OMIA:000778-9615 : Patellar luxation in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: domestic cat , horse , llama , taurine cattle , sheep

Categories: Limbs / fins / digit / tail phene

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Cross-species summary: Also known as luxating patella (kneecap) or luxated patella or dislocated patellar

Inheritance: Patellar luxation is a classic quantitative (multifactorial) trait. Srinarang et al. (2018) reported a SNP in the Dystroglycan 1 (DAG1) gene that showed an association with the disorder in the Chihuahua breed. It is, therefore, possible that this gene is one of the many quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to genetic variation in liability for this disorder.

Breed: English Toy Spaniel (Dog) (VBO_0200498).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2019). OMIA:000778-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Brühschwein, A., Burg-Personnaz, J., Zöllner, M., Reese, S., Meyer-Lindenberg, A. :
Comparison of CT-measured angles of pelvic limbs without patellar luxation of six canine breeds. Front Vet Sci 10:1194167, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37519994. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1194167.
Carrera, A.L.C., Minto, B.W., Curuci, E.H.P., Paula, C.G., Jassniker, J.B., Cunha, O. :
Early surgical management of medial patellar luxation in juvenile dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol , 2023. Pubmed reference: 38113915. DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1777347.
Engdahl, K., Bergström, A., Höglund, O., Hanson, J. :
The epidemiology of patellar luxation in an insured Swedish dog population. Prev Vet Med 220:106034, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37801966. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2023.106034.
Hayward, J.J., Todhunter, R.J. :
Common orthopedic traits and screening for breeding programs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 53:1013-1029, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37225647. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2023.04.004.
Nagahiro, Y., Murakami, S., Shimada, M., Kanno, N., Harada, Y., Hara, Y. :
Evaluation of the quadriceps muscle length to femoral length ratio in small breed dogs with medial patellar luxation. Vet Surg , 2023. Pubmed reference: 36881987. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.13951.
2021 Perry, K.L., Déjardin, L.M. :
Canine medial patellar luxation. J Small Anim Pract 62:315-335, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33600015. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.13311.
2020 Anderson, K.L., Zulch, H., O'Neill, D.G., Meeson, R.L., Collins, L.M. :
Risk factors for canine osteoarthritis and its predisposing arthropathies: A systematic review. Front Vet Sci 7:220, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32411739. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00220.
Hamilton, L., Farrell, M., Mielke, B., Solano, M., Silva, S., Calvo, I. :
The natural history of canine occult Grade II medial patellar luxation: an observational study. J Small Anim Pract , 2020. Pubmed reference: 32003012. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.13093.
2018 Di Dona, F., Della Valle, G., Fatone, G. :
Patellar luxation in dogs. Vet Med (Auckl) 9:23-32, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30050864. DOI: 10.2147/VMRR.S142545.
Nilsson, K., Zanders, S., Malm, S. :
Heritability of patellar luxation in the Chihuahua and Bichon Frise breeds of dogs and effectiveness of a Swedish screening programme. Vet J 234:136-141, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29680386. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2018.01.010.
Srinarang, P., Nganvongpanit, K., Pradit, W., Buddhachat, K., Siengdee, P., Soontornvipart, K., Chomdej, S. :
Dystroglycan 1: A new candidate gene for patellar luxation in Chihuahua dogs. Vet World 11:1277-1284, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30410234. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.1277-1284.
Ueda, K., Kawai, T., Senoo, H., Shimizu, A., Ishiko, A., Nagata, M. :
Histopathological and electron microscopic study in dogs with patellar luxation and skin hyperextensibility. J Vet Med Sci 80:1309-1316, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29984735. DOI: 10.1292/jvms.18-0115.
2017 Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T.P., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders. Canine Genet Epidemiol 4:6, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28560045. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-017-0044-6.
Bosio, F., Bufalari, A., Peirone, B., Petazzoni, M., Vezzoni, A. :
Prevalence, treatment and outcome of patellar luxation in dogs in Italy. A retrospective multicentric study (2009-2014). Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 30, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28763525. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-16-05-0073.
2016 Di Dona, F., Della Valle, G., Balestriere, C., Lamagna, B., Meomartino, L., Napoleone, G., Lamagna, F., Fatone, G. :
Lateral patellar luxation in nine small breed dogs. Open Vet J 6:255-258, 2016. Pubmed reference: 28116250. DOI: 10.4314/ovj.v6i3.16.
Katayama, M., Ogaya, H., Shunsuke, S., Uzuka, Y. :
Kite Shield-Shaped Wedge Recession for Treatment of Medial Patellar Luxation in Seven Small-Breed Dogs. Vet Surg 45:66-70, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26638125. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.12422.
O'Neill, D.G., Meeson, R.L., Sheridan, A., Church, D.B., Brodbelt, D.C. :
The epidemiology of patellar luxation in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. Canine Genet Epidemiol 3:4, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27280025. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-016-0034-0.
