OMIA:000195-9913 : Claw/hoof disorders in Bos taurus (taurine cattle)

In other species: horse , indicine cattle (zebu) , goat , sheep

Categories: Limbs / fins / digit / tail phene

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Species-specific name: Claw lesions

Species-specific description: This entry covers many different disorders of the claw, because so many studies have considered them jointly. In their invited review of genetics and claw health, Heringstad et al. (2018) included digital or interdigital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, interdigital hyperplasia, sole hemorrhage, sole ulcer, white line disease, corkscrew claw, double sole, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital growth, laminitis, chronic laminitis, rotation, skin proliferation, thick hocks, toe ulcer, wall disorders, and wall ulcer. These authors reported that "Heritabilities of the most commonly analyzed claw disorders based on data from routine claw trimming were generally low, with ranges of linear model estimates from 0.01 to 0.14, and threshold model estimates from 0.06 to 0.39."

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2022). OMIA:000195-9913: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Anagnostopoulos, A., Barden, M., Griffiths, B.E., Bedford, C., Winters, M., Li, B., Coffey, M., Psifidi, A., Banos, G., Oikonomou, G. :
Association between a genetic index for digital dermatitis resistance and the presence of digital dermatitis, heel horn erosion and interdigital hyperplasia in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 107:4915-4925, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38331180. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2023-24136.
Fürmann, A., Syring, C., Becker, J., Sarbach, A., Weber, J., Welham Ruiters, M., Steiner, A. :
Prevalence of painful lesions of the digits and risk factors associated with digital dermatitis, ulcers and white line disease on Swiss cattle farms. Animals (Basel) 14:153, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38200884. DOI: 10.3390/ani14010153.
Seixas, M., Moura, D., Grispoldi, L., Cenci-Goga, B., Saraiva, S., Silva, F., Pires, I., Saraiva, C., García-Díez, J. :
Evaluation of claw lesions in beef cattle slaughtered in Northern Portugal: A preliminary study. Animals (Basel) 14:514, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38338156. DOI: 10.3390/ani14030514.
2023 Barden, M., Anagnostopoulos, A., Griffiths, B.E., Li, B., Bedford, C., Watson, C., Psifidi, A., Banos, G., Oikonomou, G. :
Genetic parameters of sole lesion recovery in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 106:1874-1888, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36710182. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2022-22064.
Barden, M., Phelan, M.M., Hyde, R., Anagnostopoulos, A., Griffiths, B.E., Bedford, C., Green, M., Psifidi, A., Banos, G., Oikonomou, G. :
Serum 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics of sole lesion development in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 106:2667-2684, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36870845. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2022-22681.
Lee, Y.L., Bosse, M., Takeda, H., Moreira, G.C.M., Karim, L., Druet, T., Oget-Ebrad, C., Coppieters, W., Veerkamp, R.F., Groenen, M.A.M., Georges, M., Bouwman, A.C., Charlier, C. :
High-resolution structural variants catalogue in a large-scale whole genome sequenced bovine family cohort data. BMC Genomics 24:225, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37127590. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-023-09259-8.
Li, B., Barden, M., Kapsona, V., Sánchez-Molano, E., Anagnostopoulos, A., Griffiths, B.E., Bedford, C., Dai, X., Coffey, M., Psifidi, A., Oikonomou, G., Banos, G. :
Single-step genome-wide association analyses of claw horn lesions in Holstein cattle using linear and threshold models. Genet Sel Evol 55:16, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36899300. DOI: 10.1186/s12711-023-00784-4.
Schneider, H., Heise, J., Tetens, J., Thaller, G., Wellmann, R., Bennewitz, J. :
Genomic dominance variance analysis of health and milk production traits in German Holstein cattle. J Anim Breed Genet 140:390-399, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36872841. DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12765.
Schneider, H., Segelke, D., Tetens, J., Thaller, G., Bennewitz, J. :
A genomic assessment of the correlation between milk production traits and claw and udder health traits in Holstein dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 106:S0022-0302(22)00699-3:1190-1205, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36460501. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2022-22312.
