OMIA:000701-9031 : Naked neck in Gallus gallus (chicken)

Categories: Integument (skin) phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 604651 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal dominant

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2011

Species-specific name: Turkens; Transylvania Naked neck; Bare necks; Hackleless; Rubber necks (Somes, 1990)

Species-specific symbol: Na

History: This trait was first reported by Davenport (1914)

Inheritance: Davenport (1914) reported autosomal dominant inheritance, which was confirmed by Warren (1933) (Somes, 1990).

Molecular basis: Mou et al. (2011) showed that this mutation is due to a large insertion approximately 260kb downstream from the BMP12 gene (now known as GFD7), increasing the expression of this gene in embryonic skin. In the words of the authors: "We find that in chickens a bare neck is caused by increased production of BMPs, factors previously implicated in defining the size of the gaps between neighboring feathers. Selective production of retinoic acid by embryonic neck skin enhances BMP signaling, thereby bringing this skin region close to the threshold of BMP action required to completely suppress feather development. This usually innocuous distinction between neck and body skin enables mutations that increase BMP action to render the neck completely bare while permitting normal feathering on the body."

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
GDF7 growth differentiation factor 7 Gallus gallus 3 NC_052534.1 (101753911..101762484) GDF7 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
721 Naked neck GDF7 insertion, gross (>20) Naturally occurring variant 3 a large insertion approximately 260kb downstream from the BMP12 gene (now known as GFD7), increasing the expression of this gene in embryonic skin 2011 21423653

