OMIA 000817-9615 : Portosystemic shunt in Canis lupus familiaris

In other species: domestic cat , cattle , pig , horse

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 601466

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Inheritance: From a pedigree analysis on extra-hepatic shunts in the Maltese breed, involving 19 affecteds, 94 confirmed normals, and a further 186 related dogs with unknown shunt status (including affecteds and normals involved in, and produced from, eight planned matings), O'Leary et al. (2014) estimated heritability on the binary scale to be 61%, which is equivalent to 9% on the underlying liability scale. Segregation analysis was weakly suggestive of a single (recessive) gene of large effect, but the results of the planned matings indicated substantial departure from autosomal recessive inheritance.

References


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2017 Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T.P., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders. Canine Genet Epidemiol 4:6, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28560045. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-017-0044-6.
2016 Van den Bossche, L., van Steenbeek, F.G. :
Canine congenital portosystemic shunts: Disconnections dissected. Vet J 211:14-20, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27061656. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.09.025.
2015 Oberbauer, A.M., Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R. :
Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401337. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0021-x.
White, R.N., Parry, A.T. :
Morphology of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the right gastric vein in dogs. J Small Anim Pract :, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25871881. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12355.
van Dongen, A.M., Heuving, S.M., Tryfonidou, M.A., van Steenbeek, F.G., Rothuizen, J., Penning, L.C. :
Increased bone morphogenetic protein 7 signalling in the kidneys of dogs affected with a congenital portosystemic shunt. Vet J :, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25920772. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.03.008.
2014 Kilpatrick, S., Gow, A.G., Foale, R.D., Tappin, S.W., Carruthers, H., Reed, N., Yool, D.A., Woods, S., Marques, A.I., Jalan, R., Mellanby, R.J. :
Plasma cytokine concentrations in dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt. Vet J :, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24518641. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.01.007.
O’Leary, C.A., Parslow, A., Malik, R., Hunt, G.B., Hurford, R.I., Tisdall, P.L.C., Duffy, D.L. :
The inheritance of extra-hepatic portosystemic shunts and elevated bile acid concentrations in Maltese dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice :, 2014. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12156.
Tivers, M.S., Lipscomb, V.J., Smith, K.C., Wheeler-Jones, C.P., House, A.K. :
Markers of hepatic regeneration associated with surgical attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs. Vet J :, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24662025. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.02.027.
van Straten, G., van Steenbeek, F.G., Grinwis, G.C., Favier, R.P., Kummeling, A., van Gils, I.H., Fieten, H., Groot Koerkamp, M.J., Holstege, F.C., Rothuizen, J., Spee, B. :
Aberrant expression and distribution of enzymes of the urea cycle and other ammonia metabolizing pathways in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts. PLoS One 9:e100077, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24945279. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100077.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Leeman, J.J., Kim, S.E., Reese, D.J., Risselada, M., Ellison, G.W. :
Multiple Congenital PSS in a Dog: Case Report and Literature Review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23690491. DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5877.
White, R.N., Parry, A.T. :
Morphology of congenital portosystemic shunts emanating from the left gastric vein in dogs and cats. J Small Anim Pract :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23888909. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12116.
van Steenbeek, F.G., Van den Bossche, L., Grinwis, G.C., Kummeling, A., van Gils, I.H., Koerkamp, M.J., van Leenen, D., Holstege, F.C., Penning, L.C., Rothuizen, J., Leegwater, P.A., Spee, B. :
Aberrant gene expression in dogs with portosystemic shunts. PLoS One 8:e57662, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23451256. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057662.
2012 Moon, S.J., Kim, J.W., Kang, B.T., Lim, C.Y., Park, H.M. :
Magnetic resonance imaging findings of hepatic encephalopathy in a dog with a portosystemic shunt. J Vet Med Sci 74:361-6, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22020150.
van Steenbeek, F.G., van den Bossche, L., Leegwater, P.A., Rothuizen, J. :
Inherited liver shunts in dogs elucidate pathways regulating embryonic development and clinical disorders of the portal vein. Mamm Genome 23:76-84, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22052005. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-011-9364-0.
2011 Kummeling, A., Penning, LC., Rothuizen, J., Brinkhof, B., Weber, MF., van Sluijs, FJ. :
Hepatic gene expression and plasma albumin concentration related to outcome after attenuation of a congenital portosystemic shunt in dogs. Vet J :, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21641243. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.04.022.