Sousa Junior, L.P.B., Pinto, L.F.B., Cruz, V.A.R., Junior, G.A.O., Oliveira, H.R., Chud, T.S., Pedrosa, V.B., Miglior, F., Schenkel, F.S., Brito, L.F. :
Genome-wide association and functional genomic analyses for various hoof health traits in North American Holstein cattle. J Dairy Sci 107:2207-2230, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37939841. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2023-23806.
2022 Sölzer, N., May, K., Yin, T., König, S. :
Genomic analyses of claw disorders in Holstein cows: Genetic parameters, trait associations, and genome-wide associations considering interactions of SNP and heat stress. J Dairy Sci 105:8218-8236, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36028345. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2022-22087.
2021 Butty, A.M., Chud, T.C.S., Cardoso, D.F., Lopes, L.S.F., Miglior, F., Schenkel, F.S., Cánovas, A., Häfliger, I.M., Drögemüller, C., Stothard, P., Malchiodi, F., Baes, C.F. :
Genome-wide association study between copy number variants and hoof health traits in Holstein dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 104(7):8050-8061, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33896633. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2020-19879.
Capion, N., Raundal, P., Foldager, L., Thomsen, P.T. :
Status of claw recordings and claw health in Danish dairy cattle from 2013 to 2017. Vet J 277:105749, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34537342. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2021.105749.
Lai, E., Danner, A.L., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Pleiotropic loci associated with foot disorders and common periparturient diseases in Holstein cattle. Front Genet 12:742934, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34938311. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2021.742934.
Lai, E., Danner, A.L., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Genome-wide association studies reveal susceptibility loci for noninfectious claw lesions in Holstein dairy cattle. Front Genet 12:657375, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34122511. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2021.657375.
2020 Kosińska-Selbi, B., Suchocki, T., Egger-Danner, C., Schwarzenbacher, H., Frąszczak, M., Szyda, J. :
Exploring the Potential Genetic Heterogeneity in the Incidence of Hoof Disorders in Austrian Fleckvieh and Braunvieh Cattle. Front Genet 11:577116, 2020. Pubmed reference: 33281874. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2020.577116.
Suchocki, T., Egger-Danner, C., Schwarzenbacher, H., Szyda, J. :
Two-stage genome-wide association study for the identification of causal variants underlying hoof disorders in cattle. J Dairy Sci 103:4483-4494, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32229114. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2019-17542.
2019 Croué, I., Michenet, A., Leclerc, H., Ducrocq, V. :
Genomic analysis of claw lesions in Holstein cows: Opportunities for genomic selection, quantitative trait locus detection, and gene identification. J Dairy Sci 102:6306-6318, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31056323. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2018-15979.
Köck, A., Fuerst-Waltl, B., Kofler, J., Burgstaller, J., Steininger, F., Fuerst, C., Egger-Danner, C. :
Short communication: Use of lameness scoring to genetically improve claw health in Austrian Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and Holstein cattle. J Dairy Sci 102:1397-1401, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30591331. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2018-15287.
Magrin, L., Brscic, M., Armato, L., Contiero, B., Lotto, A., Cozzi, G., Gottardo, F. :
Risk factors for claw disorders in intensively finished Charolais beef cattle. Prev Vet Med 175:104864, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31837608. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104864.
Sánchez-Molano, E., Bay, V., Smith, R.F., Oikonomou, G., Banos, G. :
Quantitative trait loci mapping for lameness associated phenotypes in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Front Genet 10:926, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31636655. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00926.
2018 Dolecheck, K., Bewley, J. :
Animal board invited review: Dairy cow lameness expenditures, losses and total cost. Animal 12:1462-1474, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29557318. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000575.
Heringstad, B., Egger-Danner, C., Charfeddine, N., Pryce, J.E., Stock, K.F., Kofler, J., Sogstad, A.M., Holzhauer, M., Fiedler, A., Müller, K., Nielsen, P., Thomas, G., Gengler, N., de Jong, G., Ødegård, C., Malchiodi, F., Miglior, F., Alsaaod, M., Cole, J.B. :
Invited review: Genetics and claw health: Opportunities to enhance claw health by genetic selection. J Dairy Sci 101:4801-4821, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29525301. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13531.
