OMIA:000330-9615 : Elbow dysplasia in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

Categories: Skeleton phene (incl. short stature & teeth)

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Inheritance: Baers et al. (2019) conducted a quantitative genetic analysis of "elbow data from 130,117 dogs over 2 years old representing 17 breeds . . . obtained from the database of the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals". They reported "Heritability estimates for unilateral elbow dysplasia varied between breeds (ranging from 0.01 to 0.36) and were similar between the left and right elbows. The estimated genetic correlation between disease in the left and right elbow ~1 in the majority of breeds".

Mapping: Pfahler and Distl (2012) reported a GWAS on 174 Bernese Mountain dogs that had been phenotyped on the IEWG's 4-point elbow-dysplasia scale, each genotyped with the Illumina HD beadchip, which yielded 96,412 SNPs for inclusion in the analysis. Two regions were highlighted on chromosome CFA11 and one on CFA27. Based on known function, the list of genes in those regions was reduced to just two functional positional candidates which are undergoing close examination.

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Control: A large-scale analysis of "data from dogs of six breeds [Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, German Shepherd Dog, Rottweiler, Bernese Mountain Dog), and Newfoundland] scored [in the BVA/KC Hip and Elbow Dysplasia grading schemes] from 1990 to present" by James et al. (2020) "demonstrated evidence of improving genetic trends with respect to hip score and elbow grade in [the above] six UK registered breeds in line with phenotypic improvements and participation in screening schemes."

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2021). OMIA:000330-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Roels, J., Genevois, J.P., Fostier-Humbert, M., Porsmoguer, C., Blondel, M., Chanoit, G., Fau, D., Cachon, T. :
Prevalence of elbow dysplasia in 13 dog breeds in France: a retrospective radiographic study (2002-2022). Am J Vet Res :1-8, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38518402. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.23.12.0290.
2023 Hayward, J.J., Todhunter, R.J. :
Common orthopedic traits and screening for breeding programs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 53:1013-1029, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37225647. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2023.04.004.
Jones, G.M.C., Gosby, M.R., May, E.M., Meeson, R.L. :
Evaluation of subchondral bone cysts in canine elbows with radiographic osteoarthritis secondary to elbow dysplasia. Vet Surg , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37943094. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.14047.
Obel, C., Bergström, A., Comin, A., Engdahl, K. :
Long-term outcomes in dogs with elbow dysplasia, assessed using the canine orthopaedic index. Vet Rec :e2950, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37138533. DOI: 10.1002/vetr.2950.
2021 Hebel, M., Panek, W.K., Ruszkowski, J.J., Nabzdyk, M., Niedzielski, D., Pituch, K.C., Jackson, A.M., Kiełbowicz, M., Pomorska-Mól, M. :
Computed tomography findings in a cohort of 169 dogs with elbow dysplasia - a retrospective study. BMC Vet Res 17:296, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34488762. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-021-02997-5.
Vezzoni, A., Benjamino, K. :
Canine elbow dysplasia: Ununited anconeal process, osteochondritis dissecans, and medial coronoid process disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 51:439-474, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33558015. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2020.12.007.
2019 Alves-Pimenta, S., Ginja, M.M., Colaço, B. :
Role of Elbow Incongruity in Canine Elbow Dysplasia: Advances in Diagnostics and Biomechanics. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 32:87-96, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30703814. DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1677513.
Baers, G., Keller, G.G., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Heritability of Unilateral Elbow Dysplasia in the Dog: A Retrospective Study of Sire and Dam Influence. Front Vet Sci 6:422, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31824974. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00422.
James, H.K., McDonnell, F., Lewis, T.W. :
Effectiveness of canine hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia improvement programs in six UK pedigree breeds. Front Vet Sci 6:490, 2019. Pubmed reference: 32010712. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00490.
2018 Preston, T., Wills, A.P. :
A single hydrotherapy session increases range of motion and stride length in Labrador retrievers diagnosed with elbow dysplasia. Vet J 234:105-110, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29680380. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2018.02.013.
Soo, M., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Worth, A.J. :
Heritabilities and genetic trends for elbow score as recorded by the New Zealand Veterinary Association Elbow Dysplasia Scheme (1992-2013) in four breeds of dog. N Z Vet J 66:154-161, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29457536. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2018.1440652.
