OMIA:001061-9925 : Wattles in Capra hircus (goat)

In other species: pig , sheep

Categories: Craniofacial phene

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal dominant

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: no

Cross-species summary: Appendages suspended from the head. They are fusiform (spindle shaped), fleshy masses covered with normal skin and suspended from the mandibular area.

Species-specific name: Also known as appendices colli, cervical chondrocutaneous remnants, and congenital cartilaginous rest of neck

Inheritance: The pedigree analysis conducted by Reber et al. (2015) was consistent with earlier data supporting autosomal dominant inheritance.

Mapping: By conducting a GWAS on 174 goats with wattles and 167 without wattles, from 9 different Swiss breeds, each genotyped with the Illumina’s goat SNP50 BeadChip (comprising 53,346 SNPs), Reber et al. (2015) mapped this trait to chromosome "CHIR 10 at 26 397 973 bp and 26 526 103 bp (goat genome assembly CHIR_1.0)", implicating two comparative positional candidate genes (FMN1 and GREM1 which "are known to play a role during limb outgrowth and limb development of mammals and thus represent good functional candidate genes for a developmental phenotype like wattles." Zhang et al. (2022): "Thirty-eight goats from two Southwest Chinese breeds were studied to elucidate the genetic basis of wattle phenotype in goat. Their genomes were sequenced for wide-genome selective sweep analysis (WGSA) and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). ... This study identified a series of genes related to chondroplasia by GWAS and WGSA and presented the possibility that wattle inheritance may be influenced by multiple genes." Xu et al. (2022) "collected samples of 189 dairy goats, including 94 with wattles and 95 without wattles, from four different farms and multiple dairy goat breeds. The samples were genotyped with the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Goat 70 K SNP chip. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in wattles have identified associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosome 10."

Molecular basis: Whole-genome sequencing of a trio of two heterozygous wattled parents and a non-wattled offspring by Reber et al. (2015) failed to reveal any variant in the candidate region of chromosome 10 that segregated completely with the trait.

Associated genes:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
GREM1 gremlin 1, DAN family BMP antagonist Capra hircus 10 NC_030817.1 (73061690..73077023) GREM1 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene
FMN1 formin 1 Capra hircus 10 NC_030817.1 (73581740..73144337) FMN1 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001061-9925: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Bionda, A., Lopreiato, V., Amato, A., Cortellari, M., Cavallo, C., Chiofalo, V., Crepaldi, P., Liotta, L. :
Phenotypic and genomgic characterization of the Comune di Sicilia goat: Towards the conservation of an endangered local breed. Animals (Basel) 13:3207, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37893931. DOI: 10.3390/ani13203207.
2022 Xu, X., Guo, Y., Li, M., Duan, Q., Li, F., Wang, J., Liu, N., Huzheng, J., Wang, X., An, X. :
Genome-wide association study for wattles trait in the dairy goat breed. Anim Biotechnol 34:3371-3377, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36441629. DOI: 10.1080/10495398.2022.2149545.
Zhang, W.Y., Yuan, Y., Zhang, H.Y., He, Y.M., Liu, C.L., Xu, L., Yang, B.G., Ren, H.X., Wang, G.F., E, G.X. :
Genetic basis investigation of wattle phenotype in goat using genome-wide sequence data. Anim Genet 53:700-705, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35748186. DOI: 10.1111/age.13235.
2021 Ofori, S.A., Hagan, J.K. :
Characteristics and trait preferences of West African Dwarf goat keepers in Ghana. Trop Anim Health Prod 53:356, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34106330. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02781-5.
Saleh, A.A., Rashad, A.M.A., Hassanine, N.N.A.M., Sharaby, M.A., Zhao, Y. :
Evaluation of morphological traits and physiological variables of several Chinese goat breeds and their crosses. Trop Anim Health Prod 53:74, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33400045. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-020-02549-3.
2015 Reber, I., Keller, I., Becker, D., Flury, C., Welle, M., Drögemüller, C. :
Wattles in goats are associated with the FMN1/GREM1 region on chromosome 10. Anim Genet 46:316-20, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25736034. DOI: 10.1111/age.12279.
1994 Imagawa, T., Kon, Y., Kitagawa, H., Hashimoto, Y., Uehara, M., Sugimura, M. :
Anatomical and histological re-examination of Appendices colli in the goat. Ann Anat 176:175-9, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8210054. DOI: 10.1016/s0940-9602(11)80447-4.
1993 Margetin, M. :
Visible Genetic Profile and Polymorphic Systems in Goats Raised in Slovakia Zivocisna Vyroba 38:491-501, 1993.
1989 Millar, P. :
The principal loci with visible effects in goats. Proceedings of COGNOSAG Workshop Gontard, France, Paris:41-52, 1989.
1987 Lauvergne, J.J., Renieri, C., Audiot, A. :
Estimating erosion of phenotypic variation in a French goat population Journal of Heredity 78:307-314, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3680926.
1967 Ricordeau, G., Bouillon, J., Lajous, A. :
Hérédité des pendeloques en race Saanen. Différences de fécondité entre les génotypes avec et sans pendeloques. [Inheritance of wattles in Saanen goats. Differences in fecundity between genotypes with and without wattles.] Annales de Zootechnie 16:263-270, 1967.
1928 Asdell, S.A., Buchanan Smith, A.D. :
Inheritance of color, beard, tassels and horns in the goat. Journal of Heredity 19:425-430, 1928.
1926 Lush, J.L. :
Inheritance of horns, wattles and colour in grade Toggenburg goats Journal of Heredity 17:73-90, 1926.
1924 Kronacher, C., Ogrizek, A. :
Vererbungsversuche und beobachtungen an schweinen. Zeitschrift für Induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre 34:29–33/109–110, 1924.
1922 Heer, A. :
Zur Entwicklung und Morphologie der Appendices colli (Glöckchen, Berlocken) der Ziege. 10. Beitrag zum Bau und zur Entwicklung von Hautorganen bei Säugetieren Inaugural- Dissertation , 1922.
1921 Siemens, H.W. :
Zur kenntnis der sogenannten ohr- und halsanhänge (branchiogene Knorpelnaevi). Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis 132:186-205, 1921.
1895 Mouquet, M. :
Sur les pendeloques. Bulletin et Memoires de la Societe Centrale de Medicine 49:241-244, 1895.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 21 Mar 2015
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 24 Mar 2015
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 20 Aug 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 28 Nov 2022
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 05 Nov 2023