Naderi, S., Bohlouli, M., Yin, T., König, S. :
Genomic breeding values, SNP effects and gene identification for disease traits in cow training sets. Anim Genet 49:178-192, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29624705. DOI: 10.1111/age.12661.
Ring, S.C., Twomey, A.J., Byrne, N., Kelleher, M.M., Pabiou, T., Doherty, M.L., Berry, D.P. :
Genetic selection for hoof health traits and cow mobility scores can accelerate the rate of genetic gain in producer-scored lameness in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 101:10034-10047, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30219421. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2018-15009.
2017 Croué, I., Fikse, F., Johansson, K., Carlén, E., Thomas, G., Leclerc, H., Ducrocq, V. :
Genetic evaluation of claw health traits accounting for potential preselection of cows to be trimmed. J Dairy Sci 100:8197-8204, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28822546. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13002.
Mahmoud, M., Yin, T., Brügemann, K., König, S. :
Phenotypic, genetic, and single nucleotide polymorphism marker associations between calf diseases and subsequent performance and disease occurrences of first-lactation German Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 100:2017-2031, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28109590. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-11767.
Malchiodi, F., Koeck, A., Mason, S., Christen, A.M., Kelton, D.F., Schenkel, F.S., Miglior, F. :
Genetic parameters for hoof health traits estimated with linear and threshold models using alternative cohorts. J Dairy Sci 100:2828-2836, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28131577. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-11558.
2016 Charfeddine, N., Pérez-Cabal, M.A. :
Effect of claw disorders on milk production, fertility, and longevity, and their economic impact in Spanish Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 100:653-665, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27865503. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-11434.
Pérez-Cabal, M.A., Charfeddine, N. :
Short communication: Association of foot and leg conformation and body weight with claw disorders in Spanish Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 99:9104-9108, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27614841. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-11331.
Solano, L., Barkema, H.W., Mason, S., Pajor, E.A., LeBlanc, S.J., Orsel, K. :
Prevalence and distribution of foot lesions in dairy cattle in Alberta, Canada. J Dairy Sci 99:6828-41, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27236761. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-10941.
Wilhelm, K., Wilhelm, J., Fürll, M. :
Claw disorders in dairy cattle - an unexpected association between energy metabolism and sole haemorrhages. J Dairy Res 84:54-60, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27691987. DOI: 10.1017/S0022029916000510.
2015 Dhakal, K., Tiezzi, F., Clay, J.S., Maltecca, C. :
Short communication: Genomic selection for hoof lesions in first-parity US Holsteins. J Dairy Sci 98:3502-7, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25726100. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2014-8830.
Pérez-Cabal, M.A., Charfeddine, N. :
Models for genetic evaluations of claw health traits in Spanish dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 98:8186-94, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26387016. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2015-9562.
van der Spek, D., van Arendonk, J.A., Bovenhuis, H. :
Genetic relationships between claw health traits of dairy cows in different parities, lactation stages, and herds with different claw disorder frequencies. J Dairy Sci 98:6564-71, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26142850. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2015-9561.
Ødegård, C., Svendsen, M., Heringstad, B. :
Foot and leg conformation traits have a small effect on genomic predictions of claw disorders in Norwegian Red cows. J Dairy Sci 98:4139-47, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25828662. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2014-9186.
2014 Odegård, C., Svendsen, M., Heringstad, B., Ødegård, C., Svendsen, M., Heringstad, B. :
Genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation in Norwegian Red cows. J Dairy Sci 97:4522-9, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24767887. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2013-7837.
2013 Chapinal, N., Koeck, A., Sewalem, A., Kelton, D.F., Mason, S., Cramer, G., Miglior, F. :
Genetic parameters for hoof lesions and their relationship with feet and leg traits in Canadian Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 96:2596-604, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23415531. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2012-6071.
