OMIA 001538-9796 : Racing distance in Equus caballus

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: no

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
MSTN myostatin Equus caballus 18 NC_009161.3 (66610122..66605150) MSTN Homologene, Ensembl, NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective.

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Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
Racing distance MSTN regulatory EquCab2 18 g.66493737C>T 2010 20932346 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2018 Farries, G., McGettigan, P.A., Gough, K.F., McGivney, B.A., MacHugh, D.E., Katz, L.M., Hill, E.W. :
Genetic contributions to precocity traits in racing Thoroughbreds. Anim Genet 49:193-204, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29230835. DOI: 10.1111/age.12622.
Padilha, F.G.F., El-Jaick, K.B., de Castro, L., Moreira, A.D.S., Ferreira, A.M.R. :
MSTN gene in Brazilian sport horses. J Equine Sci 29:21-24, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29593445. DOI: 10.1294/jes.29.21.
2017 Okuda, Y., Moe, H.H., Moe, K.K., Shimizu, Y., Nishioka, K., Shimogiri, T., Mannen, H., Kanemaki, M., Kunieda, T. :
Genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the genes associated with body composition and locomotion traits in Myanmar native horses. Anim Sci J 88:1198-1203, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27925399. DOI: 10.1111/asj.12756.
Rooney, M.F., Porter, R.K., Katz, L.M., Hill, E.W. :
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and associations with myostatin genotypes in the Thoroughbred horse. PLoS One 12:e0186247, 2017. Pubmed reference: 29190290. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186247.
Serpa, P.B., Garbade, P., Natalini, C.C., Pires, A.R., Tisotti, T.M. :
High-resolution melting analysis for detection of a single-nucleotide polymorphism and the genotype of the myostatin gene in warmblood horses. Am J Vet Res 78:63-68, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28029290. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.78.1.63.
Tozaki, T., Kikuchi, M., Kakoi, H., Hirota, K.I., Nagata, S.I. :
A genome-wide association study for body weight in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses clarifies candidate regions on chromosomes 3, 9, 15, and 18. J Equine Sci 28:127-134, 2017. Pubmed reference: 29270069. DOI: 10.1294/jes.28.127.
2016 François, L., Jäderkvist Fegraeus, K., Eriksson, S., Andersson, L.S., Tesfayonas, Y.G., Viluma, A., Imsland, F., Buys, N., Mikko, S., Lindgren, G., Velie, B.D. :
Conformation Traits and Gaits in the Icelandic Horse are Associated with Genetic Variants in Myostatin (MSTN). J Hered 107:431-7, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27208149. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esw031.
Negro Rama, S., Valera, M., Membrillo, A., Gómez, M.D., Solé, M., Menendez-Buxadera, A., Anaya, G., Molina, A. :
Quantitative analysis of short- and long-distance racing performance in young and adult horses and association analysis with functional candidate genes in Spanish Trotter horses. J Anim Breed Genet 133:347-56, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26991374. DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12208.
2015 Shin, D.H., Lee, J.W., Park, J.E., Choi, I.Y., Oh, H.S., Kim, H.J., Kim, H. :
Multiple Genes Related to Muscle Identified through a Joint Analysis of a Two-stage Genome-wide Association Study for Racing Performance of 1,156 Thoroughbreds. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 28:771-81, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25925054. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.14.0008.
van den Hoven, R., Gür, E., Schlamanig, M., Hofer, M., Onmaz, A.C., Steinborn, R. :
Putative regulation mechanism for the MSTN gene by a CpG island generated by the SINE marker Ins227bp. BMC Vet Res 11:138, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26100061. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-015-0428-3.
2014 Dall'Olio, S., Scotti, E., Fontanesi, L., Tassinari, M. :
Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds. Vet Ital 50:193-7, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25273961. DOI: 10.12834/VetIt.61.178.3.
Petersen, J.L., Valberg, S.J., Mickelson, J.R., McCue, M.E. :
Haplotype diversity in the equine myostatin gene with focus on variants associated with race distance propensity and muscle fiber type proportions. Anim Genet 45:827-35, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25160752. DOI: 10.1111/age.12205.
