pubmed reference: 4074273.
1984 Schoenecker, PL., Lesker, PA., Ogata, K. :
A dynamic canine model of experimental hip dysplasia. Gross and histological pathology, and the effect of position of immobilization on capital femoral epiphyseal blood flow. J Bone Joint Surg Am 66:1281-8, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6490704.
1983 Alitalo, I., Heikkinen, E., Paatsama, S., Punto, L., Puranen, J., Virkkunen, P. :
Venous drainage of the femoral neck in Legg Perthes disease and in hip dysplasia. A clinical and experimental study in the dog and pig. Acta Vet Scand 24:247-51, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6660161.
Brooymans-Schallenberg, JH. :
Diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia and selection against this trait. Vet Q 5:8-10, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6845625.
Cardinet, GH., Guffy, MM., Wallace, LJ., Laben, RC. :
Canine hip dysplasia in German Shepherd Dog-Greyhound crossbreeds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:393-5, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6833074.
Ihemelandu, EC., Cardinet, GH., Guffy, MM., Wallace, LJ. :
Canine hip dysplasia: differences in pectineal muscles of healthy and dysplastic German Shepherd dogs when two months old. Am J Vet Res 44:411-6, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6220626.
Olmstead, ML., Hohn, RB., Turner, TM. :
A five-year study of 221 total hip replacements in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:191-4, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6885591.
Stark, DM. :
Hip dysplasia in a clumber spaniel. Vet Rec 112:207, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6836910.
van der Velden, NA. :
Hip dysplasia in dogs. Vet Q 5:3-8, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6845623.
1982 Bouw, J. :
Hip dysplasia and dog breeding. Vet Q 4:173-81, 1982. Pubmed reference: 7168130.
Goddard, ME., Mason, TA. :
The genetics and early prediction of hip dysplasia. Aust Vet J 58:1-4, 1982. Pubmed reference: 7082224.
McDougall, G., Hastie, H. :
Grey areas of hip dysplasia Veterinary Record 110:211-212, 1982.
1981 Douglass, EM. :
Hip dysplasia in a timber wolf. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 76:401-3, 1981. Pubmed reference: 6908989.
Lust, G., Summers, BA. :
Early, asymptomatic stage of degenerative joint disease in canine hip joints. Am J Vet Res 42:1849-55, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7337280.
Schrader, SC. :
Triple osteotomy of the pelvis as a treatment for canine hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 178:39-44, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7204220.
1980 Allhands, RV., Kallfelz, FA., Lust, G. :
Radionuclide joint imaging: an ancillary technique in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. Am J Vet Res 41:230-3, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7369593.
Dixon, RT. :
Diagnosis of hip dysplasia. Aust Vet J 56:148, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7436908.
Giger, U., Lakatos, L. :
[Gelatin cap arthroplasty for the treatment of hip dysplasia in the dog] Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 122:493-502, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7466355.
Lust, G., Beilman, WT., Dueland, DJ., Farrell, PW. :
Intra-articular volume and hip joint instability in dogs with hip dysplasia. J Bone Joint Surg Am 62:576-82, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7380858.
Lust, G., Beilman, WT., Rendano, VT. :
A relationship between degree of laxity and synovial fluid volume in coxofemoral joints of dogs predisposed for hip dysplasia. Am J Vet Res 41:55-60, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7362124.
Martin, SW., Kirby, K., Pennock, PW. :
Canine hip dysplasia: breed effects. Can Vet J 21:293-6, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7459792.
Willis, M.B. :
German Shepherd dog hip survey Veterinary Record 107:565, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7467112.
1979 Dixon, RT. :
Diagnosis of hip dysplasia. Aust Vet J 55:448-9, 1979. Pubmed reference: 543844.
Fisher, T.M. :
The inheritance of canine hip dysplasia Modern Veterinary Practice 60:897-900, 1979. Pubmed reference: 514247.
Hedhammar, A., Olsson, SE., Andersson, SA., Persson, L., Pettersson, L., Olausson, A., Sundgren, PE. :
Canine hip dysplasia: study of heritability in 401 litters of German Shepherd dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 174:1012-6, 1979. Pubmed reference: 570968.
Paatsama, S. :
Hip dysplasia in dogs: a controlled restrictive breeding programme in Finland Twenty-first World Veterinary Congress Summaries, Moscow 4:42-43, 1979.
Wyburn, RS. :
Diagnosis of hip dysplasia in dogs. Aust Vet J 55:601, 1979. Pubmed reference: 539945.