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2012). OMIA:000701-9031: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Fernandes, E., Raymundo, A., Martins, L.L., Lordelo, M., de Almeida, A.M. :
The naked neck gene in the domestic chicken: A genetic strategy to mitigate the impact of heat stress in poultry production-A review. Animals (Basel) 13:1007, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36978548. DOI: 10.3390/ani13061007.
Meteyake, H.T., Collin, A., Bilalissi, A., Dassidi, N., Assion, M.E.P., Tona, K. :
Naked neck gene and intermittent thermal manipulations during embryogenesis improve posthatch performance and thermotolerance in slow-growing chickens under tropical climates. Poult Sci 102:102912, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37499617. DOI: 10.1016/j.psj.2023.102912.
2022 Fathi, M.M., Galal, A., Radwan, L.M., Abou-Emera, O.K., Al-Homidan, I.H. :
Using major genes to mitigate the deleterious effects of heat stress in poultry: an updated review. Poult Sci 101:102157, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36167017. DOI: 10.1016/j.psj.2022.102157.
2021 Desta, T.T. :
The genetic basis and robustness of naked neck mutation in chicken. Trop Anim Health Prod 53:95, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33415443. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-020-02505-1.
2011 [No authors listed] :
Naked neck chickens and the art of staying cool. Vet Rec 168:290, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21498192. DOI: 10.1136/vr.d1703.
Adeleke, MA., Peters, SO., Ozoje, MO., Ikeobi, CO., Bamgbose, AM., Adebambo, OA. :
Growth performance of Nigerian local chickens in crosses involving an exotic broiler breeder. Trop Anim Health Prod 43:643-50, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21088891. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-010-9747-3.
Cooper, JE. :
Naked-neck chickens. Vet Rec 168:544, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21602417. DOI: 10.1136/vr.d3094.
Heller, K. :
How bird necks get naked. PLoS Biol 9:e1001029, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21423651. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001029.
Mou, C., Pitel, F., Gourichon, D., Vignoles, F., Tzika, A., Tato, P., Yu, L., Burt, DW., Bed'hom, B., Tixier-Boichard, M., Painter, KJ., Headon, DJ. :
Cryptic patterning of avian skin confers a developmental facility for loss of neck feathering. PLoS Biol 9:e1001028, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21423653. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001028.
Mtileni, BJ., Muchadeyi, FC., Maiwashe, A., Groeneveld, E., Groeneveld, LF., Dzama, K., Weigend, S. :
Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations. J Anim Breed Genet 128:209-18, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21554415. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2010.00891.x.
Peters, SO., Gunn, HH., Imumorin, IG., Agaviezor, BO., Ikeobi, CO. :
Haematological studies on frizzled and naked neck genotypes of Nigerian native chickens. Trop Anim Health Prod 43:631-8, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21107909. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-010-9743-7.
2010 de Almeida, AM., Zuber, U. :
The effect of the Naked Neck genotype (Nana), feeding and outdoor rearing on growth and carcass characteristics of free range broilers in a hot climate. Trop Anim Health Prod 42:99-107, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19544084. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-009-9391-y.
Magothe, TM., Muhuyi, WB., Kahi, AK. :
Influence of major genes for crested-head, frizzle-feather and naked-neck on body weights and growth patterns of indigenous chickens reared intensively in Kenya. Trop Anim Health Prod 42:173-83, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19579054. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-009-9403-y.
Sharifi, AR., Horst, P., Simianer, H. :
The effect of naked neck gene and ambient temperature and their interaction on reproductive traits of heavy broiler dams. Poult Sci 89:1360-71, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20548063. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2009-00593.
2009 Chen, CF., Gourichon, D., Huang, NZ., Lee, YP., Bordas, A., Tixier-Boichard, M. :
Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments. Genet Sel Evol 41:13, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19284708. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-41-13.
2008 Cahaner, A., Ajuh, J.A., Siegmund-Schultze, M., Azoulay, Y., Druyan, S., Zárate, A.V. :
Effects of the genetically reduced feather coverage in naked neck and featherless broilers on their performance under hot conditions. Poult Sci 87:2517-27, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19038808. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00284.