Tivers, M.S., Upjohn, M.M., House, A.K., Brockman, D.J., Lipscomb, V.J. :
Treatment of extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs - what is the evidence base? J Small Anim Pract :, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22098116. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01144.x.
2010 Kalbantner, K., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Mischke, R. :
Platelet function in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt. Vet J :, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20580889. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.04.002.
2009 Cariou, MP., Lipscomb, VJ., Hughes, D., Brodbelt, D., Brockman, DJ. :
Plasma lactate concentrations and blood gas values in dogs undergoing surgical attenuation of a single congenital portosystemic shunt. Vet Rec 165:226-9, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19700782.
van Steenbeek, F.G., Leegwater, P.A., van Sluijs, F.J., Heuven, H.C., Rothuizen, J. :
Evidence of inheritance of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in Irish Wolfhounds. J Vet Intern Med 23:950-2, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19496918. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0319.x.
2006 Torisu, S., Washizu, M., Hasegawa, D., Orima, H. :
Brain magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in dogs and cats with congenital portosystemic shunts. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 46:447-51, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16396258.
Wessmann, A., Volk, HA., Shelton, GD., Chandler, KE., Baines, S., Cappello, R. :
Portosystemic shunt associated with severe episodic weakness. J Vet Intern Med 20:1042-4, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16955838.
2005 Davison, L., Sargan, D., Herrtage, M. :
Study on portosystemic shunts in dogs. Vet Rec 157:600, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16272557.
Mehl, ML., Kyles, AE., Hardie, EM., Kass, PH., Adin, CA., Flynn, AK., De Cock, HE., Gregory, CR. :
Evaluation of ameroid ring constrictors for treatment for single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs: 168 cases (1995-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:2020-30, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15989185.
Morandi, F., Cole, RC., Tobias, KM., Berry, CR., Avenell, J., Daniel, GB. :
Use of 99mTCO4(-) trans-splenic portal scintigraphy for diagnosis of portosystemic shunts in 28 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 46:153-61, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15869161.
Sereda, CW., Adin, CA. :
Methods of gradual vascular occlusion and their applications in treatment of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs: a review. Vet Surg 34:83-91, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15720602. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2005.00015.x.
Weisse, C., Mondschein, JI., Itkin, M., Iyoob, C., Solomon, JA. :
Use of a percutaneous atrial septal occluder device for complete acute occlusion of an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:249-52, 236, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16047661.
Zwingenberger, AL., Schwarz, T., Saunders, HM. :
Helical computed tomographic angiography of canine portosystemic shunts. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 46:27-32, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15693555.
van Straten, G., Leegwater, P.A., de Vries, M., van den Brom, W.E., Rothuizen, J. :
Inherited congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in Cairn terriers. J Vet Intern Med 19:321-4, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15954545.
2004 Hunt, GB. :
Effect of breed on anatomy of portosystemic shunts resulting from congenital diseases in dogs and cats: a review of 242 cases. Aust Vet J 82:746-9, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15648933.
Szatmári, V., Rothuizen, J., van Sluijs, F.J., van den Ingh, T.S., Voorhout, G. :
Ultrasonographic evaluation of partially attenuated congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in 14 dogs. Vet Rec 155:448-56, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15518405.
2003 Ferrell, E.A., Graham, J.P., Hanel, R., Randell, S., Farese, J.P., Castleman, W.L. :
Simultaneous congenital and acquired extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in two dogs Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 44:38-42, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12620048.
Frank, P., Mahaffey, M., Egger, C., Cornell, K.K. :
Helical computed tomographic portography in ten normal dogs and ten dogs with a portosystemic shunt Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 44:392-400, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12939055.
Salwei, R.M., O'Brien, R.T., Matheson, J.S. :
Use of contrast harmonic ultrasound for the diagnosis of congenital portosystemic shunts in three dogs Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 44:301-5, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12816372.
Santilli, R.A., Gerboni, G. :
Diagnostic imaging of congenital porto-systemic shunts in dogs and cats: a review Veterinary Journal 166:7-18, 2003.
Szatmari, V. :
Simultaneous congenital and acquired extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in two dogs.[comment] Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 44:486-7; author reply 487, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12939070.
Tobias, K.M. :
Determination of inheritance of single congenital portosystemic shunts in Yorkshire terriers Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 39:385-9, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12873029.
