OMIA:000888-9796 : Sarcoid in Equus caballus (horse)

In other species: mountain zebra , ass (donkey) , mule

Categories: Neoplasm

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 181000 (trait)

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Species-specific name: Sarcoid disease

Inheritance: In Franches-Montagnes horses, Christen et al. (2013) reported that "variation in susceptibility to ES is best explained by a model incorporating polygenic variation", with heritability estimated as 21% on the underlying scale.

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Breed: Freiberger (Horse) (VBO_0000965).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. For breeds in which a likely causal variant has been documented, see the variant table below

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2022). OMIA:000888-9796: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Hollis, A.R. :
Management of equine sarcoids. Vet J 291:105926, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36334801. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2022.105926.
Jindra, C., Hainisch, E.K., Brandt, S. :
Immunotherapy of equine sarcoids-From early approaches to innovative vaccines. Vaccines (Basel) 11:769, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37112681. DOI: 10.3390/vaccines11040769.
Karalus, W., Subharat, S., Orbell, G., Vaatstra, B., Munday, J.S. :
Equine sarcoids: A clinicopathologic study of 49 cases, with mitotic count and clinical type predictive of recurrence. Vet Pathol :3009858231209408, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37937724. DOI: 10.1177/03009858231209408.
Monod, A., Koch, C., Jindra, C., Haspeslagh, M., Howald, D., Wenker, C., Gerber, V., Rottenberg, S., Hahn, K. :
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of BPV-1-transformed primary equine sarcoid fibroblasts. Viruses 15, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37766348. DOI: 10.3390/v15091942.
Offer, K.S., Dixon, C.E., Sutton, D.G.M. :
Treatment of equine sarcoids: a systematic review. Equine Vet J , 2023. Pubmed reference: 36917551. DOI: 10.1111/evj.13935.
Semik-Gurgul, E., Gurgul, A., Szmatoła, T. :
Transcriptome and methylome sequencing reveals altered long non-coding RNA genes expression and their aberrant DNA methylation in equine sarcoids. Funct Integr Genomics 23:268, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37552338. DOI: 10.1007/s10142-023-01200-2.
Semik-Gurgul, E., Szmatoła, T., Gurgul, A., Pawlina-Tyszko, K., Gałuszka, A., Pędziwiatr, R., Witkowski, M., Ząbek, T. :
Methylome and transcriptome data integration reveals aberrantly regulated genes in equine sarcoids. Biochimie , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37211255. DOI: 10.1016/j.biochi.2023.05.008.
2021 Cosandey, J., Hamza, E., Gerber, V., Ramseyer, A., Leeb, T., Jagannathan, V., Blaszczyk, K., Unger, L. :
Diagnostic and prognostic potential of eight whole blood microRNAs for equine sarcoid disease. PLoS One 16:e0261076, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34941894. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261076.
Martano, M., Altamura, G., Power, K., Liguori, P., Restucci, B., Borzacchiello, G., Maiolino, P. :
Beclin 1, LC3 and P62 Expression in Equine Sarcoids. Animals (Basel) 12:20, 2021. Pubmed reference: 35011126. DOI: 10.3390/ani12010020.
Ogłuszka, M., Starzyński, R.R., Pierzchała, M., Otrocka-Domagała, I., Raś, A. :
Equine sarcoids-causes, molecular changes, and clinicopathologic features: A review. Vet Pathol 58:472-82, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33461443. DOI: 10.1177/0300985820985114.
2020 Semik-Gurgul, E. :
Molecular approaches to equine sarcoids. Equine Vet J , 2020. Pubmed reference: 32654178. DOI: 10.1111/evj.13322.
2018 Koch, C., Martens, A., Hainisch, E.K., Schüpbach, G., Gerber, V., Haspeslagh, M. :
The clinical diagnosis of equine sarcoids - Part 1: Assessment of sensitivity and specificity using a multicentre case-based online examination. Vet J 242:77-82, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30195623. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2018.08.009.
2017 Lauper, M., Gerber, V., Ramseyer, A., Burger, D., Lüth, A., Koch, C., Dolf, G. :
Heritabilities of health traits in Swiss Warmblood horses. Equine Vet J 49:15-18, 2017. Pubmed reference: 26538098. DOI: 10.1111/evj.12537.
2016 Berruex, F., Gerber, V., Wohlfender, F.D., Burger, D., Koch, C. :
Clinical course of sarcoids in 61 Franches-Montagnes horses over a 5-7 year period. Vet Q 36:189-196, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27327513. DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2016.1204483.
