OMIA:000309-9031 : Dwarfism, sex-linked in Gallus gallus (chicken)

Categories: Skeleton phene (incl. short stature & teeth)

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 262500 (trait) , 604271 (trait) , 600946 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Z-linked recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 1994

Species-specific symbol: dw

Species-specific description: Unlike the other forms of dwarfism that occur in chickens, this form appears to have commercial value. It is due to a range of mutations in the gene for the growth-hormone receptor, which is on the Z chromosome. In at least one strain of broilers, the mutation is a deletion. In one strain of Leghorn layers, a deletion is not the cause. Several broiler-breeder lines homozygous for dw have been developed. These dw lines are used as a source of female parents which are mated to males from a normal broiler strain. Mainly because of reduced feed consumption and a smaller space requirement, dw broiler-breeder lines are more economical than normal broiler lines.

Molecular basis: By cloning and sequencing a very likely comparative candidate gene (based on the homologous human disorder), Agarwal et al. (1994) discovered a deletion of 1773 bp in the 3' end of the coding region of the growth hormone receptor gene in the Connecticut (CT) strain of dwdw chickens. The region included in the deletion encodes 27 highly conserved amino acids and the stop codon. In the dw allele, the sequence of bases 3' of the deletion is such that the open reading frame extends to encode 27 new amino acids plus a further 26 amino acids, before reaching the transcription termination site. This mutant allele produces a novel peptide which is unable to fulfil the role of normal growth hormone receptor.

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
GHR growth hormone receptor Gallus gallus Z NC_052572.1 (13962241..14094496) GHR Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
660 Connecticut (CT) strain, United States of America (Chicken) S2 line, China (Chicken) Dwarfism, sex-linked GHR deletion, gross (>20) Naturally occurring variant Z deletion of 1773 bp in the 3' end of the coding region of the growth hormone receptor gene 1994 7964293

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2016). OMIA:000309-9031: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2022 Fathi, M.M., Galal, A., Radwan, L.M., Abou-Emera, O.K., Al-Homidan, I.H. :
Using major genes to mitigate the deleterious effects of heat stress in poultry: an updated review. Poult Sci 101:102157, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36167017. DOI: 10.1016/j.psj.2022.102157.
2019 Li, H., Hu, B., Luo, Q., Hu, S., Luo, Y., Zhao, B., Gan, Y., Li, Y., Shi, M., Nie, Q., Zhang, D., Zhang, X. :
Runting and stunting syndrome is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in sex-linked dwarf chicken. Front Genet 10:1337, 2019. Pubmed reference: 32010193. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.01337.
2016 Huang, H.Y., Zhao, Z.H., Li, S.F., Liang, Z., Li, C.M., Wang, Q.B. :
Pattern of GHR mRNA expression and body growth in the S2 line of sex-linked dwarf chickens. Genet Mol Res 15, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27819736. DOI: 10.4238/gmr15047416.
Luo, W., Lin, S., Li, G., Nie, Q., Zhang, X. :
Integrative analyses of miRNA-mRNA interactions reveal let-7b, miR-128 and MAPK pathway involvement in muscle mass loss in sex-linked dwarf chickens. Int J Mol Sci 17:276, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26927061. DOI: 10.3390/ijms17030276.
2012 Lin, S.M., Li, H.M., Mu, H.P., Luo, W., Li, Y., Jia, X.Z., Wang, S.B., Jia, X.L., Nie, Q.H., Li, Y.G., Zhang, X.Q. :
Let-7b regulates the expression of the growth hormone receptor gene in deletion-type dwarf chickens. BMC Genomics 13:306, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22781587. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-306.
2010 Sharifi, A.R., Horst, P., Simianer, H. :
The effect of frizzle gene and dwarf gene on reproductive performance of broiler breeder dams under high and normal ambient temperatures. Poult Sci 89:2356-69, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20952698. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-00921.
Zhang, Y., Li, H., Lian, Z., Li, N. :
Normal fibroblasts promote myodifferentiation of myoblasts from sex-linked dwarf chicken via up-regulation of β1 integrin. Cell Biol Int 34:1119-27, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20569202. DOI: 10.1042/CBI20090351.