Wess, G., Unterer, S., Haller, M., Hasler, A., Reusch, C., Glaus, T. :
Recurrent fever as the only or predominant clinical sign in four dogs and one cat with congenital portosystemic vascular anomalies Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 145:363-8, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12951907.
2002 Connery, N.A., McAllister, H., Skelly, C., Pawson, P., Bellenger, C.R. :
Cellophane banding of congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in two Irish wolfhounds Journal of Small Animal Practice 43:345-349, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12201443.
Holt, D.E., Washabau, R.J., Djali, S., Dayrell-Hart, B., Drobatz, K.J., Heyes, M.P., Robinson, M.B. :
Cerebrospinal fluid glutamine, tryptophan, and tryptophan metabolite concentrations in dogs with portosystemic shunts American Journal of Veterinary Research 63:1167-1171, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12171172.
Langdon, P., Cohn, L.A., Kreeger, J.M., Priddy, N.H. :
Acquired portosystemic shunting in two cats Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 38:21-27, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11804311.
Papazoglou, L.G., Monnet, E., Seim, H.B. :
Survival and prognostic indicators for dogs with intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: 32 cases (1990-2000) Veterinary Surgery 31:561-570, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12415525.
Peloso, J. :
Extra-hepatic portosystemic shunt in a Shih Tzu pup Irish Veterinary Journal 55:639-642, 2002.
Yool, D.A., Kirby, B.M. :
Neurological dysfunction in three dogs and one cat following attenuation of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts Journal of Small Animal Practice 43:171-176, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11996394.
2001 Lidbetter, D.A., Krahwinkel, D.J. :
Gradual occlusion of the left branch of the portal vein with an ameroid constrictor for treatment of an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt Australian Veterinary Practitioner 31:120-124, 2001.
Niles, J.D., Williams, J.M., Cripps, P.J. :
Hemostatic profiles in 39 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts Veterinary Surgery 30:97-104, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11172465.
2000 Christiansen, J.S., Hottinger, H.A., Allen, L., Phillips, L., Aronson, L.R. :
Hepatic microvascular dysplasia in dogs: A retrospective study of 24 cases (1987-1995) Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 36:385-389, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10997512.
Gonzalo-Orden, J.M., Altonaga, J.R., Costilla, S., Cordero, J.M.G., Millan, L., Recio, M.A.O. :
Transvenous coil embolization of an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a dog Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 41:516-518, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11130791.
Hunt, G.B., Tisdall, P.L.C., Webb, A., MacPherson, G.C., Brain, P., Malik, R. :
Congenital portosystemic shunts in Toy and Miniature Poodles Australian Veterinary Journal 78:530-532, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10979507.
Mansfield, C.S., Jones, B.R. :
Clinical and clinicopathological features of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs in Ireland: 12 cases (1997-1999) Irish Veterinary Journal 53:356-+, 2000.
Tisdall, P.L.C., Hunt, G.B., Youmans, K.R., Malik, R. :
Neurological dysfunction in dogs following attenuation of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts Journal of Small Animal Practice 41:539-546, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11138852.
Wolschrijn, C.F., Mahapokai, W., Rothuizen, J., Meyer, H.P., van, Sluijs, F.J. :
Gauged attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts: Results in 160 dogs and 15 cats Veterinary Quarterly 22:94-98, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10789517.
1999 Allen, L., Stobie, D., Mauldin, G.N., Baer, K.E. :
Clinicopathologic features of dogs with hepatic microvascular dysplasia with and without portasystemic shunts: 42 cases (1991-1996) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214:218-220, 1999. Pubmed reference: 9926012.
Heldmann, E., Holt, D.E., Brockman, D.J., Brown, D.C., Perkowski, S.Z. :
Use of propofol to manage seizure activity after surgical treatment of portosystemic shunts Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:590-594, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10664958.
Hunt, G.B., Hughes, J. :
Outcomes after extrahepatic portosystemic shunt ligation in 49 dogs Australian Veterinary Journal 77:303-307, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10376100.
Kerr, M.G., van, Doorn, T. :
Mass screening of Irish wolfhound puppies for portosystemic shunts by the dynamic bile acid test Veterinary Record 144:693-696, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10420483.
Kleiter, M., Henninger, W., Hirt, R., Lorinson, D. :
Portosystemic shunt in a dog - computed tomography as a successful imaging method [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 86:64-70, 1999.