Semik, E., Gurgul, A., Ząbek, T., Ropka-Molik, K., Koch, C., Mählmann, K., Bugno-Poniewierska, M. :
Transcriptome analysis of equine sarcoids. Vet Comp Oncol , 2016. Pubmed reference: 27779365. DOI: 10.1111/vco.12279.
Staiger, E.A., Tseng, C.T., Miller, D., Cassano, J.M., Nasir, L., Garrick, D., Brooks, S.A., Antczak, D.F. :
Host genetic influence on papillomavirus-induced tumors in the horse. Int J Cancer 139:784-92, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27037728. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30120.
Wobeser, B.K. :
Making the Diagnosis: Equine Sarcoid. Vet Pathol , 2016. Pubmed reference: 27543450. DOI: 10.1177/0300985816664793.
2013 Altamura, G., Corteggio, A., Nasir, L., Yuan, Z.Q., Roperto, F., Borzacchiello, G. :
Analysis of Activated Platelet-Derived Growth Factor β Receptor and Ras-MAP Kinase Pathway in Equine Sarcoid Fibroblasts. Biomed Res Int 2013:283985, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23936786. DOI: 10.1155/2013/283985.
Bergvall, K.E. :
Sarcoids. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 29:657-71, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24267682. DOI: 10.1016/j.cveq.2013.09.002.
Christen, G., Gerber, V., Dolf, G., Burger, D., Koch, C. :
Inheritance of equine sarcoid disease in Franches-Montagnes horses. Vet J , 2013. Pubmed reference: 24152383. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09.053.
Lunardi, M., de Alcântara, B.K., Otonel, R.A., Rodrigues, W.B., Alfieri, A.F., Alfieri, A.A. :
Bovine papillomavirus type 13 DNA in equine sarcoids. J Clin Microbiol 51:2167-71, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23637294. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00371-13.
Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M., Grinwis, G.C. :
Equine sarcoidosis: clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 22 cases. Vet Dermatol 24:218-24.e48, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23331701. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2012.01108.x.
Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M., Grinwis, G.C. :
Equine sarcoidosis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 29:615-27, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24267679. DOI: 10.1016/j.cveq.2013.08.004.
Wilson, A.D., Armstrong, E.L., Gofton, R.G., Mason, J., De Toit, N., Day, M.J. :
Characterisation of early and late bovine papillomavirus protein expression in equine sarcoids. Vet Microbiol 162:369-80, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23123175. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.010.
2012 Altamura, G., Strazzullo, M., Corteggio, A., Francioso, R., Roperto, F., D'Esposito, M., Borzacchiello, G. :
O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in equine sarcoids: molecular and epigenetic analysis. BMC Vet Res 8:218, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23140380. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-218.
Finlay, M., Yuan, Z., Morgan, I.M., Campo, S.M., Nasir, L. :
Equine sarcoids: Bovine Papillomavirus type 1 transformed fibroblasts are sensitive to cisplatin and UVB induced apoptosis and show aberrant expression of p53. Vet Res 43:81, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23210796. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-81.
Jandova, V., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Dolf, G., Janda, J., Roosje, P., Marti, E., Koch, C., Gerber, V., Swinburne, J. :
Whole genome scan identifies several chromosomal regions linked to equine sarcoids. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 154:19-25, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22222899. DOI: 10.1024/0036-7281/a000288.
Oliveira-Filho, J.P., Monteiro, L.N., Delfiol, D.J., Sequeira, J.L., Amorim, R.M., Fabris, V.E., Del Piero, F., Borges, A.S. :
Mycobacterium DNA detection in liver and skin of a horse with generalized sarcoidosis. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:596-600, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22529133. DOI: 10.1177/1040638712440996.
Potocki, L., Lewinska, A., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Bugno-Poniewierska, M., Koch, C., Mählmann, K., Janda, J., Wnuk, M. :
DNA hypomethylation and oxidative stress-mediated increase in genomic instability in equine sarcoid-derived fibroblasts. Biochimie 94:2013-24, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22659572. DOI: 10.1016/j.biochi.2012.05.026.
Scagliarini, A., Bettini, G., Savini, F., Spadari, A., Sonvico, F., Balducci, A.G., Calbucci, S., Colombo, G. :
Treatment of equine sarcoids. Vet Rec 171:330, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23023496. DOI: 10.1136/vr.e6506.