2007 Wu, GQ., Zheng, JX., Yang, N. :
[Expression profiling of GH, GHR, and IGF-1 genes in sex-linked dwarf chickens]. Yi Chuan 29:989-94, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17681929.
Zheng, JX., Liu, ZZ., Yang, N. :
Deficiency of growth hormone receptor does not affect male reproduction in dwarf chickens. Poult Sci 86:112-7, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17179424.
2004 Tona, K., Onagbesan, OM., Jego, Y., Kamers, B., Decuypere, E., Bruggeman, V. :
Comparison of embryo physiological parameters during incubation, chick quality, and growth performance of three lines of broiler breeders differing in genetic composition and growth rate. Poult Sci 83:507-13, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15049506.
2003 Missohou, A., Dieng, A., Horst, P., Zarate, VA., Nesseim, T., Tchedre, K. :
Effect of dwarf (dw) and frizzle (F) genes on the performance of layers under Senegalese conditions. Trop Anim Health Prod 35:373-80, 2003. Pubmed reference: 14509543.
1999 Dewil, E., Darras, V.M., Spencer, G.S.G., Lauterio, T.J., Decuypere, E. :
The regulation of GH-dependent hormones and enzymes after feed restriction in dwarf and control chickens Life Sciences 64:1359-1371, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10321716.
Hull, K.L., Marsh, J.A., Harvey, S. :
A missense mutation in the GHR gene of Cornell sex-linked dwarf chickens does not abolish serum GH binding Journal of Endocrinology 161:495-501, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10333552.
1998 Dunnington, E.A., Siegel, P.B. :
Comparison of sex-linked dwarf genes in chickens from two sources when introgressed into unrelated genetic backgrounds British Poultry Science 39:216-220, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9649873. DOI: 10.1080/00071669889141.
1997 Custodio, R.W.S. :
Synthesis of stocks and phenotypic effects of dwarf and bantam sex-linked major genes in egg-type chickens Brazilian Journal of Genetics 20:371-376, 1997.
Custodio, R.W.S. :
Genetic interactions involving major genes at the dwarf locus in egg-type chickens Brazilian Journal of Genetics 20:363-370, 1997.
Dhingra, N., Bhardwaj, J.K., Khan, A.G. :
Growth response in broilers from dwarf dams as affected by climatic variation Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 67:531-533, 1997.
Vasilatosyounken, R., Dunnington, E.A., Siegel, P.B., Mcmurtry, J.P. :
Tissue-specific alterations in insulin-like growth factor-i concentrations in response to 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine supplementation in the growth hormone receptor-deficient sex-linked dwarf chicken General & Comparative Endocrinology 105:31-39, 1997.
Zeman, M., Buyse, J., Minivielle, F., Bordas, A., Merat, P., Decuypere, E. :
Effects of the sex-linked dwarf gene on plasma somatotrophic and thyroid hormone levels and on energy metabolism of leghorn and brown egg-type laying hens and their reciprocal crosses Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 61:66-71, 1997.
1996 Coquerelle, G., Merat, P. :
Effects associated with the sex-linked imperfect albinism (s(al)) in dwarf laying hens (dw) Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 60:257-260, 1996.
Goddard, C., Johnson, R., Gilhooley, H.J., Gardner, J.O., Gray, A., Wilkie, R.S., Butterwith, S.C. :
Decreased muscle cell proliferation in chicks with a deletion in the gh receptor gene Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 17:67-78, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8863189.
Merat, P., Coquerelle, G., Marchand, H. :
Choice of a feed with or without incorporation of triiodotyronine (T-3) by normal-sized or dwarf (dw) chickens [French] Annales de Zootechnie 45:277-281, 1996.
1995 Agarwal, S.K., Cogburn, L.A., Burnside, J. :
Comparison of gene expression in normal and growth hormone receptor-deficient dwarf chickens reveals a novel growth hormone regulated gene Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 206:153-160, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7818515. DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.1995.1022.