2002 Haunshi, S., Sharma, D., Nayal, L.M.S., Singh, D.P., Singh, R.V. :
Effect of naked neck gene (NA) and frizzle gene (F) on immunocompetence in chickens British Poultry Science 43:28-32, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12003334. DOI: 10.1080/00071660120109863.
Ozkan, S., Smith, W.K., Bath, H.M. :
The development of thermal resistance of the feather coat in broilers with different feathering genotypes and feeding regimes British Poultry Science 43:472-481, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12195808. DOI: 10.1080/00071660120103765.
2001 Deeb, N., Cahaner, A. :
Genotype-by-environment interaction with broiler genotypes differing in growth rate. 1. The effects of high ambient temperature and naked-neck genotype on lines differing in genetic background Poultry Science 80:695-702, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11441834.
Fraga, L.M., Febles, M. :
A note on naked neck gene (Na) and its relationship with broiler carcass Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 35:197-199, 2001.
Haque, M.E., Howlider, M.A.R., Huque, Q.M.E. :
Effect of Na gene on egg quality in upgraded local fowls of Bangladesh Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71:396-397, 2001.
Singh, C.V., Kumar, D., Singh, Y.P. :
Potential usefulness of the plumage reducing Naked Neck (Na) gene in poultry production at normal and high ambient temperatures (vol 57, pg 139, 2001) Worlds Poultry Science Journal 57:433, 2001.
Singh, C.V., Kumar, D., Singh, Y.P. :
Potential usefulness of the plumage reducing Naked Neck (Na) gene in poultry production at normal and high ambient temperatures Worlds Poultry Science Journal 57:139-156, 2001.
2000 Haque, M.E., Howlider, M.A.R. :
Growth and meat yield in native Naked Neck, exotic chicken and their crossbreds: F-2 generation Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 70:501-503, 2000.
Pitel, F., Berge, R., Coquerelle, G., Crooijmans, R.P.M.A., Groenen, M.A.M., Vignal, A., Tixier-Boichard, M. :
Mapping the Naked Neck (NA) and Polydactyly (PO) mutants of the chicken with microsatellite molecular markers Genetics Selection Evolution 32:73-86, 2000. Pubmed reference: 14736408. DOI: 10.1051/gse:2000107.
1999 Deeb, N., Cahaner, A. :
The effects of naked neck genotypes, ambient temperature, and feeding status and their interactions on body temperature and performance of broilers Poultry Science 78:1341-1346, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10536779.
Fraga, L.M., Berrio, I., Febles, M., Cardenas, M., Rodriguez, J.L. :
A note on the naked neck gene and disease resistance in poultry Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 33:279-281, 1999.
Haque, M.E., Howlider, M.A.R., Huque, Q.M.E. :
Growth performance and meat yield characteristics of native naked neck and their crosses with exotic chicken Journal of Applied Animal Research 16:81-86, 1999.
Padhi, M.K., Senani, S., Saha, S.K., Rai, R.B. :
Effect of naked neck gene on juvenile growth performance of chicken in Andaman Indian Veterinary Journal 76:610-612, 1999.
Yalcin, S., Ozkan, S., Acikgoz, Z., Ozkan, K. :
Effect of dietary methionine on performance, carcase characteristics and breast meat composition of heterozygous naked neck (Na/na plus ) birds under spring and summer conditions British Poultry Science 40:688-694, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10670683. DOI: 10.1080/00071669987098.
Yunis, R., Cahaner, A. :
The effects of the naked neck (Na) and frizzle (F) genes on growth and meat yield of broilers and their interactions with ambient temperatures and potential growth rate Poultry Science 78:1347-1352, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10536780.
1998 Barua, A., Howlider, M.A.R., Yoshimura, Y. :
Indigenous naked neck fowl of bangladesh Worlds Poultry Science Journal 54:279-286, 1998.
Sarmiento, L., Belmar, R. :
Dietetic fibre on the apparent nutrient retention of hubbard and criollo naked neck commercial broilers Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 32:271-274, 1998.
Singh, B., Singh, B.P., Singh, S., Chaudhuri, D., Malik, C. :
Naked neck - a noble gene for broiler production in tropical climate [Review] Journal of Applied Animal Research 13:37-48, 1998.
Yahav, S., Luger, D., Cahaner, A., Dotan, M., Rusal, M., Hurwitz, S. :
Thermoregulation in naked neck chickens subjected to different ambient temperatures British Poultry Science 39:133-138, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9568311. DOI: 10.1080/00071669889510.
Yalcin, S., Bilgen, G., Oktay, G., Acikgoz, Z., Bilgili, S.F. :
Effect of season and dietary energy concentration on composition and strength of skin in naked neck fowl British Poultry Science 39:627-632, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9925315. DOI: 10.1080/00071669888494.