Olimpo, M., Piras, L.A., Peirone, B. :
Pelvic limb alignment in small breed dogs: a comparison between affected and free subjects from medial patellar luxation. Vet Ital 52:45-50, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26681507. DOI: 10.12834/VetIt.71.206.3.
van Grevenhof, E.M., Hazewinkel, H.A., Heuven, H.C. :
Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs. J Anim Breed Genet 133:316-22, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26403830. DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12185.
2014 Kalff, S., Butterworth, S.J., Miller, A., Keeley, B., Baines, S., McKee, W.M. :
Lateral patellar luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 65 dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 27, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24441512. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-13-05-0064.
Lavrijsen, I.C., Leegwater, P.A., Wangdee, C., van Steenbeek, F.G., Schwencke, M., Breur, G.J., Meutstege, F.J., Nijman, I.J., Cuppen, E., Heuven, H.C., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Genome-wide survey indicates involvement of loci on canine chromosomes 7 and 31 in patellar luxation in Flat-Coated Retrievers. BMC Genet 15:64, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24886090. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-15-64.
Shaver, S.L., Mayhew, K.N., Sutton, J.S., Mayhew, P.D., Runge, J.J., Brown, D.C., Kass, P.H. :
Complications after corrective surgery for lateral patellar luxation in dogs: 36 cases (2000-2011). J Am Vet Med Assoc 244:444-8, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24479459. DOI: 10.2460/javma.244.4.444.
Stanke, N.J., Stephenson, N., Hayashi, K. :
Retrospective risk factor assessment for complication following tibial tuberosity transposition in 137 canine stifles with medial patellar luxation. Can Vet J 55:349-56, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24688134.
Wangdee, C., Leegwater, P.A., Heuven, H.C., van Steenbeek, F.G., Meutstege, F.J., Meij, B.P., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Prevalence and genetics of patellar luxation in Kooiker dogs. Vet J 201:333-7, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24986317. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.05.036.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Lavrijsen, I.C., Heuven, H.C., Breur, G.J., Leegwater, P.A., Meutstege, F.J., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Phenotypic and genetic trends of patellar luxation in Dutch Flat-Coated Retrievers. Anim Genet , 2013. Pubmed reference: 24033452. DOI: 10.1111/age.12077.
Soontornvipart, K., Wangdee, C., Kalpravidh, M., Brahmasa, A., Sarikaputi, M., Temwichitr, J., Lavrijsen, I.C., Theyse, L.F., Leegwater, P.A., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Incidence and genetic aspects of patellar luxation in Pomeranian dogs in Thailand. Vet J 196:122-5, 2013. Pubmed reference: 22939087. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.07.027.
2012 Fitzpatrick, C.L., Krotscheck, U., Thompson, M.S., Todhunter, R.J., Zhang, Z. :
Evaluation of tibial torsion in Yorkshire Terriers with and without medial patellar luxation. Vet Surg 41:966-72, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23198923. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01041.x.
2009 Bound, N., Zakai, D., Butterworth, S.J., Pead, M. :
The prevalence of canine patellar luxation in three centres. Clinical features and radiographic evidence of limb deviation. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 22:32-7, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19151868.
Chase, K., Jones, P., Martin, A., Ostrander, EA., Lark, KG. :
Genetic mapping of fixed phenotypes: Disease frequency as a breed characteristic. J Hered 100 Suppl 1:S37-41, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19321632. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esp011.
Daems, R., Janssens, L.A., Béosier, Y.M. :
Grossly apparent cartilage erosion of the patellar articular surface in dogs with congenital medial patellar luxation. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 22:222-4, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19448865. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-07-08-0076.
Mortari, A.C., Rahal, S.C., Vulcano, L.C., da Silva, V.C., Volpi, R.S. :
Use of radiographic measurements in the evaluation of dogs with medial patellar luxation. Can Vet J 50:1064-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 20046606.
2008 Mostafa, A.A., Griffon, D.J., Thomas, M.W., Constable, P.D. :
Proximodistal alignment of the canine patella: radiographic evaluation and association with medial and lateral patellar luxation. Vet Surg 37:201-11, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18394065. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00367.x.
2007 Alam, M.R., Lee, J.I., Kang, H.S., Kim, I.S., Park, S.Y., Lee, K.C., Kim, N.S. :
Frequency and distribution of patellar luxation in dogs. 134 cases (2000 to 2005). Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 20:59-64, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17364098.
2006 Gibbons, S.E., Macias, C., Tonzing, M.A., Pinchbeck, G.L., McKee, W.M. :
Patellar luxation in 70 large breed dogs. J Small Anim Pract 47:3-9, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16417603. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00004.x.
Harasen, G. :
Patellar luxation: pathogenesis and surgical correction. Can Vet J 47:1037-9, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17078257.
Harasen, G. :
Patellar luxation. Can Vet J 47:817-8, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16933564.
Johnson, A.L., Broaddus, K.D., Hauptman, J.G., Marsh, S., Monsere, J., Sepulveda, G. :
Vertical patellar position in large-breed dogs with clinically normal stifles and large-breed dogs with medial patellar luxation. Vet Surg 35:78-81, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16409413. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2005.00115.x.