Wyburn, RS. :
Diagnosis of hip dysplasia. Aust Vet J 55:447-8, 1979. Pubmed reference: 543843.
1978 Anon. :
Hip dysplasia : trial scheme for German Shepherd dogs Veterinary Record March 11:220 only, 1978.
Bohme, R.E., Schonfelder, E., Schlaaf, S. :
Prognosyische Untersuchungen zur Verbreitung der Hudtgelenksdysplasie beim Deutschem Schaferhund in der D.D.R. Monatshefte fur Veterinarmedizin 33:93-96, 1978.
Cruickshank, AK. :
Aetiology of hip dysplasia. Vet Rec 102:427, 1978. Pubmed reference: 654059.
Lust, G., Farrell, PW., Sheffy, BE., Van Vleck, LD. :
An improved procedure for genetic selection against hip dysplasia in dogs. Cornell Vet 68 Suppl 7:41-7, 1978. Pubmed reference: 630902.
Mason, TA. :
Control of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Rec 103:19-20, 1978. Pubmed reference: 676015.
1977 Blakemore, WF., Rees-Evans, ET., Wheeler, PE. :
The hip dysplasia scheme. Vet Rec 100:57, 1977. Pubmed reference: 556871.
Duff, R., Campbell, JR. :
Long term results of excision arthroplasty of the canine hip. Vet Rec 101:181-4, 1977. Pubmed reference: 919249.
Leighton, EA., Linn, JM., Willham, RL., Castleberry, MW. :
A genetic study of canine hip dysplasia. Am J Vet Res 38:241-4, 1977. Pubmed reference: 842921.
Lust, G. :
Hip dysplasia in dogs: its heritable nature Cornell Research Laboratory for Diseases of Dogs. Laboratory Report Series 2 :?, 1977.
Negri, C., Tricarico, A., Iorio, L. :
The importance of the acetabular rim in the genesis of congenital hip dysplasia. Experimental research. Ital J Orthop Traumatol 3:219-25, 1977. Pubmed reference: 612641.
Thrall, DE., Badertscher, RR., Lewis, RE., Losonsky, JM. :
Canine bone scanning: its use as a diagnostic tool for canine hip dysplasia. Am J Vet Res 38:1433-7, 1977. Pubmed reference: 921040.
Wright, PJ., Mason, TA. :
The usefulness of palpation of joint laxity in puppies as a predictor of hip dysplasia in a guide dog breeding programme. J Small Anim Pract 18:513-22, 1977. Pubmed reference: 916628.
Zuschneid, K. :
[Hip dysplasia in the German wire-haired pointer] Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 90:409-14, 1977. Pubmed reference: 588224.
1976 Anon. :
Joint BVA Kennel Club hip dysplasia scheme Veterinary Record VL :109 only, 1976.
Mason, TA. :
A review of recent developments in hip dysplasia. Aust Vet J 52:555-60, 1976. Pubmed reference: 798581.
Pharr, J.W., Morgan, J.P. :
Hip dysplasia in Australian Shepherd dogs Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 12:439-445, 1976.
Sági, L. :
Radiography of the hip joint in standing dog. Acta Vet Acad Sci Hung 26:55-63, 1976. Pubmed reference: 1020733.
1975 Beling, C.G., Gustafsson, P.O., Kasström, H. :
Metabolism of estradiol in greyhounds and German shepherd dogs. An investigation with special reference to hip dysplasia. Acta Radiol Suppl 344:109-20, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1066029.
Crawford, RD., Pharr, JW. :
Recommendations on canine hip dysplasia - diagnosis, treatment and genetic selection. Can Vet J 16:308-9, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1192341.
Gustafsson, P.O., Olsson, S.E., Kasstrom, H., Wennman, B. :
Skeletal development of Greyhounds, German Shepherd dogs and their crossbreed offspring: an investigation with special reference to hip dysplasia Acta Radiologica Supplementum 344:81-107, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1066037.
Gustafsson, PO. :
Estradiol induced skeletal changes. The long term effect of prenatal and postnatal administration in beagles. Acta Radiol Suppl 344:53-67, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1066034.
Kasstrom, H., Aakvaag, A., Edqvist, L.E., Olsson, S.E. :
Plasma levels of estradiol and plasma protein binding sex steriods in dogs. An investigation with special reference to development of hip dysplasia in growing individuals Acta Radiologica Supplementum 344:121-133, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1066030.
Kasström, H. :
Nutrition, weight gain and development of hip dysplasia. An experimental investigation in growing dogs with special reference to the effect of feeding intensity. Acta Radiol Suppl 344:135-79, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1066031.
