OMIA:002675-9913 : Fecundity, SMAD6-related in Bos taurus (taurine cattle)

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 602931 (gene)

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: no

Species-specific name: Trio

Species-specific description: Constantino et al. (2023): "The bovine high fecundity allele, Trio, causes overexpression in granulosa cells of SMAD6, an inhibitor of BMP15-activated SMAD signalling. Furthermore, the Trio allele results in antral follicles that develop slower, acquire ovulatory capacity at smaller sizes, and have 3-fold greater ovulation rate compared to half-sib non-carriers."

History: Morris et al. (2010) reported a mixed-breed cow of uncertain heritage that was named "Treble" on account of her three sets of triplets. Five of the daughters of one her her triplet sons (named "Trio") produced 6 sets of triplets. As concluded by the authors: "Treble is a cow of remarkable reproductive performance, with three sets of triplets. The fact that some of her grand-daughters also produced triplets strongly suggests that some of her ability is inherited."

Mapping: A genome-wide linkage analysis of 131 daughters of the hypothesised carrier bull Trio, each genotyped with 3K SNPs, enabled Kirkpatrick and Morris (2014) to map high ovulation rate (over 4 cycles) to a region of chromosome BTA10. Then, as reported by these same authors, "Haplotype analysis of the sire, recombinant daughters and a subset of non-recombinant daughters using 50k SNP genotype data narrowed the positional candidate region to an area of approximately 1.5 Mb". Kirkpatrick and Morris (2015) narrowed this slightly to "a 1.2 Mb region between 13.6 and 14.8 Mb on chromosome 10".

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Genetic testing: Kirkpatrick and Morris (2015) identified "three polymorphisms were identified that can be used as a haplotype to track inheritance of the high ovulation rate allele in descendants of the carrier sire."

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:002675-9913: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Constantino, J.V., Carranza-Martin, A., Premanandan, C., Kirkpatrick, B.W., Wiltbank, M.C., García-Guerra, A. :
Preantral follicle numbers and size in heifers carrying Trio, a bovine high fecundity allele. Reproduction , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37096974. DOI: 10.1530/REP-23-0072.
2018 García-Guerra, A., Canavessi, A.M.O., Monteiro, P.L.J., Mezera, M.A., Sartori, R., Kirkpatrick, B.W., Wiltbank, M.C. :
Trio, a novel bovine high fecundity allele: III. Acquisition of dominance and ovulatory capacity at a smaller follicle size. Biol Reprod 98:350-365, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29425314. DOI: 10.1093/biolre/iox157.
Garcia-Guerra, A., Kamalludin, M.H., Kirkpatrick, B.W., Wiltbank, M.C. :
Trio a novel bovine high-fecundity allele: II. Hormonal profile and follicular dynamics underlying the high ovulation rate. Biol Reprod 98:335-349, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29425274. DOI: 10.1093/biolre/iox156.
2017 García-Guerra, A., Kirkpatrick, B.W., Wiltbank, M.C. :
Follicular waves and hormonal profiles during the estrous cycle of carriers and non-carriers of the Trio allele, a major bovine gene for high ovulation and fecundity. Theriogenology 100:100-113, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28708524. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.05.029.
García-Guerra, A., Motta, J.C.L., Melo, L.F., Kirkpatrick, B.W., Wiltbank, M.C. :
Ovulation rate, antral follicle count, and circulating anti-Müllerian hormone in Trio allele carriers, a novel high fecundity bovine genotype. Theriogenology 101:81-90, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28708520. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.05.026.
2015 Kirkpatrick, B.W., Morris, C.A. :
A major gene for bovine ovulation rate. PLoS One 10:e0129025, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26046917. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129025.
2014 Kirkpatrick, B.W., Morris, C.A. :
Mapping of a major gene for bovine ovulation rate. 10th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (WCGALP) :Abstract 649, 2014.
2010 Morris, C.A., Wheeler, M., Levet, G.L., Kirkpatrick, B.W. :
A cattle family in New Zealand with triplet calving ability. Livestock Science 128:193-196, 2010.

Edit History

  • Created by Imke Tammen2 on 27 Apr 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 27 Apr 2023