Meyer, H.P., Rothuizen, J., van, Sluijs, J., Voorhout, G., van, den, Brom, W.E. :
Progressive remission of portosystemic shunting in 23 dogs after partial closure of congenital portosystemic shunts Veterinary Record 144:333-337, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10230010.
Seguin, B., Tobias, K.M., Gavin, P.R., Tucker, R.L. :
Use of magnetic resonance angiography for diagnosis of portosystemic shunts in dogs Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 40:251-258, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10519303.
Sterczer, A., Meyer, H.P., Van, Sluijs, F.J., Rothuizen, J. :
Fast resolution of hypercortisolism in dogs with portosystemic encephalopathy after surgical shunt closure Research in Veterinary Science 66:63-67, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10088714.
Walker, M.C., Platt, S.R., Graham, J.P., Clemmons, R.M. :
Vertebral physitis with epiphyseal sequestration and a portosystemic shunt in a Pekingese dog Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:525-528, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10649596.
1998 Brockman, D.J., Brown, D.C., Holt, D.E. :
Unusual congenital portosystemic communication resulting from persistence of the extrahepatic umbilical vein Journal of Small Animal Practice 39:244-248, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9631361.
Griffon, D. :
Self assessment - what is your diagnosis - multiple portosystemic shunts, acquired or congenital Journal of Small Animal Practice 39:61 ff., 1998.
Harvey, J., Erb, H.N. :
Complete ligation of extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunts in nonencephalopathic dogs Veterinary Surgery 27:413-416, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9749510.
Hunt, G.B., Youmans, K.R., Sommerlad, S., Swinney, G., Nicholson, A., Melville, L., Hoffman, K.L., Allan, G.S. :
Surgical management of multiple congenital intrahepatic shunts in two dogs - case report Veterinary Surgery 27:262-267, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9605237.
Krahwinkel, D.J. :
Ameroid constrictors in portosystemic shunts Veterinary Surgery 27:364, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9662781.
Lamb, C.R. :
Ultrasonography of portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 28:725 ff., 1998.
Lamb, C.R., White, R.N. :
Morphology of congenital intrahepatic portacaval shunts in dogs and cats Veterinary Record 142:55-60, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9481840.
Schnapper, A., Wohlsein, P. :
Hepatoencephalic syndrome caused by a shunt of the portal venous system with the caudal vena cava and a left azygos vein in a Jack-Russel-terrier [German] Kleintierpraxis 43:25 ff., 1998.
Tobias, K.M.S., Seguin, B., Johnston, G. :
Surgical approaches to single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 20:593 ff., 1998.
Ubbink, G.J., Vandebroek, J., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Rothuizen, J. :
Cluster analysis of the genetic heterogeneity and disease distributions in purebred dog populations Veterinary Record 142:209-213, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9533291.
Ubbink, G.J., van de Broek, J., Meyer, H.P., Rothuizen, J. :
Prediction of inherited portosystemic shunts in Irish wolfhounds on the basis of pedigree analysis American Journal of Veterinary Research 59:1553-1556, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9858405.
Watson, P.J., Herrtage, M.E. :
Medical management of congenital portosystemic shunts in 27 dogs - a retrospective study Journal of Small Animal Practice 39:62-68, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9513885.
White, R.N., Burton, C.A., Mcevoy, F.J. :
Surgical treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in 45 dogs Veterinary Record 142:358-365, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9587198.
Youmans, K.R., Hunt, G.B. :
Cellophane banding for the gradual attenuation of single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in eleven dogs Australian Veterinary Journal 76:531-537, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9741718.
1997 Aronson, L.R., Gacad, R.C., Kaminskyruss, K., Gregory, C.R., Mullen, K.D. :
Endogenous benzodiazepine activity in the peripheral and portal blood of dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts Veterinary Surgery 26:189-194, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9150556.
Butterworth, J., Gregory, C.R., Aronson, L.R. :
Selective alterations of cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts Metabolic Brain Disease 12:299-306, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9475503.
Simpson, K.W., Meyer, D.J., Boswood, A., White, R.N., Maskell, I.E. :
Iron status and erythrocyte volume in dogs with congenital portosystemic vascular anomalies Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 11:14-19, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9132478.
Tobias, K.M.S., Besser, T.E. :
Evaluation of leukocytosis, bacteremia, and portal vein partial oxygen tension in clinically normal dogs and dogs with portosystemic shunts Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211:715 ff., 1997.