Gernand, E., Döhne, D.A., König, S. :
Genetic background of claw disorders in the course of lactation and their relationships with type traits. J Anim Breed Genet 130:435-44, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24236606. DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12046.
Häggman, J., Juga, J., Sillanpää, M.J., Thompson, R. :
Genetic parameters for claw health and feet and leg conformation traits in Finnish Ayrshire cows. J Anim Breed Genet 130:89-97, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23496009. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2012.01007.x.
Häggman, J., Juga, J. :
Genetic parameters for hoof disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Finnish Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 96:3319-25, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23498009. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2012-6334.
Kofler, J. :
Computerised claw trimming database programs as the basis for monitoring hoof health in dairy herds. Vet J 198:358-61, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23906427. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.06.009.
Oberbauer, A.M., Berry, S.L., Belanger, J.M., McGoldrick, R.M., Pinos-Rodriquez, J.M., Famula, T.R. :
Determining the heritable component of dairy cattle foot lesions. J Dairy Sci 96:605-13, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23063151. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2012-5485.
Odegård, C., Svendsen, M., Heringstad, B. :
Genetic analyses of claw health in Norwegian Red cows. J Dairy Sci 96:7274-7283, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24035022. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2012-6509.
Swalve, H.H., Floren, C., Wensch-Dorendorf, M., Schöpke, K., Pijl, R., Wimmers, K., Brenig, B. :
A study based on records taken at time of hoof trimming reveals a strong association between the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) gene and sole hemorrhage in Holstein cattle. J Dairy Sci 97:507-19, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24237756. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2013-6997.
van der Spek, D., van Arendonk, J.A., Vallée, A.A., Bovenhuis, H. :
Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming. J Dairy Sci 96:6070-8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23849633. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2013-6833.
Weber, A., Stamer, E., Junge, W., Thaller, G. :
Genetic parameters for lameness and claw and leg diseases in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 96:3310-8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23477816. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2012-6261.
2012 Buttchereit, N., Stamer, E., Junge, W., Thaller, G. :
Genetic parameters for energy balance, fat /protein ratio, body condition score and disease traits in German Holstein cows. J Anim Breed Genet 129:280-8, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22775260. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2011.00976.x.
Gernand, E., Rehbein, P., von Borstel, U.U., König, S. :
Incidences of and genetic parameters for mastitis, claw disorders, and common health traits recorded in dairy cattle contract herds. J Dairy Sci 95:2144-56, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22459859. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2011-4812.
Holzhauer, M., Brummelman, B., Frankena, K., Lam, T.J. :
A longitudinal study into the effect of grazing on claw disorders in female calves and young dairy cows. Vet J 193:633-8, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22892184. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.06.044.
Stokes, J.E., Leach, K.A., Main, D.C., Whay, H.R. :
An investigation into the use of infrared thermography (IRT) as a rapid diagnostic tool for foot lesions in dairy cattle. Vet J 193:674-8, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22867853. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.06.052.
Thomsen, P.T., Munksgaard, L., Sørensen, J.T. :
Locomotion scores and lying behaviour are indicators of hoof lesions in dairy cows. Vet J 193:644-7, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22872001. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.06.046.
Tølbøll, T.H., Danscher, A.M., Andersen, P.H., Codrea, M.C., Bendixen, E. :
Proteomics: A new tool in bovine claw disease research. Vet J 193:694-700, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22884987. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.07.008.
2011 Sogstad, A.M., Fjeldaas, T., Østerås, O. :
Association of claw disorders with claw horn colour in Norwegian red cattle--a cross-sectional study of 2607 cows from 112 herds. Acta Vet Scand 53:59, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22085414. DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-53-59.
2010 van der Linde, C., de Jong, G., Koenen, E.P., Eding, H. :
Claw health index for Dutch dairy cattle based on claw trimming and conformation data. J Dairy Sci 93:4883-91, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20855023. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2010-3183.
2009 Laursen, M.V., Boelling, D., Mark, T. :
Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins. J Dairy Sci 92:1770-7, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19307660. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1388.