2005 Towle, HA., Griffon, DJ., Thomas, MW., Siegel, AM., Dunning, D., Johnson, A. :
Pre- and postoperative radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of dogs with medial patellar luxation. Vet Surg 34:265-72, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16115084. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950x.2005.00040.x.
2002 L'Eplattenier, H., Montavon, P. :
Patellar luxation in dogs and cats: Pathogenesis and diagnosis Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 24:234-240, 2002.
L'Eplattenier, H., Montavon, P. :
Patellar luxation in dogs and cats: Management and prevention Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 24:292-298, 2002.
LaFond, E., Breur, G.J., Austin, C.C. :
Breed susceptibility for developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 38:467-477, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12220032.
Meyer, H., Kaiser, S., Waibl, H., Brunnberg, L. :
Radiological parameters for preoperative planning of the surgical correction of canine congenital patellar luxation Kleintierpraxis 47:65-+, 2002.
2001 Kaiser, S., Cornely, D., Golder, W., Garner, M., Waibl, H., Brunnberg, L. :
Magnetic resonance measurements of the deviation of the angle of force generated by contraction of the quadriceps muscle in dogs with congenital patellar luxation. Vet Surg 30:552-8, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11704951.
2000 Durand, P., Mathon, D.H. :
Lateral patellar luxation in a miniature puppy. [French] Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 151:197-204, 2000.
Talcott, K.W., Goring, R.L., de, Haan, J.J. :
Rectangular recession trochleoplasty for treatment of patellar luxation in dogs and cats Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 13:39-43, 2000.
1999 Hewicker-Trautwein, M., Carter, S.D., Bennett, D., Kelly, D.F. :
Immunocytochemical demonstration of lymphocyte subsets and MHC class II antigen expression in synovial membranes from dogs with rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative joint disease Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 67:341-357, 1999.
Reichler, I.M., Grundmann, S., Koch, D., Savoldelli, D., L'Eplattenier, H., Montavon, P. :
The diagnostic efficiency of screening examinations for patella luxation in dog toy breeds [German] Kleintierpraxis 44:825-+, 1999.
Wander, K.W., Powers, B.E., Schwarz, P.D. :
Cartilage changes in dogs with surgically treated medial patellar luxations Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 12:183-187, 1999.
1998 Koch, D.A., Grundmann, S., Savoldelli, D., Leplattenier, H., Montavon, P.M. :
Diagnosing patellar luxation in dogs and cats [German] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 140:371-374, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9757785.
1997 Kaiser, S., Waibl, H., Brunnberg, L. :
The quadriceps-angle in radiography and magnetic resonance tomography - a parameter to objectify soft tissue and bone deformities associated with the congenital dislocation of the patella [German] Kleintierpraxis 42:953 ff., 1997.
Koch, D.A., Montavon, P.M. :
Clinical experiences with sulcoplasty and cranialisation of the tuberositas tibiae as a therapy for canine and feline patellar luxation [German] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 139:259-264, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9411731.
1995 Derooster, H., Vanbree, H. :
Patellar luxation in the dog .1. diagnosis [Review] [Dutch] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 64:121-124, 1995.
Derooster, H., Vanbree, H. :
Patellar luxation in the dog .2. a review of treatment [Review] [Dutch] Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 64:125-131, 1995.
Nagaoka, K., Orima, H., Fujita, M., Ichiki, H. :
A new surgical method for canine congenital patellar luxation Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 57:105-109, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7756399.
1994 Hayes, A.G., Boudrieau, R.J., Hungerford, L.L. :
Frequency and distribution of medial and lateral patellar luxation in dogs: 124 cases (1982-1992) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205:716-720, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7989241.
Seguin, B., Harari, J. :
Trochlear Wedge Recession for the Treatment of Patellar Luxation Canine Practice 19:24-27, 1994.
1993 Garlick, M.H., Thiemann, A.K. :
Treatment of Luxating Patellae Veterinary Record 133:602-603, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8116176.
Roush, J.K. :
Canine Patellar Luxation Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 23:855-868, 1993.
Ruble, R.P., Hird, D.W. :
Congenital Abnormalities in Immature Dogs from a Pet Store - 253 Cases (1987-1988) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202:633-636, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8095494.
Schmokel, H.G., Montavon, P.M. :
The Transposition of the Tuberositas Tibiae with Cranialisation in the Patellar Luxation in Dogs Kleintierpraxis 38:805-808, 1993.
1992 Remedios, A.M., Basher, A.W.P., Runyon, C.L., Fries, C.L. :
Medial Patellar Luxation in 16 Large Dogs - A Retrospective Study Veterinary Surgery 21:5-9, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1580058.
1962 Loeffler, K., Meyer, H. :
Hereditary luxation of the patella in Toy Spaniels Veterinary Bulletin 32:329 only, 1962.
1961 Loeffler, K., Meyer, H. :
[Hereditary luxation of the patella in Toy Spaniels] Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 68:619-622, 1961.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 12 Feb 2019