Strazzullo, M., Corteggio, A., Altamura, G., Francioso, R., Roperto, F., D'Esposito, M., Borzacchiello, G. :
Molecular and epigenetic analysis of the fragile histidine triad tumour suppressor gene in equine sarcoids. BMC Vet Res 8:30, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22424615. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-30.
Wobeser, B.K., Hill, J.E., Jackson, M.L., Kidney, B.A., Mayer, M.N., Townsend, H.G., Allen, A.L. :
Localization of Bovine papillomavirus in equine sarcoids and inflammatory skin conditions of horses using laser microdissection and two forms of DNA amplification. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:32-41, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22362933. DOI: 10.1177/1040638711425952.
2010 Wobeser, B.K., Davies, J.L., Hill, J.E., Jackson, M.L., Kidney, B.A., Mayer, M.N., Townsend, H.G., Allen, A.L. :
Epidemiology of equine sarcoids in horses in western Canada. Can Vet J 51:1103-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21197201.
2009 Reijererk, E.P., Veldhuis Kroeze, E.J., Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M. :
Equine sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 26:20-3, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19960784.
2008 Reijerkerk, E.P., Veldhuis Kroeze, E.J., Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. :
Generalized sarcoidosis in two horses. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 133:654-61, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18788186.
2007 Mele, M., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Gaillard, C., Jallon, L., Burger, D. :
[Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old horses of the Freiberger breed]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:151-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17461390.
Mele, M., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Gaillard, C., Jallon, L., Burger, D. :
Erhebung der Prävalenz von Erbkrankheiten bei dreijährigen Pferden der Freiberger-Rasse. [Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old franches-montagnes horses] Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:151-159, 2007.
Studer, S., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Brehm, W., Gaillard, C., Lüth, A., Burger, D. :
Erhebung der Prävalenz von Erbkrankheiten bei dreijährigen Schweizer Warmblutpferden [Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old Swiss Warmblood horses] Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:161-171, 2007.
Studer, S., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Brehm, W., Gaillard, C., Lüth, A., Burger, D. :
[Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old Swiss Warmblood horses]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:161-71, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17461391.
2006 Bogaert, L., Van Poucke, M., De Baere, C., Peelman, L., Gasthuys, F., Martens, A. :
Selection of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids. BMC Biotechnol 6:24, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16643647. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-6-24.
2005 Hallamaa, RE., Saario, E., Tallberg, T. :
Macroscopical and histopathological changes in regressing primary and recurrent equine sarcoids during active specific bio-immunotherapy. In Vivo 19:761-7, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15999546.
Nixon, C., Chambers, G., Ellsmore, V., Campo, MS., Burr, P., Argyle, DJ., Reid, SW., Nasir, L. :
Expression of cell cycle associated proteins cyclin A, CDK-2, p27kip1 and p53 in equine sarcoids. Cancer Lett 221:237-45, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15808409. DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2004.08.039.
2004 Komáromy, A.M., Andrew, S.E., Brooks, D.E., Detrisac, C.J., Gelatt, K.N. :
Periocular sarcoid in a horse. Vet Ophthalmol 7:141-6, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15091319. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2004.04027.x.
2003 Chambers, G., Ellsmore, V.A., O'Brien, P.M., Reid, S.W., Love, S., Campo, M.S., Nasir, L. :
Association of bovine papillomavirus with the equine sarcoid Journal of General Virology 84:1055-62, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12692268.
2002 Ding, Q., Bramble, L., Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, V., Bell, T., Meek, K. :
DNA-PKcs mutations in dogs and horses: allele frequency and association with neoplasia Gene 283:263-269, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11867233.
Spoormakers, T.J.P., Klein, W.R., van, Weeren, P.R. :
Treatment of equine sarcoids with cisplatin in arachid oil: a useable alternative? Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 127:350-354, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12073779.
2001 Carr, E.A., Theon, A.P., Madewell, B.R., Griffey, S.M., Hitchcock, M.E. :
Bovine papillomavirus DNA in neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues obtained from horses with and without sarcoids in the western United States American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:741-744, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11341396.
Carr, E.A., Theon, A.P., Madewell, B.R., Hitchcock, M.E., Schlegel, R., Schiller, J.T. :
Expression of a transforming gene (E5) of bovine papillomavirus in sarcoids obtained from horses American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:1212-1217, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11497440.
Knottenbelt, D.C., Matthews, J.B. :
A positive step forwards in the diagnosis of equine sarcoid. Vet J 161:224-6, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11352479. DOI: 10.1053/tvjl.2000.0555.