2006 Harder, B., Bennewitz, J., Hinrichs, D., Kalm, E. :
Genetic parameters for health traits and their relationship to different persistency traits in German Holstein dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 89:3202-12, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16840638. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72595-4.
2005 Holzhauer, M., Middelesch, H., Bartels, CJ., Frankena, K., Verhoeff, J., Noordhuizen-Stassen, EN., Noordhuizen, JP. :
Assessing the repeatability and reproducibility of the Leg Score: a Dutch Claw Health Scoring System for dairy cattle. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 130:440-3, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16111114.
Huth, C., Russke, A., Alsleben, B., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
[Body and claw measurements as well as pressure distribution under the claws in heifers of different cattle breeds] Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 118:150-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15803763.
Koenig, S., Sharifi, A.R., Wentrot, H., Landmann, D., Eise, M., Simianer, H. :
Genetic parameters of claw and foot disorders estimated with logistic models. J Dairy Sci 88:3316-25, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16107422. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73015-0.
Sogstad, A.M., Fjeldaas, T., Østerås, O., Forshell, K.P. :
Prevalence of claw lesions in Norwegian dairy cattle housed in tie stalls and free stalls. Prev Vet Med 70:191-209, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16023526. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.03.005.
Sogstad, AM., Fjeldaas, T., Osteras, O. :
Lameness and claw lesions of the Norwegian red dairy cattle housed in free stalls in relation to environment, parity and stage of lactation. Acta Vet Scand 46:203-17, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16398332.
van der Waaij, EH., Holzhauer, M., Ellen, E., Kamphuis, C., de Jong, G. :
Genetic parameters for claw disorders in Dutch dairy cattle and correlations with conformation traits. J Dairy Sci 88:3672-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16162542. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73053-8.
2004 Huth, C., Russke, A., Alsleben, B., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
[Body and claw measurements and pressure distribution under the claws in calves of different cattle breeds] Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 117:316-26, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15298060.
2003 Fatehi, J., Stella, A., Shannon, J.J., Boettcher, P.J. :
Genetic parameters for feet and leg traits evaluated in different environments Journal of Dairy Science 86:661-6, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12647972. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73644-3.
Somers, J.G., Frankena, K., Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N., Metz, J.H. :
Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems Journal of Dairy Science 86:2082-93, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12836944. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73797-7.
2002 Manske, T., Hultgren, J., Bergsten, C. :
The effect of claw trimming on the hoof health of Swedish dairy cattle Preventive Veterinary Medicine 54:113-129, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12069775.
2000 Lischer, C.J., Wehrle, M., Geyer, H., Lutz, B., Ossent, P. :
Healing of claw lesions in dairy cows under the conditions of alpine mountain pastures [German] Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 107:255-261, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10954996.
1998 Boelling, D., Pollott, G.E. :
Locomotion, lameness, hoof and leg traits in cattle - II - genetic relationships and breeding values Livestock Production Science 54:205-215, 1998.
Boelling, D., Pollott, G.E. :
Locomotion, lameness, hoof and leg traits in cattle - I - phenotypic influences and relationships Livestock Production Science 54:193-203, 1998.
Boettcher, P.J., Dekkers, J.C.M., Warnick, L.D., Wells, S.J. :
Genetic analysis of clinical lameness in dairy cattle Journal of Dairy Science 81:1148-1156, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9594404. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75677-2.
Leach, K.A., Logue, D.N., Randall, J.M., Kempson, S.A. :
Claw lesions in dairy cattle - methods for assessment of sole and white line lesions Veterinary Journal 155:91-102, 1998.
Phillips, C.J.C., Coe, R., Colgan, M., Duffus, C., Ingoldby, L., Pond, M., Postlethwaite, S. :
Effect of hoof characteristics on the propensity of cattle to slip Veterinary Record 142:242-245, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9549866.
Saharia, J., Saikia, S., Dutta, G.N. :
Effect of flooring type on foot and leg abnormalities in dairy cows Indian Veterinary Journal 75:579-580, 1998.