Merat, P., Minvielle, F., Bordas, A., Coquerelle, G., Monvoisin, J.L. :
Heterosis in normal or dwarf (dw) laying hens - fatness and blood parameters [French] Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 59:288-291, 1995.
Tanaka, M., Hayashida, Y., Wakita, M., Hoshino, S., Nakashima, K. :
Expression of aberrantly spliced growth hormone receptor mRNA in the sex-linked dwarf chicken, Gifu 20. Growth Regul 5:218-23, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8745148.
1994 Agarwal, S.K., Cogburn, L.A., Burnside, J. :
Dysfunctional growth hormone receptor in a strain of sex- linked dwarf chicken: Evidence for a mutation in the intracellular domain Journal of Endocrinology 142:427-434, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7964293.
Bartha, T., Dewil, E., Rudas, P., Kuhn, E.R., Scanes, C.G., Decuypere, E. :
Kinetic parameters of plasma thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone receptors in a dwarf and control line of chicken General and Comparative Endocrinology 96:140-148, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7843562. DOI: 10.1006/gcen.1994.1166.
Buyse, J., Tixier-Boichard, M., Berghman, L.R., Huybrechts, L.M., Decuypere, E. :
Growth Hormone Secretory Characteristics of Sex-Linked Dwarf and Normal-Sized Chickens Reared on a Control or on a 3,3',5- Triiodothyronine-Supplemented Diet General and Comparative Endocrinology 93:406-410, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8194741.
Merat, P., Minvielle, F., Bordas, A., Coquerelle, G. :
Heterosis in Normal Versus Dwarf Laying Hens Poultry Science 73:1-6, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8165154.
Minvielle, F., Merat, P., Monvoisin, J.L., Coquerelle, G., Bordas, A. :
Increase of Egg Weight with Age in Normal and Dwarf, Purebred and Crossbred Laying Hens Genetics Selection Evolution 26:453-462, 1994.
1993 Huang, N., Cogburn, L.A., Agarwal, S.K., Marks, H.L., Burnside, J. :
Overexpression of a Truncated Growth Hormone Receptor in the Sex-Linked Dwarf Chicken - Evidence for a Splice Mutation Molecular Endocrinology 7:1391-1398, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8114754.
Hull, K.L., Fraser, R.A., Marsh, J.A., Harvey, S. :
Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Expression in Sex-Linked Dwarf Leghorn Chickens - Evidence Against a Gene Deletion Journal of Endocrinology 137:91-98, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8492080.
Hull, K.L., Laron, Z., Parks, J.S., Harvey, S., Marsh, J.A., Boone, F., Mccannlevorse, L., Scanes, C.G. :
Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Expression in Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens - A Model of Laron-Type Dwarfism Lessons from Laron Syndrome ( LS ) 1966 - 1992 24:294-309, 1993.
Huybrechts, L.M., Laron, Z., Darras, V.M., Parks, J.S., Tixier-Boichard, M., Vanderpooten, A., Decuypere, E., Kuhn, E.R. :
Sex-Linked Dwarfism in Birds Lessons from Laron Syndrome ( LS ) 1966 - 1992 24:310-312, 1993.
Knizetova, H. :
Effects of the Sex-Linked Dwarf Gene (dw) on Skeletal Muscle Cellularity in Broiler Chickens British Poultry Science 34:479-485, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8358635. DOI: 10.1080/00071669308417603.
Parmar, S.N.S., Katpatal, B.G., Khan, A.G. :
A Note on Heritability Estimates of Economic Traits in Dwarf Broiler Birds Indian Veterinary Journal 70:681-682, 1993.
Scanes, C.G., Laron, Z., Parks, J.S., Boone, F., Mccannlevorse, L., Marsh, J.A., Kuhn, E.R., Decuypere, E. :
The Sex-Linked Dwarf (dw) Chicken - A Model for Laron Dwarfism Lessons from Laron Syndrome ( LS ) 1966 - 1992 24:313-318, 1993.
Shinde, P.K., Khan, A.G., Nema, R.P. :
Relationship of Shank Length with Production Traits of Hens Carrying Sex-Linked Dwarfing Gene Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 63:86-87, 1993.