Tolhurst, P. :
Benefits to breeds by using the hip and elbow health scheme. Vet Rec 183:136, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30054418. DOI: 10.1136/vr.k3279.
2017 Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T.P., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders. Canine Genet Epidemiol 4:6, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28560045. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-017-0044-6.
Huang, M., Hayward, J.J., Corey, E., Garrison, S.J., Wagner, G.R., Krotscheck, U., Hayashi, K., Schweitzer, P.A., Lust, G., Boyko, A.R., Todhunter, R.J. :
A novel iterative mixed model to remap three complex orthopedic traits in dogs. PLoS One 12:e0176932, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28614352. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176932.
2016 Hayward, J.J., Castelhano, M.G., Oliveira, K.C., Corey, E., Balkman, C., Baxter, T.L., Casal, M.L., Center, S.A., Fang, M., Garrison, S.J., Kalla, S.E., Korniliev, P., Kotlikoff, M.I., Moise, N.S., Shannon, L.M., Simpson, K.W., Sutter, N.B., Todhunter, R.J., Boyko, A.R. :
Complex disease and phenotype mapping in the domestic dog. Nat Commun 7:10460, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26795439. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10460.
Nemanic, S., Nixon, B.K., Baltzer, W. :
Analysis of risk factors for elbow dysplasia in giant breed dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 29, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27471099. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-15-05-0175.
2015 Anon. :
Canine health screening - making a difference to dogs. Vet Rec 177:584, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26667425. DOI: 10.1136/vr.h6685.
Oberbauer, A.M., Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R. :
Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401337. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0021-x.
2014 Coopman, F., Broeckx, B., Verelst, E., Deforce, D., Saunders, J., Duchateau, L., Verhoeven, G. :
Combined prevalence of inherited skeletal disorders in dog breeds in Belgium. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 27:395-7, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25078710. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-13-11-0140.
Lavrijsen, I.C., Heuven, H.C., Meij, B.P., Theyse, L.F., Nap, R.C., Leegwater, P.A., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Prevalence and co-occurrence of hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia in Dutch pure-bred dogs. Prev Vet Med 114:114-22, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24588976. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.02.001.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Böttcher, P., Bräuer, S., Werner, H. :
Estimation of joint incongruence in dysplastic canine elbows before and after dynamic proximal ulnar osteotomy. Vet Surg 42:371-6, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23458354. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2013.01085.x.
Hou, Y., Wang, Y., Lu, X., Zhang, X., Zhao, Q., Todhunter, R.J., Zhang, Z. :
Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia Achieved Modest Genetic Improvement of 74 Dog Breeds over 40 Years in USA. PLoS One 8:e76390, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24124555. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076390.
Hou, Y., Wang, Y., Lu, X., Zhang, X., Zhao, Q., Todhunter, R.J., Zhang, Z. :
Correction: Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia Achieved Modest Genetic Improvement of 74 Dog Breeds over 40 Years in USA. PLoS One 8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24204480. DOI: 10.1371/annotation/92e1aa00-169b-45dc-9866-61034e061f6d.
Krontveit, R.I., Sævik, B.K. :
Challenges in tackling inherited skeletal disorders in the dog. Vet J 196:8-9, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23228513. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.11.005.
Les, C.M. :
Elbow dysplasia in the dog: Engineering a better iron lung? Vet J , 2013. Pubmed reference: 23395349. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.12.024.
Lewis, T.W., Blott, S.C., Woolliams, J.A. :
Comparative analyses of genetic trends and prospects for selection against hip and elbow dysplasia in 15 UK dog breeds. BMC Genet 14:16, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23452300. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-14-16.
Michelsen, J. :
Canine elbow dysplasia: aetiopathogenesis and current treatment recommendations. Vet J 196:12-9, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23266351. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.11.009.
2012 Hartmann, P., Stock, K.F., Distl, O. :
[Multivariate prediction of breeding values for canine hip and elbow dysplasia as well as humeral osteochondrosis in the Bernese mountain dog]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 125:432-40, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23045807.
Lavrijsen, I.C., Heuven, H.C., Voorhout, G., Meij, B.P., Theyse, L.F., Leegwater, P.A., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Phenotypic and genetic evaluation of elbow dysplasia in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and Bernese Mountain Dogs. Vet J , 2012. Pubmed reference: 22336139. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.01.001.