1996 Boothe, H.W., Howe, L.M., Edwards, J.F., Slater, M.R. :
Multiple extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs - 30 cases (1981-1993) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208:1849-1854, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8675473.
Lamb, C.R. :
Ultrasonographic diagnosis of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs - results of a prospective study Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 37:281-288, 1996.
Schwarz, G. :
Diagnosis and treatment of portosystemic shunts in the dog and cat [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 83:344-349, 1996.
Tisdall, P.L.C., Rothwell, T.L.W., Hunt, G.B., Malik, R. :
Glomerulopathy in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts Australian Veterinary Journal 73:52-54, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8660199.
Tobias, K.S., Barbee, D., Pluhar, E. :
Intraoperative use of subtraction angiography and an ultrasonic aspirator to improve identification and isolation of an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a dog Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208:888 ff., 1996.
1995 Bellenger, C.R., Hunt, G.B., Pearson, M.R.B., Malik, R., Tisdall, P.L.C. :
Diagnosis and treatment of portosystemic shunts Veterinary Quarterly 17:S4-S5, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7571307.
Bunch, S.E., Jordan, H.L., Sellon, R.K., Cullen, J.M., Smith, J.E. :
Characterization of iron status in young dogs with portosystemic shunt American Journal of Veterinary Research 56:853-858, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7574150.
Derycke, L., Simoens, P., Lauwers, H. :
Morphological basis of portosystemic shunts in the dog [Dutch] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 64:163-172, 1995.
Holt, D.E., Schelling, C.G., Saunders, H.M., Orsher, R.J. :
Correlation of ultrasonographic findings with surgical, portographic, and necropsy findings in dogs and cats with portosystemic shunts - 63 cases (1987-1993) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207:1190-1193, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7559068.
Hottinger, H.A., Walshaw, R., Hauptman, J.G. :
Long-term results of complete and partial ligation of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs Veterinary Surgery 24:331-336, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7571385.
Koblik, P.D., Hornof, W.J. :
Transcolonic sodium pertechnetate tc 99M scintigraphy for diagnosis of macrovascular portosystemic shunts in dogs, cats, and potbellied pigs - 176 cases (1988-1992) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207:729-733, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7657571.
Meyer, H.P., Rothuizen, J., Ubbink, G.J., Vandeningh, T.S.G.A.M. :
Increasing incidence of hereditary intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in Irish wolfhounds in the Netherlands (1984 to 1992) Veterinary Record 136:13-16, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7900255.
Tiemessen, I., Rothuizen, J., Voorhout, G. :
Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs Veterinary Quarterly 17:50-53, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7571279.
Tisdall, P.L.C., Hunt, G.B., Tsoukalas, G., Malik, R. :
Post-prandial serum bile acid concentrations and ammonia tolerance in Maltese dogs with and without hepatic vascular anomalies Australian Veterinary Journal 72:121-126, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7646375.
1994 Meyer, H.P., Rothuizen, J. :
Increased free cortisol in plasma of dogs with portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) Domestic Animal Endocrinology 11:317-322, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7828425.
Tisdall, P.L.C., Hunt, G.B., Bellenger, C.R., Malik, R. :
Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in Maltese and Australian Cattle Dogs Australian Veterinary Journal 71:174-178, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8080406.
1993 Martin, R.A. :
Congenital portosystemic shunts in the dog and cat. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 23:609-23, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8503163.
1990 Payne, J.T., Martin, R.A., Constantinescu, G.M. :
The anatomy and embryology of portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 5:76-82, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2196648.
1987 Grevel, V., Schmidt, S., Lettow, E., Suter, P.F., Schmidt, G.U. :
[The congenital portosystemic shunt in dogs and cats. I]. Tierarztl Prax 15:77-92, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3296314.
Grevel, V., Schmidt, S., Lettow, E., Suter, P.F., Schmidt, G.U. :
[Congenital portosystemic shunt in dogs and cats]. Tierarztl Prax 15:185-94, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3303440.
Martin, R.A., Freeman, L.E. :
Identification and surgical management of portosystemic shunts in the dog and cat. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 2:302-6, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3326094.
1985 Center, S.A., Baldwin, B.H., de Lahunta, A., Dietze, A.E., Tennant, B.C. :
Evaluation of serum bile acid concentrations for the diagnosis of portosystemic venous anomalies in the dog and cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:1090-4, 1985. Pubmed reference: 3997624.

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  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 24 Nov 2013