Lust, G., Roenigk, WJ., Geary, JC., Sheffy, BE. :
Radiographic evaluation for evidence of hip dysplasia in three colonies of Beagles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 166:497-9, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1112757.
Nicholas, F.W. :
Hip dysplasia: the results of an analysis of New South Wales Labradors Royal Agricultural Society Kennel Control Journal 18:15-18, 1975.
Preu, K.P., Blaurock, H., Galle, O. :
Hip dysplasia in Beagles Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 88:271-275, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1147886.
Quinlan, TJ. :
Canine hip dysplasia. 1: diagnosis. N Z Vet J 23:157-63, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1059999. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.1975.34226.
Quinlan, TJ. :
Canine hip dysplasia. 2: Control and treatment. N Z Vet J 23:185-8, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1060970. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.1975.34235.
Riser, WH. :
The dog as a model for the study of hip dysplasia. Growth, form, and development of the normal and dysplastic hip joint. Vet Pathol 12:234-334, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1224531.
Schnelle, G.B. :
Letter: canine hip dysplasia problem. J Am Vet Med Assoc 166:198, 217, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1133072.
Vaughan, LC., Jones, DG., Lane, JG. :
Pectineus muscle resection as a treatment for hip dysplasia in dogs. Vet Rec 96:145-8, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1119074.
1974 [No authors listed] :
Radiological features of hip dysplasia. J Small Anim Pract 15:475-8, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4449235.
Bowen, JM. :
Electromyographic analysis of reflex and spastic activities of canine pectineus muscles in the presence and absence of hip dysplasia. Am J Vet Res 35:661-8, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4830437.
Cardinet, GH., Guffy, MM., Wallace, LJ. :
Canine hip dysplasia: effects of pectineal tenotomy on the coxofemoral joints of German shepherd dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 164:591-8, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4814632.
Cardinet, GH., Guffy, MM., Wallace, LJ. :
Canine hip dysplasia: effects of pectineal myectomy on the coxofemoral joints of Greyhound and German Shepherd dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165:529-32, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4472021.
Morgan, JP. :
Hip dysplasia in the beagle: a radiographic study. J Am Vet Med Assoc 164:496-8, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4813403.
Riser, WH. :
Canine hip dysplasia: cause and control. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165:360-2, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4604184.
Riser, WH., Larsen, JS. :
Influence of breed somatotypes on prevalence of hip dysplasia in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 165:79-81, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4834637.
1973 Freudiger, U., Schärer, V., Buser, J.C., Mühlebach, R. :
[Results of hipdysplasia control in the German Shepherd from 1965-1972]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 115:169-73, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4699825.
Kann, LI. :
Canine hip dysplasia. J S Afr Vet Assoc 44:131-8, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4769847.
Larsen, J.S. :
Report on canine hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 162:662-668, 1973.
Lust, G., Geary, JC., Sheffy, BE. :
Development of hip dysplasia in dogs. Am J Vet Res 34:87-91, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4346059.
Riser, W.H. :
Hip dysplasia in military dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 162:664 only, 1973.
Schnelle, G.B. :
Letter: Canine hip dysplasia again. J Am Vet Med Assoc 163:956 passim, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4750843.
Schnelle, G.B. :
The present status and outlook on canine hip dysplasia Gaines Dog Research :1-6, 1973.
1972 Bowen, JM., Lewis, RE., Kneller, SK., Wilson, RC., Arnold, RA. :
Progression of hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs after unilateral pectineal myotomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 161:899-904, 1972. Pubmed reference: 5074267.
Dixon, RT. :
The effect of limb positioning on the radiographic diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Rec 91:644-6, 1972. Pubmed reference: 4654303.
Gustafsson, P.O., Kasström, H., Olsson, S.E., Suzuki, K. :
Growth and remodeling of the hip joint and proximal femur in adolescent dogs. An investigation with special reference to hip dysplasia and estradiol induced changes. Acta Radiol Suppl 319:3-5, 1972. Pubmed reference: 4531199.
Gustafsson, P.O., Kasström, H., Olsson, S.E., Wennman, B. :
Skeletal development and sexual maturation in German Shepherds, Greyhounds and their crossbreed offspring. An investigation with special reference to hip dysplasia. Acta Radiol Suppl 319:187-90, 1972. Pubmed reference: 4531182.
Henricson, B., Ljunggren, G., Olsson, SE. :
Canine hip dysplasia in sweden. Incidence and genetics. Acta Radiol Suppl 319:175-80, 1972. Pubmed reference: 4531179.