Yalcin, S., Ozkan, S., Acikgoz, Z., Ozkan, K. :
Influence of dietary energy on bird performance, carcase parts yields and nutrient composition of breast meat of heterozygous naked neck broilers reared at natural optimum and summer temperatures British Poultry Science 39:633-638, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9925316. DOI: 10.1080/00071669888502.
1997 Pays, L. :
Regulation of the chick cutaneous innervation pattern in retinoic acid-induced ectopic feathers and in the naked neck mutant (vol 41, pg 579, 1997) International Journal of Developmental Biology 41:U 7, 1997.
Pays, L., Hemming, F.J., Saxod, R. :
Regulation of the chick cutaneous innervation pattern in retinoic acid-induced ectopic feathers and in the naked neck mutant International Journal of Developmental Biology 41:575-579, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9303345.
Yalcin, S., Testik, A., Ozkan, S., Settar, P., Celen, F., Cahaner, A. :
Performance of naked neck and normal broilers in hot, warm, and temperate climates Poultry Science 76:930-937, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9200226.
1996 Pesti, G.M., Leclercq, B., Chagneau, A.M., Cochard, T. :
Effects of the Naked neck (Na) gene on the sulfur-containing amino acid requirements of broilers Poultry Science 75:375-380, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8778732.
Yalcin, S., Ozkan, S., Acikgoz, Z., Ozkan, K. :
Effect of dietary protein content on live and carcase performance of heterozygous naked neck and normally feathered broilers British Poultry Science 37:963-969, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9034586. DOI: 10.1080/00071669608417927.
Yancovich, A., Levin, I., Cahaner, A., Hillel, J. :
Introgression of the avian naked neck gene assisted by DNA fingerprints Animal Genetics 27:149-155, 1996.
1995 Ladjali, K., Tixier-Boichard, M., Bordas, A., Merat, P. :
Cytogenetic Study of Early Chicken Embryos - Effect of Naked Neck Gene and High Ambient Temperature Poultry Science 74:903-909, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7644418.
1994 Fraga, L.M., Valdivie, M., Berrio, I., Perez, P., Gonzalez, L. :
The influence of the naked neck gene on poultry performance in cuba Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 28:251-262, 1994.
Gonzalez, L.M., Fraga, L.M., Mendez, R., Gutierrez, O. :
A note on hatching results of normal hens (nana) crossed with heterozygote (Nana) naked neck heavy cocks Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 28:91-94, 1994.
Merat, P., Bordas, A., Coquerelle, G. :
Response of Naked-Neck or Normal Plumage Hens to Additional Vitamin-C in the Feed at High Ambient Temperature Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 58:289-292, 1994.
1993 Bordas, A., Brillard, J.P., Coquerelle, G., Merat, P., Monvoisin, J.L. :
Influence of the Naked Neck Gene and of the Frequency of Inseminations on Reproduction Performances of Hens According to the Ambient Temperature Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 57:136-141, 1993.
Carefoot, WC. :
Further studies of linkage and mappings of the loci of genes in group 3 on chromosome 1 of the domestic fowl. Br Poult Sci 34:205-9, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8467400. DOI: 10.1080/00071669308417576.
Decuypere, E., Buyse, J., Merat, P., Zoons, J., Vloeberghs, J. :
Growth, Abdominal Fat Content, Heat Production and Plasma Hormone Levels of Naked-Neck and Control Broiler Chickens Animal Production 57:483-490, 1993.
Eberhart, D.E., Washburn, K.W. :
Variation in Body Temperature Response of Naked Neck and Normally Feathered Chickens to Heat Stress Poultry Science 72:1385-1390, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8378212.
Eberhart, D.E., Washburn, K.W. :
Assessing the Effects of the Naked Neck Gene on Chronic Heat Stress Resistance in 2 Genetic Populations Poultry Science 72:1391-1399, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8378213.
Shoffner, R.N., Otis, J.S., Garwood, V.A. :
Association of dominant marker traits and metric traits in chickens. Poultry Science 72:1405-1410, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8378215.
1992 Bartels, T., Meyer, W., Neurand, K. :
[Skin and plumage changes in domestic birds. II. Plumage changes]. Tierarztl Prax 20:275-81, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1496522.
Bordas, A., Merat, P. :
Performance of Homozygous Naked Neck Layers, Heterozygous Naked Neck Layers and Normal Plumage Layers of a Brown-Egg Dwarf Line Subjected to Constant or Fluctuating Temperature Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 56:22-27, 1992.
Manner, K., Bronsch, K. :
Energy Metabolism of Laying Hens of Different Genotypes Exposed to High Ambient Temperatures .3. Influence of the Genes for Naked Neck (Na) and Curling of Feathers (F) on the Correlation Between Different Ambient Temperatures and Energy Metabolism Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 56:14-22, 1992.