Zulkifli, I., Dunnington, E.A., Gross, W.B., Larsen, A.S., Martin, A., Siegel, P.B. :
Responses of Dwarf and Normal Chickens to Feed Restriction, Eimeria tenella Infection, and Sheep Red Blood Cell Antigen Poultry Science 72:1630-1640, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8234122.
1992 Bordas, A., Merat, P. :
Performance of Homozygous Naked Neck Layers, Heterozygous Naked Neck Layers and Normal Plumage Layers of a Brown-Egg Dwarf Line Subjected to Constant or Fluctuating Temperature Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 56:22-27, 1992.
Burnside, J., Liou, S.S., Zhong, C., Cogburn, L.A. :
Abnormal Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Expression in the Sex- Linked Dwarf Chicken General and Comparative Endocrinology 88:20-28, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1426960.
Hocking, P.M., Saunderson, C.L. :
Muscle Protein Degradation Assessed by N(T)-Methylhistidine Excretion in Mature White Leghorn, Dwarf Broiler and Normal Broiler Males Maintained on Either Low-Protein or High- Protein Diets British Journal of Nutrition 67:391-399, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1622979.
Manner, K., Bronsch, K. :
Energy Metabolism of Laying Hens of Different Genotypes Exposed to High Ambient Temperatures .3. Influence of the Genes for Naked Neck (Na) and Curling of Feathers (F) on the Correlation Between Different Ambient Temperatures and Energy Metabolism Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 56:14-22, 1992.
Manner, K. :
Energy Metabolism of Laying Hens of Different Genotypes Exposed to High Ambient Temperatures .2. Influence of the Gene for Curling of Feathers (F) on Performance and Energy Metabolism of Full vs Partly Feathered Normal and Dwarfed Laying Hens Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 56:8-13, 1992.
Savage, T.F., Mirosh, L.W., Jones, J.L., Schneiderman, E.T. :
Blastoderm degeneration, an early embryonic failure in dwarf single comb white leghorn chickens. Journal of Heredity 83:249-254, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1401874.
Tixier-Boichard, M., Huybrechts, L.M., Decuypere, E., Kuhn, E.R., Monvoisin, J.L., Coquerelle, G., Charrier, J., Simon, J. :
Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Infusion and Dietary Tri-Iodothyronine (T3) Supplementation on Growth, Body Composition and Plasma Hormone Levels in Sex-Linked Dwarf Mutant and Normal Chickens Journal of Endocrinology 133:101-110, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1517699.
Triyuwanta, Leterrier, C., Brillard, J.P., Nys, Y. :
Maternal Body Weight and Feed Allowance of Breeders Affect Performance of Dwarf Broiler Breeders and Tibial Ossification of Their Progeny Poultry Science 71:244-254, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1546035.
Wakita, M., Yamabata, N., Kobayashi, Y., Hoshino, S. :
Characteristics of Chicken Serum Transferrin and Immunological Determination of Its Serum Levels in Dwarf Chickens Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B - Comparative Biochemistry 102:267-271, 1992.
1991 Ahene, C.A., Lea, R.W., Harvey, S. :
Central Somatostatinergic Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion in Dwarf Chickens Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-Comparative Physiology 98:103-106, 1991.
Buhr, R.J., Abbott, U.K., Abplanalp, H., Tyler, W.S. :
Effects of the Sex-Linked Dwarf Gene (dw) on the Expression of the Muscular Dystrophy Gene (am) in Chicken Journal of Heredity 82:465-470, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1795099.
Burnside, J., Liou, S.S., Cogburn, L.A. :
Molecular Cloning of the Chicken Growth Hormone Receptor Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acid - Mutation of the Gene in Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens Endocrinology 128:3183-3192, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2036984.
Manner, K. :
Energy Metabolism of Laying Hens of Different Genotypes Exposed to High Ambient Temperatures .1. Report - Influence of the Gene for Naked Neck (Na) on Performance and Energy Metabolism of Normal and Dwarfed Laying Hens Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 55:247-257, 1991.