Lust, G., Craig, PH., Geary, JC., Ross, GE. :
Changes in pelvic muscle tissues associated with hip dysplasia in dogs. Am J Vet Res 33:1097-108, 1972. Pubmed reference: 5022392.
Lust, G., Craig, PH., Ross, GE., Geary, JC. :
Studies on pectineus muscles in canine hip dysplasia. Cornell Vet 62:628-45, 1972. Pubmed reference: 5077539.
Priester, W.A., Mulvihill, J.J. :
Canine hip dysplasia: relative risk by sex, size, and breed, and comparative aspects. J Am Vet Med Assoc 160:735-9, 1972. Pubmed reference: 5010615.
1971 Brinker, WO. :
Corrective osteotomy procedures for treatment of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Clin North Am 1:467-77, 1971. Pubmed reference: 4949794.
Harrison, CS. :
Dysplasia epiphysealis capitis femoris. Clin Orthop Relat Res 80:118-25, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5133316.
Larsen, JS., Corley, EA. :
Radiographic evaluations in a canine hip dysplasia control program. J Am Vet Med Assoc 159:989-92, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5106440.
Rasmussen, PG. :
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia in a litter of Beagle puppies. J Small Anim Pract 12:91-6, 1971. Pubmed reference: 4994640.
Schnelle, GB. :
Inapparent hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 158:600, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5101886.
Schnelle, GB. :
Atypical hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 159:412, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5107087.
Townsend, LR., Gillette, EL., Lebel, JL. :
Progression of hip dysplasia in military working dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 159:1129-33, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5165454.
Wallace, LJ. :
Pectineus tendonectomy or tenotomy for treating clinical canine hip dysplasia. Vet Clin North Am 1:455-65, 1971. Pubmed reference: 4949793.
1970 Levine, BG., Nilles, BJ., Werner, RE. :
Alleviation of hip dysplasia with bilateral excision arthroplasty. J Am Vet Med Assoc 156:1576-7, 1970. Pubmed reference: 5462991.
1969 Hohn, RB., Janes, JM. :
Pelvic osteotomy in the treatment of canine hip dysplasia. Clin Orthop Relat Res 62:70-8, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5813192.
Hutt, FB. :
Developments in veterinary science. Advances in canine genetics, with special reference to hip dysplasia. Can Vet J 10:307-11, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5392698.
Olsson, SE., Figarola, F., Suzuki, K. :
Femoral head excision arthroplasty. A salvage operation in severe hip dysplasia in dogs. Clin Orthop Relat Res 62:104-12, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5813187.
Riser, WH. :
Progress in canine hip dysplasia control. J Am Vet Med Assoc 155:2047-52, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5392176.
Seer, G., Hurov, L. :
Elbow dysplasia in dogs with hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 154:631-7, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5812895.
1968 Bardens, JW., Hardwick, H. :
New observations on the diagnosis and cause of hip dysplasia. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 63:238-45, 1968. Pubmed reference: 5183841.
Jessen, C.R., Spurrell, F.A. :
A comparison of canine hip dysplasia in German Shepherd and Vizsla (Hungarian) breeds (conference abstract) Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 10:768 only, 1968.
Lawson, DD. :
Hip dysplasia in the dog. Vet Rec 83:655-6, 1968. Pubmed reference: 5750011.
1967 Hutt, FB. :
Genetic selection to reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 151:1041-8, 1967. Pubmed reference: 6069986.
Kaman, CH., Gossling, HR. :
A breeding program to reduce hip dysplasia in German shepherd dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 151:562-71, 1967. Pubmed reference: 6069483.
Pierce, KR., Bridges, CH. :
The role of estrogens in the pathogenesis of canine hip dysplasia. Metabolism of exogenous estrogens. J Small Anim Pract 8:383-9, 1967. Pubmed reference: 6061440.
Riser, WH., Shirer, JF. :
Correlation between canine hip dysplasia and pelvic muscle mass: a study of 95 dogs. Am J Vet Res 28:769-77, 1967. Pubmed reference: 6068247.
Schnelle, G.B. :
Diagnosis of hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 150:1212-1214, 1967.
1966 Henricson, B., Norberg, I., Olsson, SE. :
On the etiology and pathogenesis of hip dysplasia: a comparative review. J Small Anim Pract 7:673-88, 1966. Pubmed reference: 5342030.
Johnston, DE. :
Hip dysplasia in the dog. Aust Vet J 42:154-9, 1966. Pubmed reference: 5954482.
Paatsama, S., Rissanen, P., Rokkanen, P. :
Some aspects of hip dysplasia and coxa plana in dogs. J Small Anim Pract 7:477-81, 1966. Pubmed reference: 5945079.