2013 Petersen, J.L., Mickelson, J.R., Rendahl, A.K., Valberg, S.J., Andersson, L.S., Axelsson, J., Bailey, E., Bannasch, D., Binns, M.M., Borges, A.S., Brama, P., da Câmara Machado, A., Capomaccio, S., Cappelli, K., Cothran, E.G., Distl, O., Fox-Clipsham, L., Graves, K.T., Guérin, G., Haase, B., Hasegawa, T., Hemmann, K., Hill, E.W., Leeb, T., Lindgren, G., Lohi, H., Lopes, M.S., McGivney, B.A., Mikko, S., Orr, N., Penedo, M.C., Piercy, R.J., Raekallio, M., Rieder, S., Røed, K.H., Swinburne, J., Tozaki, T., Vaudin, M., Wade, C.M., McCue, M.E. :
Genome-wide analysis reveals selection for important traits in domestic horse breeds. PLoS Genet 9:e1003211, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23349635. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003211.
2012 Bower, M.A., McGivney, B.A., Campana, M.G., Gu, J., Andersson, L.S., Barrett, E., Davis, C.R., Mikko, S., Stock, F., Voronkova, V., Bradley, D.G., Fahey, A.G., Lindgren, G., MacHugh, D.E., Sulimova, G., Hill, E.W. :
The genetic origin and history of speed in the Thoroughbred racehorse. Nat Commun 3:643, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22273681. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1644.
Hill, E.W., Fonseca, R.G., McGivney, B.A., Gu, J., MacHugh, D.E., Katz, L.M. :
MSTN genotype (g.66493737C/T) association with speed indices in Thoroughbred racehorses. J Appl Physiol 112:86-90, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22016373. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00793.2011.
Hill, E.W., Ryan, D.P., MacHugh, D.E. :
Horses for courses: a DNA-based test for race distance aptitude in thoroughbred racehorses. Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq 6:203-8, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22845060.
McGivney, B.A., Browne, J.A., Fonseca, R.G., Katz, L.M., Machugh, D.E., Whiston, R., Hill, E.W. :
MSTN genotypes in Thoroughbred horses influence skeletal muscle gene expression and racetrack performance. Anim Genet 43:810-2, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22497477. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2012.02329.x.
Tozaki, T., Hill, E.W., Hirota, K., Kakoi, H., Gawahara, H., Miyake, T., Sugita, S., Hasegawa, T., Ishida, N., Nakano, Y., Kurosawa, M. :
A cohort study of racing performance in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses using genome information on ECA18. Anim Genet 43:42-52, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22221024. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02201.x.
2010 Binns, MM., Boehler, DA., Lambert, DH. :
Identification of the myostatin locus (MSTN) as having a major effect on optimum racing distance in the Thoroughbred horse in the USA. Anim Genet 41 Suppl 2:154-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21070290. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02126.x.
Hill, E.W., Gu, J., Eivers, S.S., Fonseca, R.G., McGivney, B.A., Govindarajan, P., Orr, N., Katz, L.M., MacHugh, D.E., MacHugh, D. :
A sequence polymorphism in MSTN predicts sprinting ability and racing stamina in thoroughbred horses. PLoS One 5:e8645, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20098749. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008645.
Hill, E.W., McGivney, B.A., Gu, J., Whiston, R., Machugh, D.E. :
A genome-wide SNP-association study confirms a sequence variant (g.66493737C>T) in the equine myostatin (MSTN) gene as the most powerful predictor of optimum racing distance for Thoroughbred racehorses. BMC Genomics 11:552, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20932346. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-552.
Tozaki, T., Miyake, T., Kakoi, H., Gawahara, H., Sugita, S., Hasegawa, T., Ishida, N., Hirota, K., Nakano, Y. :
A genome-wide association study for racing performances in Thoroughbreds clarifies a candidate region near the MSTN gene. Anim Genet 41 Suppl 2:28-35, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21070273. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02095.x.
2009 Gu, J., Orr, N., Park, S.D., Katz, L.M., Sulimova, G., MacHugh, D.E., Hill, E.W. :
A genome scan for positive selection in thoroughbred horses. PLoS One 4:e5767, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19503617. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005767.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 01 Dec 2010
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 29 Sep 2015