Merat, P., Bordas, A. :
Comparison of Egg Production Traits Between Sex-Linked Dwarf (dw) and Normal (Dw+) Hens in a White Leghorn Line and in a Leghorn x Fayoumi Cross Genetics Selection Evolution 23:455-460, 1991.
Tixier-Boichard, M., Monvoisin, J.L., Decuypere, E., Huybrechts, L.M., Kuhn, E.R. :
Effect of Triiodothyronine Supplementation on Thyrotropin- Releasing Hormone-Induced Growth Hormone Secretion in Sex- Linked Dwarf and Normal Chicks General and Comparative Endocrinology 84:147-154, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1778404.
Vanderpooten, A., Huybrechts, L.M., Decuypere, E., Kuhn, E.R. :
Differences in Hepatic Growth Hormone Receptor Binding During Development of Normal and Dwarf Chickens Reproduction Nutrition Development 31:47-55, 1991.
1990 Burghellemayeur, C., Tixier-Boichard, M., Merat, P., Demarne, Y. :
Influence of the Sex-Linked Dwarfing Gene (Dw) on the Contribution of Dietary Lipid to Yolk Lipid Synthesis British Poultry Science 31:197-206, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2354375. DOI: 10.1080/00071669008417246.
Eggum, B.O., Nys, Y. :
Effects of Short Intermittent Lighting on Food Consumption and Performance of Dwarf Broiler Breeders and Progeny British Poultry Science 31:603-613, 1990.
Kuhn, E.R., Huybrechts, L.M., Darras, V.M., Meeuwis, R., Decuypere, E. :
Impaired Peripheral T3 Production But Normal Induced Thyroid Hormone Secretion in the Sex-Linked Dwarf Chick Embryo Reproduction Nutrition Development 30:193-201, 1990.
Nir, I., Dunnington, E.A., Siegel, P.B. :
Research Note - Composition of Eggs from Dwarf and Normal Chickens Before Incubation and At Hatching in Lines Selected for 56-Day Body Weight Poultry Science 69:1621-1624, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2247426.
Roy, T.A., Heinrichs, B.S., Leach, R.M. :
Effect of the Sex-Linked Dwarfing Gene (Dw) upon Skeletal Development of Young Broiler Chicks Poultry Science 69:1399-1403, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2235854.
Tixier-Boichard, M., Decuypere, E., Huybrechts, L., Kuhn, E., Merat, P. :
Effects of Dietary T3 on Growth Parameters and Hormone Levels in Normal and Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens Domestic Animal Endocrinology 7:573-585, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2261765.
Tixier-Boichard, M., Monvoisin, J.L., Rombauts, P., Decuypere, E. :
Effect of the Sex-Linked Dwarf Gene on Circulating Levels of 17-Beta-Estradiol, Progesterone and Luteinising Hormone in the Laying Hen British Poultry Science 31:385-397, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2372713. DOI: 10.1080/00071669008417269.
1989 Anthony, N.B., Dunnington, E.A., Siegel, P.B. :
Composition of eggs from dwarf and normal chickens in lines selected for 56-day body weight Poultry Science 68:591-595, 1989.
Burghellemayeur, C., Tixier-Boichard, M., Merat, P., Demarne, Y. :
Denovo Lipogenesis and Lipolysis Activities in Normal (Dw) and Dwarf (dw) White Leghorn Laying Hens Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Comparative Biochemistry 93:773-779, 1989.
Burghellemayeur, C., Demarne, Y., Merat, P. :
Influence of the Sex-Linked Dwarfing Gene (Dw) on the Lipid Composition of Plasma, Egg Yolk and Abdominal Fat Pad in White Leghorn Laying Hens - Effect of Dietary Fat Journal of Nutrition 119:1361-1368, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2685198.
Fundora, O., Valdivie, M. :
Effect of the Dwarfism Gene (Dw) and the Naked Neck Gene (Na) on the Performance of Replacement Chicks .1. Floor Rearing Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 23:293-299, 1989.
Hoshino, S., Matsuzaki, S., Wakita, M., Kobayashi, Y., Suzuki, M. :
Cartilage Response to Thyroid Hormones in the Sex-Linked Dwarf Chicken Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-Comparative Physiology 93:583-585, 1989.