Pfahler, S., Distl, O. :
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Canine Hip Dysplasia and Canine Elbow Dysplasia in Bernese Mountain Dogs. PLoS One 7:e49782, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23189162. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049782.
2011 Bockstahler, B. :
The canine elbow: A joint in the focus of research. Vet J , 2011. Pubmed reference: 21310636. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.12.031.
Keller, G.G., Dziuk, E., Bell, J.S. :
How the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) is tackling inherited disorders in the USA: using hip and elbow dysplasia as examples. Vet J 189:197-202, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21741865. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.019.
Lewis, T.W., Ilska, J.J., Blott, S.C., Woolliams, J.A. :
Genetic evaluation of elbow scores and the relationship with hip scores in UK Labrador retrievers. Vet J 189:227-33, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21737324. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.024.
Stock, KF., Klein, S., Tellhelm, B., Distl, O. :
Genetic analyses of elbow and hip dysplasia in the German shepherd dog. J Anim Breed Genet 128:219-29, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21554416. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2010.00901.x.
Woolliams, J.A., Lewis, T.W., Blott, S.C. :
Canine hip and elbow dysplasia in UK Labrador retrievers. Vet J 189:169-76, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21737322. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.015.
2010 Cachon, T., Genevois, JP., Remy, D., Carozzo, C., Viguier, E., Maitre, P., Arnault, F., Fau, D. :
Risk of simultaneous phenotypic expression of hip and elbow dysplasia in dogs: a study of 1,411 radiographic examinations sent for official scoring. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 23:28-30, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19997665. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-08-11-0116.
Crispin, SM., Turner, BM. :
Changes to the BVA/KC Canine Health Schemes. Vet Rec 166:28, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20045860. DOI: 10.1136/vr.b5576.
Hartmann, P., Stock, KF., Distl, O. :
[Multivariate genetic analysis of canine hip and elbow dysplasia as well as humeral osteochondrosis in the Bernese mountain dog]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 123:488-95, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21141279.
Worth, AJ., Bridges, JP., Jones, G. :
Reduction in the incidence of elbow dysplasia in four breeds of dog as measured by the New Zealand Veterinary Association scoring scheme. N Z Vet J 58:190-5, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20676156. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2010.68864.
2009 Clements, DN., Short, AD., Barnes, A., Kennedy, LJ., Ferguson, JF., Butterworth, SJ., Fitzpatrick, N., Pead, M., Bennett, D., Innes, JF., Carter, SD., Ollier, WE. :
A candidate gene study of canine joint diseases. J Hered 101:54-60, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19965910. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esp088.
Cook, CR., Cook, JL. :
Diagnostic imaging of canine elbow dysplasia: a review. Vet Surg 38:144-53, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19236671. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00481.x.
Engler, J., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
[Estimation of population genetic parameters for radiographical findings of elbow dsyplasia in the Labrador Retriever] Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 122:378-85, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19863010.
Heine, A., Hamann, H., Tellhelm, B., Distl, O. :
[Estimation of population genetic parameters and breeding values for elbow dysplasia in Rottweilers] Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 122:100-7, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19350808.
Huck, JL., Biery, DN., Lawler, DF., Gregor, TP., Runge, JJ., Evans, RH., Kealy, RD., Smith, GK. :
A longitudinal study of the influence of lifetime food restriction on development of osteoarthritis in the canine elbow. Vet Surg 38:192-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19236677. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00487.x.
Lappalainen, A.K., Mölsä, S., Liman, A., Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O., Snellman, M. :
Radiographic and computed tomography findings in Belgian shepherd dogs with mild elbow dysplasia. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 50:364-9, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19697600.
Paster, ER., Biery, DN., Lawler, DF., Evans, RH., Kealy, RD., Gregor, TP., McKelvie, PJ., Smith, GK. :
Un-united medial epicondyle of the humerus: radiographic prevalence and association with elbow osteoarthritis in a cohort of labrador retrievers. Vet Surg 38:169-72, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19236674. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00484.x.
2008 Burton, NJ., Toscano, MJ., Barr, FJ., Owen, MR. :
Reliability of radiological assessment of ulnar trochlear notch sclerosis in dysplastic canine elbows. J Small Anim Pract 49:572-6, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18684142. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00611.x.