1991 Bitgood, J.J., Kendall, R.L., Briles, R.W., Briles, W.E. :
Erythrocyte alloantigen loci Ea-D and Ea-I map to chromosome 1 in the chicken. Anim Genet 22:449-54, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1789498.
Manner, K. :
Energy Metabolism of Laying Hens of Different Genotypes Exposed to High Ambient Temperatures .1. Report - Influence of the Gene for Naked Neck (Na) on Performance and Energy Metabolism of Normal and Dwarfed Laying Hens Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 55:247-257, 1991.
Merat, P., Bordas, A., Coquerelle, G., Monvoisin, J.L. :
Effect of the Na (Naked Neck) and O (Blue Eggshell) Genes on Egg Production, Egg Traits and Female Reproductive Performances According to the Ambient Temperature Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 55:130-133, 1991.
1990 Berrio, I., Viamontes, O., Fraga, L.M., Cardenas, M. :
A Study of the Dynamics of HI Anti-Bodies of White Leghorn Chicken Carriers of the Naked Neck Gene (Na) Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 24:199-204, 1990.
Somes, R.G. Jr :
Mutations and major variants of plumage and skin in chickens. In "Poultry Breeding and Genetics" (ed. R.D. Crawford), Elsevier, Amsterdam; Chapter 6 :169-208, 1990.
1989 Fundora, O., Valdivie, M. :
Effect of the Dwarfism Gene (Dw) and the Naked Neck Gene (Na) on the Performance of Replacement Chicks .1. Floor Rearing Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 23:293-299, 1989.
Merat, P., Boichard, M., Bordas, A., Coquerelle, G. :
Response of the Nana (Naked Neck) and Na+na+ (Normal Plumage) Genotypes to Heat for the Fertility and Hatching Rate of the Breeding Female Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 53:185-191, 1989.
1988 Horst, P. :
Using the major gene for feather restriction Poultry, Netherlands 4:8-9, 1988.
1987 Bitgood, JJ., Eutsler, EP., Wallace, MP. :
Studies of the pirouette mutation. 2. A detrimental phenotypic interaction with naked neck. Poult Sci 66:166-7, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3472191.
1986 Metzlaff, H. :
[The effect of the major genes for dwarfism (dw) and naked neck (Na) on egg shell stability and structure in light and medium layers under moderate and high environmental temperatures] Thesis, Freie Universitat Berlin, German Federal Republic :175 pp., 1986.
Rauen, H.W., Horst, P., Valle-Zarate, A. :
[Significance of the genes for reduced feathering and naked neck (Na) in relation to the ability of laying hens to adapt to the stress of permanently high temperatures] Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 50:235-245, 1986.
1984 Bitgood, JJ., Dochnahl, J., Schlafly, P., Briles, RW., Briles, WE. :
A study of linkage relationships of blood group P with naked neck, silkie feathering, and recessive white in chicken. Poult Sci 63:592-4, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6718311.
Bordas, A., Merat, P. :
Effects of the naked-neck gene on traits associated with egg laying in a dwarf stock at two temperatures. Br Poult Sci 25:195-207, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6733551. DOI: 10.1080/00071668408454858.
1980 Bitgood, JJ., Shoffner, RN., Otis, JS., Briles, WE. :
Mapping of the genes for pea comb, blue egg, barring, silver, and blood groups A, E, H, and P in the domestic fowl. Poult Sci 59:1686-93, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7413575. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0591686.
Bordas, A., Monnet, L.E., Merat, P. :
Naked neck gene: laying performance and food efficiency according to temperature in the fowl Annales de Genetique et de Selection Animale 12:343-361, 1980.
Touchburn, S.P., Guillaume, J., Leclercq, B., Blum, J.C. :
Lipid and energy metabolism in chicks affected by dwarfism (dw) and Naked-neck (Na). Poult Sci 59:2189-97, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7465494.
1976 Crawford, RD. :
Incomplete dominance of the gene for naked neck in domestic fowl. Poult Sci 55:820-2, 1976. Pubmed reference: 935035.
1949 Warren, DC. :
Linkage relations of autosomal factors in the fowl. Genetics 34:333-50, 1949. Pubmed reference: 17247319.
1938 Warren, D.C. :
Mapping the genes of the fowl (abstract) Genetics 23:174 only, 1938. DOI: 10.1093/genetics/23.1.139.
1933 Warren, D.C. :
Nine independently inherited autosomal factors in the domestic fowl. Genetics 18:68-81, 1933. Pubmed reference: 17246678.
1914 Davenport, C.B. :
The bare necks Journal of Heredity 5:374, 1914.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 27 May 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 07 Sep 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 08 Sep 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 09 Dec 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 23 Nov 2012