Hoshino, S., Wakita, M., Kobayashi, Y., Kakegawa, T., Suzuki, M. :
Effects of Thyroid Hormones on Cartilage Sulphation in Sex- Linked Dwarf Chickens Acta Endocrinologica 121:107-111, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2741636.
Huybrechts, L.M., Michielsen, R., Darras, V.M., Buonomo, F.C., Kuhn, E.R., Decuypere, E. :
Effect of the Sex-Linked Dwarf Gene on Thyrotrophic and Somatotrophic Axes in the Chick Embryo Reproduction Nutrition Development 29:219-226, 1989.
Kuhn, E.R., Huybrechts, L.M., Vanderpooten, A., Berghman, L. :
A Decreased Capacity of Hepatic Growth Hormone (GH) Receptors and Failure of Thyrotrophin-Releasing Hormone to Stimulate the Peripheral Conversion of Thyroxine into Triiodothyronine in Sex-Linked Dwarf Broiler Hens Reproduction Nutrition Development 29:461-467, 1989.
Lam, S.K., Harvey, S., Scanes, C.G. :
Thyroid Function in Sex-Linked and Autosomal Dwarf Chickens General and Comparative Endocrinology 76:200-204, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2574126.
Nichelmann, M., Tzschentke, B., Wuntke, B., Postel, T. :
Comparative Investigations on Heat Balance in Normal and Dwarf Size Layers Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 53:259-265, 1989.
Scanes, C.G., Dunnington, E.A., Buonomo, F.C., Donoghue, D.J., Siegel, P.B. :
Plasma Concentrations of Insulin Like Growth Factors (IGF-)I and IGF-II in Dwarf and Normal Chickens of High and Low Weight Selected Lines Growth Development and Aging 53:151-157, 1989.
Tixier-Boichard, M., Huybrechts, L.M., Kuhn, E., Decuypere, E., Charrier, J., Mongin, P. :
Physiological studies on the sex-linked dwarfism of the fowl: a review on the search for the gene's primary effect Genetique, Selection, Evolution 21:217-234, 1989.
1987 Abplanalp, H., Napolitano, D., Tai, C. :
The effects of the gene for sex linked dwarfing (dw) on egg production and body composition of hens in a line selected for high numbers of multiple yolked eggs Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 104:304-308, 1987.
Gehlaut, B.S., Datta, I.C. :
Maternal effect on serum glucose, proteins and lactic dehydrogenase activity in the F1 chicken of reciprocal cross between dwarf and non-dwarf parents Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 57:898-900, 1987.
Huybrechts, L.M., Kuhn, E.R., Decuypere, E., Merat, P., Scanes, C.G. :
Plasma concentrations of growth hormone and somatomedin C in dwarf and normal chickens Reproduction, Nutrition, Developpement 27:547-553, 1987.
Khan, A.G., Tiwari, R.N.S., Baghel, K.K.S., Gupta, R.D. :
Influence of the dwarfing gene dw on egg production and viability under summer heat stress British Poultry Science 28:541-546, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3676886. DOI: 10.1080/00071668708416988.
Maeda, Y., Matsuoka, S., Furuichi, N., Hayashi, K., Hashiguchi, T. :
The effect of the dw gene on the muscle protein turnover rate in chickens Biochemical Genetics 25:253-258, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3606561.
Marks, H.L. :
Water and feed intake, feed efficiency, and abdominal fat levels of dwarf and normal chickens selected under different water:feed ratio environments Poultry Science 66:1895-1900, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3452208.
Marks, H.L. :
Selection for 8-week body weight in normal and dwarf chickens under different water/feed environments Poultry Science 66:1252-1257, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3684847.
Murtuza, M., Datta, I.C., Khan, A.G. :
Influence of dwarf gene (dw) on ascorbic acid and cholesterol content of sdrenals in WLH female chicks Indian Veterinary Journal 64:210-214, 1987.
Proudfoot, F.G., Hulan, H.W. :
Parental effects on performance of broiler chicken progenies Poultry Science 66:1119-1122, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3671287.