Pierce, K.R. :
A study of the role of estrogens and metabolism in the pathogenesis of canine hip dysplasia Dissertation Abstracts International 26:6652-6653, 1966.
Riser, W.H., Miller, H. :
Canine hip dysplasia and how to control it Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Incorporated, and Hip Dysplasia Control Registry, Philadelphia :?, 1966.
Riser, WH., Shirer, JF. :
Hip dysplasia: coxafemoral abnormalities in neonatal German Shepherd dogs. J Small Anim Pract 7:7-12, 1966. Pubmed reference: 5949552.
1965 Henricson, B., Norberg, I., Olsson, S. :
[Hip dysplasia in dogs] Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 17:118-131, 1965.
Pierce, K.R., Bridges, C.H., Banks, W.C. :
Hormone induced hip dysplasia in dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 6:121-126, 1965.
1964 Anon. :
Scheme for the control of hip dysplasia Veterinary Record 76:1474-1475, 1964.
Boernfors, S., Palsson, K., Skude, G. :
Hereditary aspects of hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 145:15-20, 1964. Pubmed reference: 14176261.
Riser, W.H., Cohen, D., Lindquist, S., Munsson, J., Chen, S. :
Influence of early rapid growth and weight gain on hip dysplasia in the German Shepherd dog Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 145:661-668, 1964. Pubmed reference: 5896436.
Riser, WH. :
An analysis of the current status of hip dysplasia in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 144:709-21, 1964. Pubmed reference: 14156986.
1963 Riser, W.H. :
A new look at developmental subluxation and dislocation : Hip dysplasia in the dog Journal of Small Animal Practice 4:421-434, 1963.
Wright, D. :
The radiographic diagnosis of hip dysplasia in the dog Veterinary Record 75:527-528, 1963.
1962 Olsson, S.E. :
The control of canine hip dysplasia in the Scandinavian countries Advanced Small Animal Practice 3:112-116, 1962.
Riser, WH. :
Producing diagnostic pelvic radiographs for canine hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 141:600-3, 1962. Pubmed reference: 14492453.
1961 Olsson, S-E :
Roentgen examination of the hip joints of German Shepherd dogs Adv Small Anim Practice 3:117-120, 1961.
Whittington, K., Banks, W.C., Carlson, W.D., Hoerlein, B.F., Husted, P.W., Leonard, E.F., McClave, P.L., Rhodes, W.H., Riser, W.H., Schnelle, G.B. :
Report of the panel on canine hip dysplasia Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 139:791-806, 1961. Pubmed reference: 13741843.
1960 Riser, WH. :
Hip Dysplasia and the Veterinarian. Can Vet J 1:102-3, 1960. Pubmed reference: 17421144.
1959 Henricson, B., Olsson, S.E. :
Hereditary dysplasia of the acetabulum in Alsatian dogs Medlemsbl. Sverig. VetForb. 11:101-104, 1959.
Innes, JR. :
"Inherited dysplasia" of the hip joint in dogs and rabbits. Lab Invest 8:1170-7, 1959. Pubmed reference: 13852893.
Petersen, B.K. :
Congenital dyplasia of the acetabulum in dogs, especially sheep-dogs Medlemsbl. danske Dyrlaegeforen. 42:557-568, 1959.
Schnelle, GB. :
Canine hip dysplasia. Lab Invest 8:1178-89, 1959. Pubmed reference: 14443282.
Schnelle, GB. :
Congenital dysplasia of the hip in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 135:234-5, 1959. Pubmed reference: 13672888.
Snavely, JG. :
The genetic aspects of hip dysplasia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 135:201-7, 1959. Pubmed reference: 13672879.
1956 Schales, O. :
Genetic aspects of dysplasia of hip joint North American Veterinarian 38:476 only, 1956.
1955 Grounds, O.V., Hagerorn, A.L., Hoffman, R.A. :
Research report on hereditary subluxation Journal of Canine Genetics January:1-23, 1955.
1947 Konde, W.N. :
Congenital subluxation of the coxafemoral joint in the German Shepherd dog. North American Veterinarian 28:595-599, 1947.
1937 Schnelle, G.B. :
Congenital subluxation of the coxofemoral joint in a dog Univ PA Bull 65:15-16, 1937.
Schnelle, G.B. :
The veterinary radiologist: regional radiography of the pelvic region, Part 1 North American Veterinarian 18:53-56, 1937.
1935 Schnelle, G.B. :
Some new diseases in the dog. American Kennel Gazette 52:25-26, 1935.

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