Coopman, F., Verhoeven, G., Saunders, J., Duchateau, L., Van Bree, H. :
Prevalence of hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia and humeral head osteochondrosis in dog breeds in Belgium. Vet Rec 163:654-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19043090.
Davidson, PT., Bullock-Saxton, J., Lisle, A. :
Anthropometric measurements of the scapula, humerus, radius and ulna in Labrador dogs with and without elbow dysplasia. Aust Vet J 86:425-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18959529. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2008.00355.x.
Hammond, G., Gemmill, T., Mellor, D., Sullivan, M. :
Assessment of low-cost teleradiology for grading elbow dysplasia. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 49:20-5, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18251289.
Janutta, V., Distl, O. :
Review on canine elbow dysplasia: pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevalence and genetic aspects. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 115:172-81, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18547017.
Malm, S., Fikse, WF., Danell, B., Strandberg, E. :
Genetic variation and genetic trends in hip and elbow dysplasia in Swedish Rottweiler and Bernese Mountain Dog. J Anim Breed Genet 125:403-12, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19134076. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2008.00725.x.
Moores, AP., Benigni, L., Lamb, CR. :
Computed tomography versus arthroscopy for detection of canine elbow dysplasia lesions. Veterinary Surgery 37:390-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18564264. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00393.x.
2007 Kirberger, RM., Stander, N. :
Incidence of canine elbow dysplasia in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 78:59-62, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17941595.
2006 Samoy, Y., Van Ryssen, B., Gielen, I., Walschot, N., Van Bree, H. :
Review of the literature: elbow incongruity in the dog. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 19:1-8, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16594537.
2005 Beuing, R., Janssen, N., Wurster, H., Schmied, O., Fluckiger, M. :
[The significance of elbow dysplasia (ED) for breeding in Bernese Mountain Dogs in Germany] Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 147:491-7, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16315851.
Demko, J., McLaughlin, R. :
Developmental orthopedic disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 35:1111-35, v, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16129135. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2005.05.002.
Janutta, V., Hamann, H., Klein, S., Tellhelm, B., Distl, O. :
Genetic evaluation of elbow angles as predictors of elbow dysplasia in German shepherd dogs. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 52:254-61, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15943611. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.2005.00722.x.
2004 Remy, D., Neuhart, L., Fau, D., Genevois, JP. :
Canine elbow dysplasia and primary lesions in German shepherd dogs in France. J Small Anim Pract 45:244-8, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15163051.
2002 Maki, K., Groen, A.F., Liinamo, A.E., Ojala, M. :
Genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations Animal Science 75:197-207, 2002.
2001 Maki, K., Groen, A.F., Liinamo, A.E., Ojala, M. :
Population structure, inbreeding trend and their association with hip and elbow dysplasia in dogs Animal Science 73:217-228, 2001.
2000 Anon. :
AVA's hip and elbow dysplasia scheme Australian Veterinary Journal 78:374, 2000.
Beuing, R., Mues, C.H., Tellhelm, B., Erhardt, G. :
Prevalence and inheritance of canine elbow dysplasia in German Rottweiler Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics-Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 117:375-383, 2000.
Everts, R.E., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Rothuizen, J., van, Oost, B.A. :
Bone disorders in the dog: A review of modern genetic strategies to find the underlying causes [Review] Veterinary Quarterly 22:63-70, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10789512.
Hornof, W.J., Wind, A.P., Wallack, S.T., Schulz, K.S. :
Canine elbow dysplasia - The early radiographic detection of fragmentation of the coronoid process Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 30:257-+, 2000.
Maki, K., Liinamo, A.E., Ojala, M. :
Estimates of genetic parameters for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish Rottweilers Journal of Animal Science 78:1141-1148, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10834565.
Sturaro, E., Ojala, M., Mäki, K., Bittante, G., Carnier, P., Pedrani, G., Gallo, L. :
Results from an explorative screening program for elbow dysplasia in some breeds of dogs in Italy. Italian Journal of Animal Science 4:233-240, 2000.
1999 Brunnberg, L., Viehmann, B., Waibl, H. :
Computer-aided evaluation of parameters for elbow dysplasia - Part two: Steps between radius and ulna [German] Kleintierpraxis 44:637-+, 1999.