Renden, J.A. :
Egg production efficiency in dwarf lines selected for high and low body weight as influenced by feed restriction Poultry Science 66:1985-1089, 1987.
Savage, T.F., Buckner, R.E. :
Influences of 16 and 17.5 percent crude protein diets without and with supplemental methionine on the reproductive traits of caged dwarf (dw) broiler breeder pullets Nutrition Reports International 36:1197-1203, 1987.
Whitehead, C.C., Herron, K.M., Waddington, D. :
Reproductive performance of dwarf broiler breeders given different allowances of food during the rearing and breeding periods and two lighting patterns British Poultry Science 28:415-427, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3676876. DOI: 10.1080/00071668708416976.
1986 Anon. :
[Comparison of reproductive performance in normal and dwarf breeding hens] :167-178, 1986.
Leenstra, F.R., Middlekoop, J.H. van, Vereijken, P.F.G., Abplanalp, H. :
Influence of the sex-linked dwarfing gene dw on yolk and egg production in normal and superovulating laying hens Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 50:65-68, 1986.
Merat, P., Bordas, A., Richard, J.P. :
[Performance of dwarf (dw) and normal-sized (Dw+) laying fowls at controlled temperature and with 24 or 26 hour light cycles] :176-180, 1986.
Metzlaff, H. :
[The effect of the major genes for dwarfism (dw) and naked neck (Na) on egg shell stability and structure in light and medium layers under moderate and high environmental temperatures] Thesis, Freie Universitat Berlin, German Federal Republic :175 pp., 1986.
Murtuza, M., Datta, I.C., Srivastava, A.M. :
Influence of dwarf gene (dw) on histoarchitecture of adenohypophyisi of dwarf female chicks during early post-hatch growth Indian Veterinary Journal 63:907-908, 1986.
Polkinghorne, R.W. :
Comparison of body weight modification in chickens induced with the sex-linked dwarfing gene (dw) and by restricting access to food during rearing Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 37:99-106, 1986.
Proudfoot, F.G., Hulan, H.W. :
The performance of one normal and two dwarf meat maternal genotypes and their progeny as affected by rearing and adult dietary treatments Canadian Journal of Animal Science 66:245-256, 1986.
Zelenka, D.J., Dunnington, E.A., Siegel, P.B. :
Growth to sexual maturity of dwarf and nondwarf White Rock chickens divergently selected for juvenile body weight Theoretical and Applied Genetics 73:61-65, 1986.
1985 Koncekova, Z., Baumgartner, J. :
Comparative analysis of broiler chickens developing in various combinations of dwarf (dw) gene effect :239-242, 1985.
1984 Renden, J, McDaniel, G.R., McGuire, J.A. :
Egg characteristics and production efficeincy of dwarf (dw) White Leghorn hens divergently selected for body weight Poultry Science 63:14-221, 1984.
1983 Scanes, C.G., Marsh, J., Decuypere, E., Rudas, P. :
Abnormalities in the plasma concentrations of thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine and growth hormone in sex-linked dwarf and autosomal dwarf White Leghorn domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). J Endocrinol 97:127-35, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6842122.
Whiting, T.S., Pesti, G.M. :
Effects of the dwarfing gene (dw) on egg weight, chick weight, and chick weight : egg weight ratio in a commercial broiler strain Poultry Science 62:2297-2302, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6669497.
1981 Cherry, J.A., Siegel, P.B. :
Dwarfism in diverse genetic backgrounds. 4. Effect of dietary energy Poultry Science 60:683-685, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7301733.
Maudlin, J.M., Marsteller, F.A., Gross, W.B., Siegal, P.B. :
The relationship between the dwarfing gene and E coli infection in two populations of chickens Journal of Heredity 72:125-126, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7024397.
1980 Touchburn, S.P., Guillaume, J., Leclercq, B., Blum, J.C. :
Lipid and energy metabolism in chicks affected by dwarfism (dw) and Naked-neck (Na). Poult Sci 59:2189-97, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7465494.
1969 Japp, RG., Mohammadian, M. :
Sex-linked dwarfism and egg production of broiler dams. Poult Sci 48:344-6, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5389849.

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