Whay, H.R., Waterman, A.E., Webster, A.J.F., Obrien, J.K. :
The influence of lesion type on the duration of hyperalgesia associated with hindlimb lameness in dairy cattle Veterinary Journal 156:23-29, 1998.
1997 Dirksen, G. :
Faults of housing and management as cause of claw and leg diseases in cattle .5. economy measures in the wrong place in a loose housing with cubicles and slatted floor [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:513-514, 1997.
Dirksen, G. :
Faults of housing and management as cause of claw and leg diseases in cattle .4. An extreme metal grate and further faults of housing systems and management on a dairy farm [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:134 ff., 1997.
Junge, W. :
Effects on the health of claws of dairy cows [German] Zuchtungskunde 69:122-129, 1997.
Leach, K.A., Logue, D.N., Kempson, S.A., Offer, J.E., Ternent, H.E., Randall, J.M. :
Claw lesions in dairy cattle - development of sole and white line haemorrhages during the first lactation Veterinary Journal 154:215-225, 1997.
Meusburger, G., Stanek, C., Hinterhofer, C., Peham, C. :
Influence of an acrylic spray on claw horn hardness and claw soundness in dairy cattle [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:238 ff., 1997.
1996 Dirksen, G. :
Faults of housing and management as cause of claw and leg diseases in cattle. 3. An outdated stanchion barn - the standing not adapted to the increased body size [German] Praktische Tierarzt 77:1101 ff., 1996.
Distl, O. :
Improvements in the health of cattle through the genetic selection of traits related to the feet and legs [German] Tierarztliche Umschau 51:331 ff., 1996.
Leonard, F.C., Oconnell, J.M., Ofarrell, K.J. :
Effect of overcrowding on claw health in first-calved friesian heifers British Veterinary Journal 152:459-472, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8791854.
Vermunt, J.J., Greenough, P.R. :
Claw conformation of dairy heifers in two management systems British Veterinary Journal 152:321-331, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8762608.
1995 Logue, D. :
Lameness, lesions of the claw of the dairy cow and subclinical laminitis British Veterinary Journal 151:343-346, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7552191.
Vermunt, J.J., Greenough, P.R. :
Structural characteristics of the bovine claw: Horn growth and wear, horn hardness and claw conformation British Veterinary Journal 151:157-180, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8920112.
1994 Hubert, C., Distl, O. :
Analysis of Pressure Distributions Underneath Claws of the Cattle Breeds German Black and White as Well as German Simmental Zuchtungskunde 66:327-338, 1994.
1990 Baumgartner, C., Distl, O., Krausslich, H. :
Indicator Traits for Breeding on Claw Health in German Simmental Cattle 1 Communication - Heritability Estimates for Claw Measurements and Judgments of Leg Posture and Claw Shape and Diagnoses of Claw Disorders in German Simmental Cows at the Beginning of 1st Lactation Zuchtungskunde 62:195-207, 1990.
Baumgartner, C., Distl, O., Krausslich, H. :
Indicator Traits for Breeding on Claw Health in German Simmental Cattle .2. Communication - Correlations Between Claw Parameters and Model Calculations for the Genetic Progress Zuchtungskunde 62:208-221, 1990.
1986 Smit, H., Verbeek, B., Peterse, D.J., Jansen, J., McDaniel, B.T., Politiek, R.D. :
Genetic aspects of claw disorders, claw measurements and 'type' scores for feet in Friesian cattle Livestock Production Science 15:205-217, 1986.
1984 Hahn, M.V., McDaniel, B.T., Wilk, J.C. :
Genetic and environmental variation of hoof characteristics of Holstein cattle. J Dairy Sci 67:2986-98, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6530494. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81664-1.
1977 Glicken, A., Kendrick, J.W. :
Hoof overgrowth in Holstein--Friesian dairy cattle. J Hered 68:386-90, 1977. Pubmed reference: 608944. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a108865.

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  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 18 Jan 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 16 Jun 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 12 Sep 2022