Morgan, J.P., Wind, A., Davidson, A.P. :
Bone dysplasias in the Labrador retriever: A radiographic study Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 35:332-340, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10416779.
Ubbink, G.J., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., van, de, Broek, J., Rothuizen, J. :
Familial clustering and risk analysis for fragmented coronoid process and elbow joint incongruity in Bernese Mountain Dogs in the Netherlands American Journal of Veterinary Research 60:1082-1087, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10490075.
Viehmann, B., Waibl, H., Brunnberg, L. :
Computer-aided evaluation of parameters for elbow dysplasia, Part 1: Incisura trochlearis ulnae [German] Kleintierpraxis 44:595-+, 1999.
1998 Anon. :
Getting to grips with elbow dysplasia Veterinary Record 142:149, 1998.
Kirberger, R.M., Fourie, S.L. :
Elbow dysplasia in the dog - pathophysiology, diagnosis and control JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION-TYDSKRIF VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE VETERINERE VERENIGING 69:43-54, 1998.
Kirberger, RM., Fourie, SL. :
Elbow dysplasia in the dog: pathophysiology, diagnosis and control. J S Afr Vet Assoc 69:43-54, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9760396.
Lang, J., Busato, A., Baumgartner, D., Fluckiger, M., Weber, U.T. :
Comparison of two classification protocols in the evaluation of elbow dysplasia in the dog Journal of Small Animal Practice 39:169-174, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9577758.
Pead, M.J. :
Elbow scoring in dogs Veterinary Record 142:72, 1998.
Ubbink, G.J., Vandebroek, J., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Rothuizen, J. :
Risk estimates for dichotomous genetic disease traits based on a cohort study of relatedness in purebred dog populations Veterinary Record 142:328-331, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9571755.
Ubbink, G.J., Vandebroek, J., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Rothuizen, J. :
Cluster analysis of the genetic heterogeneity and disease distributions in purebred dog populations Veterinary Record 142:209-213, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9533291.
Walker, T.M. :
A redefined type of elbow dysplasia in the dog - 2 cases Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 39:573-575, 1998.
1997 Keller, G.G., Kreeger, J.M., Mann, F.A., Lattimer, J.C. :
Correlation of radiographic, necropsy and histologic findings in 8 dogs with elbow dysplasia Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 38:272-276, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9262682.
Snaps, F.R., Balligand, M.H., Saunders, J.H., Park, R.D., Dondelinger, R.F. :
Comparison of radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical findings in dogs with elbow dysplasia American Journal of Veterinary Research 58:1367-1370, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9401682.
Swenson, L., Audell, L., Hedhammar, A. :
Prevalence and inheritance of and selection for elbow arthrosis in Bernese mountain dogs and Rottweilers in Sweden and benefit: cost analysis of a screening and control program. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:215-21, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9018355.
1996 Read, A., Armstrong, S.J., Black, A.P., Macpherson, G.C., Yovich, J.C., Davey, T. :
Relationship between physical signs of elbow dysplasia and radiographic score in growing rottweilers Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209:1427 ff., 1996.
Schmokel, H.G., Ehrismann, G. :
Correction of an elbow dysplasia by ulnaostectomy and an external fixator with threaded connecting bars in a dog [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 83:238-241, 1996.
Vanbree, H., Verschooten, F. :
Veterinary research at a clinical laboratory - diagnosis and treatment of joint diseases in the dog - past and present [Dutch] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 65:308-309, 1996.
1994 Anon. :
Elbow Dysplasia in the Dog Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 119:473-474, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8091411.
Bedford, P.G.C. :
WSAVA Kennel Clubs Meeting - Control of Hereditary Elbow Disease in Pedigree Dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 35:119-122, 1994.
1993 Anon. :
Elbow Dysplasia in the Bernese Mountain Dog Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 118:656-657, 1993.
Anon. :
Hip Dysplasia and Elbow Disease in Sight of the Federation- Cynologique-Internationale .1 Kleintierpraxis 38:194, 1993.
1992 Flückiger, M. :
[Elbow dysplasia in the dog]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 134:261-71, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1502503.
1966 Ljunggren, G., Cawley, A.J., Archibald, J. :
Elbow dysplasia in the dog Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 148:887-890, 1966. Pubmed reference: 5950881.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 20 May 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 29 Jan 2020
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 07 Feb 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 12 Sep 2021