Martens, A., De, Moor, A., Vlaminck, L., Pille, F., Steenhaut, M. :
Evaluation of excision, cryosurgery and local BCG vaccination for the treatment of equine sarcoids Veterinary Record 149:665-669, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11765322.
Martens, A., De, Moor, A., Demeulemeester, J., Peelman, L. :
Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the surgical margins of equine sarcoids for bovine papilloma virus DNA Veterinary Surgery 30:460-467, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11555822.
Tamzali, Y., Teissie, J., Rols, M.P. :
Cutaneous tumor treatment by electrochemotherapy: preliminary clinical results in horse sarcoids Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 152:605-+, 2001.
2000 Knottenbelt, D.C., Kelly, D.F. :
The diagnosis and treatment of periorbital sarcoid in the horse: 445 cases from 1974 to 1999. Vet Ophthalmol 3:169-191, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11397301.
Martens, A., De, Moor, A., Demeulemeester, J., Ducatelle, R. :
Histopathological characteristics of five clinical types of equine sarcoid Research in Veterinary Science 69:295-300, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11124103. DOI: 10.1053/rvsc.2000.0432.
Simhofer, H., Kleiter, M. :
Equine sarcoid: surgical excision and peritumoral infiltration using cisplatin in oily emulsion; a case report [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 87:65-69, 2000.
1999 Piscopo, S.E. :
The complexities of sarcoid tumors Equine Practice 21:14-18, 1999.
1998 Carstanjen, B., Lepage, O.M. :
Equine sarcoid (Part II) - treatment regimes and prognosis [German] Praktische Tierarzt 79:730 ff., 1998.
Goodrich, L., Gerber, H., Marti, E., Antczak, D.F. :
Equine sarcoids. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 14:607-23, vii, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9891727.
Lepage, M.F., Carstanjen, B., Vontscharner, C. :
Equine sarcoid (Part I) - causes, diagnosis, differential diagnosis [German] Praktische Tierarzt 79:627 ff., 1998.
1997 Bohmer, N., Grimmelmann, E., Schmidt, C. :
Cryosurgical therapy of an equine sarcoid - case report [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:392 ff., 1997.
Carstanjen, B., Jordan, P., Lepage, O.M. :
Carbon dioxide laser as a surgical instrument for sarcoid therapy--a retrospective study on 60 cases. Can Vet J 38:773-6, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9426943.
Dull, U., Wernitz, U., Onderka, J., Andres, F. :
Sarkoidosis - a rare autoimmune disease in a horse [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:486 ff., 1997.
Studer, U., Marti, E., Stornetta, D., Lazary, S., Gerber, H. :
Treatment of equine sarcoid with an unspecific immunostimulant - remarks on the epidemiology and the spontaneous regression of sarcoids [German] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 139:385-391, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9411736.
1996 Brandt, K., Ohnesorge, B., Dopfer, D., Deegen, E. :
Equine sarcoids - occurrence and treatment [German] Pferdeheilkunde 12:739 ff., 1996.
Bucher, K., Szalai, G., Marti, E., Griotwenk, M.E., Lazary, S. :
Tumour suppressor gene P53 in the horse - identification, cloning, sequencing and a possible role in the pathogenesis of equine sarcoid Research in Veterinary Science 61:114-119, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8880979.
Martens, A., Demoor, A. :
Equine sarcoid .1. clinical types, prevalence, epidemiology, aetiology and pathogenesis [Review] [Dutch] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 65:10-17, 1996.
Martens, A., Demoor, A. :
Equine sarcoid .3. chemotherapy, homeopathy and biologic therapy [Review] [Dutch] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 65:25-30, 1996.
Martens, A., Demoor, A. :
Equine sarcoid .2. surgical excision, lasertherapy, hyperthermia, cryo- and radiotherapy [Review] [Dutch] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 65:18-24, 1996.
1995 Brostrom, H. :
A clinical and epidemiological study in relation to equine leucocyte antigens (ELA) Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 36:223-236, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7484549.
Teifke, J.P. :
Morphological and Molecular Biological Studies Concerning the Etiology of Equine Sarcoids Pferdeheilkunde 11:62, 1995.
1994 Lazary, S., Marti, M., Szalai, G., Gaillard, C., Gerber, H. :
Studies on the frequency and associations of equine leucocyte antigens in sarcoid and summer dermatitis Animal Genetics 25:75-80, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7943987.
