OMIA:001714-9615 : Cleft lip and palate in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: taurine cattle

Categories: Craniofacial phene

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Clinical features: A cleft lip is a type of orofacial cleft that can manifest as a facial deformity due to incomplete fusion of the lip, incisive bone and/or the alveolar process (Pankowski et al., 2018) Cleft palates are orofacial clefts that involve a midline defect of the hard and/or soft palate, resulting in a hole between the oral and nasal cavity (Pankowski et al., 2018). These clefts occur during embryonic development as a result of incomplete fusion of oral or facial tissues (Roman et al., 2019). Cleft lips and palates are generally recognised in neonatal puppies via visual examination or observation of sneezing, coughing, gagging or drainage of milk from the nostrils during feeding (Roman et al., 2019). Cleft palates generally have far more clinical significance than cleft lips. While most cleft lips only present cosmetic issues, large cleft lips and cleft palates present severe feeding issues in puppies and can lead to failure to grow, chronic sinus infections and aspiration pneumonia (Roman et al., 2019).

IT thanks DVM student Mathilda Harrop, who provided the basis of this contribution in May 2023.

Breeds: Boxer (Dog) (VBO_0200210), Pyrenean Mountain Dog (Dog) (VBO_0201113), Staffordshire Bull Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201296).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. For breeds in which a likely causal variant has been documented, see the variant table below

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001714-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Ruszkowski, J.J., Nowacka-Woszuk, J., Nowak, T., Rozynek, J., Serwanska-Leja, K., Gogulski, M., Kolodziejski, P., Switonski, M., Zdun, M., Szczerbal, I. :
Cleft lip and palate in four full-sib puppies from a single litter of Staffordshire Bull Terrier dogs: An anatomical and genetic study. Animals (Basel) 13, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37685013. DOI: 10.3390/ani13172749.
2022 Goldschmidt, S., Hoyer, N. :
Management of dental and oral developmental conditions in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 52:139-158, 2022. Pubmed reference: 34838248. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2021.09.002.
2019 Roman, N., Carney, P.C., Fiani, N., Peralta, S. :
Incidence patterns of orofacial clefts in purebred dogs. PLoS One 14:e0224574, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31682628. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224574.
2018 Pankowski, F., Paśko, S., Max, A., Szal, B., Dzierzęcka, M., Gruszczyńska, J., Szaro, P., Gołębiowski, M., Bartyzel, B.J. :
Computed tomographic evaluation of cleft palate in one-day-old puppies. BMC Vet Res 14:316, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30342508. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-018-1642-6.
2017 Moura, E., Pimpão, C.T. :
A numerical classification system for cleft lip and palate in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 58:610-614, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28887848. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12730.
Peralta, S., Fiani, N., Kan-Rohrer, K.H., Verstraete, F.J.M. :
Morphological evaluation of clefts of the lip, palate, or both in dogs. Am J Vet Res 78:926-933, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28738009. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.78.8.926.
2012 Moura, E., Cirio, S.M., Pimpão, C.T. :
Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in boxer dogs: evidence of monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 49:759-60, 2012. Pubmed reference: 21806339. DOI: 10.1597/11-110.
2009 Kemp, C., Thiele, H., Dankof, A., Schmidt, G., Lauster, C., Fernahl, G., Lauster, R. :
Cleft lip and/or palate with monogenic autosomal recessive transmission in Pyrenees shepherd dogs. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 46:81-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19115787. DOI: 10.1597/06-229.1.
1972 Edmonds, L., Stewart, R.W., Selby, L. :
Cleft lip and palate in dogs (Boxer breed): a preliminary report Carnivore Genetics Newsletter 9:204-209, 1972.
1971 Sherwood, B.F., Vakilzadeh, J., Lemay, J.C. :
Observations on the pathology in a colony of cleft palate and cleft lip dogs. Cleft Palate J 8:56-60, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5278761.
1968 Jurkiewicz, M.J., Bryant, D.L. :
Cleft lip and palate in dogs: a progress report. Cleft Palate J 5:30-6, 1968. Pubmed reference: 4383842.
1965 Jurkiewicz, M.J. :
A genetic study of cleft lip and palate in dogs. Surg Forum 16:472-3, 1965. Pubmed reference: 5835234.
1964 Jurkiewicz, M.J. :
Cleft lip and palate in dogs. Surg Forum 15:457-8, 1964. Pubmed reference: 14193444.
1961 Calnan, J. :
The comparative anatomy of cleft lip and palate. I. Classification of cleft lip and palate in dogs. Br J Plast Surg 14:180-4, 1961. Pubmed reference: 13875838.
1958 SETTY, L.R. :
Cleft lip and palate in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 133:480, 1958. Pubmed reference: 13587379.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 30 Aug 2012
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 04 May 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 14 Sep 2023