Mcconaghy, F.F., Davis, R.E., Hodgson, D.R. :
Equine Sarcoid - A Persistent Therapeutic Challenge Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 16:1022-1031, 1994.
Otten, N., Marti, E., Soderstrom, C., Amtmann, E., Burger, D., Gerber, H., Lazary, S. :
Experimental treatment of equine sarcoid using a xanthate compound and recombinant human tumour necrosis factor alpha Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe A - Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 41:757-765, 1994.
1993 Hardy, J. :
Factors associated with the risk of developing sarcoid tumours in horses. Equine Vet J 25:169, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8467780.
Marti, E., Lazary, S., Antczak, D.F., Gerber, H. :
Report of the 1st International Workshop on Equine Sarcoid Equine Veterinary Journal 25:397-407, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8223371.
Otten, N., Vontscharner, C., Lazary, S., Antczak, D.F., Gerber, H. :
DNA of Bovine Papillomavirus Type-1 and Type-2 in Equine Sarcoids - PCR Detection and Direct Sequencing Archives of Virology 132:121-131, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8394687.
1992 Mohammed, H.O., Rebhun, W.C., Antczak, D.F. :
Factors Associated with the Risk of Developing Sarcoid Tumours in Horses Equine Veterinary Journal 24:165-168, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1606927.
1991 Angelos, J.A., Marti, E., Lazary, S., Carmichael, L.E. :
Characterization of BPV-Like DNA in Equine Sarcoids Archives of Virology 119:95-109, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1650553.
Kinnunen, R., Saario, E., Tallberg, T. :
Equine sarcoid treated by bioimmunotherapy Finnish Veterinary Journal 4:197-200, 1991.
1989 Gerber, H. :
The genetic basis of some equine diseases Equine Veterinary Journal 21:244-248, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2670541.
1988 Angelos, J., Oppenheim, Y., Rebhun, W., Mohammed, H., Antczak, D.F. :
Evaluation of breed as a risk factor for sarcoid and uveitis in horses Animal Genetics 19:417-425, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3232865.
Broström, H., Fahlbrink, E., Dubath, M.L., Lazary, S. :
Association between equine leucocyte antigens (ELA) and equine sarcoid tumors in the population of Swedish halfbreds and some of their families. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 19:215-23, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3252614.
Gerber, H., Powell, D.G., Dubath, M.L., Lazary, S. :
Association between predisposition to equine sarcoid and MHC in multiple-case families :272-277, 1988.
1986 Meredith, D., Elser, A.H., Wolf, B., Soma, L.R., Donawick, W.J., Lazary, S. :
Equine leukocyte antigens: relationships with sarcoid tumors and laminitis in two pure breeds. Immunogenetics 23:221-5, 1986. Pubmed reference: 3699852.
1985 Gorman, N.T. :
Equine sarcoid--time for optimism. Equine Vet J 17:412-4, 1985. Pubmed reference: 4076153.
Lazary, S., Gerber, H., Glatt, P.A., Straub, R. :
Equine leucocyte antigens (ELA) in sarcoid-affected horses Equine Veterinary Journal 17:283-286, 1985. Pubmed reference: 3865769.
1980 Crow, S.E. :
Equine sarcoids. J Am Vet Med Assoc 176:388-90, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7358556.
1978 Baker, J.R., Neal, P.A., Wyn-Jones, G. :
Equine sarcoids. Vet Rec 102:179-80, 1978. Pubmed reference: 644860.
Robinson, M., Haywood, S. :
Equine sarcoids. Vet Rec 102:248, 1978. Pubmed reference: 644821.
1975 Walker, D. :
Letter: Defining the equine sarcoid. Vet Rec 96:494, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1136123.
1973 Strafuss, A.C., Smith, J.E., Dennis, S.M., Anthony, H.D. :
Sarcoid in horses. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 68:1246-7, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4491121.
1969 Voss, J.L. :
Transmission of equine sarcoid. Am J Vet Res 30:183-91, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5392976.
1968 James, V.S. :
A family tendency to equine sarcoid. South-Western Veterinarian 21:235-236, 1968.
Ragland, W.L., Spencer, G.R. :
Attempts to relate bovine papilloma virus to the cause of equine sarcoid: immunity to bovine papilloma virus. Am J Vet Res 29:1363-6, 1968. Pubmed reference: 4298397.
1966 Ragland, W.L., Keown, G.H., Gorham, J.R. :
An epizootic of equine sarcoid. Nature 210:1399, 1966. Pubmed reference: 6007121.

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