OMIA:001085-9823 : Meat quality (Rendement Napole) in Sus scrofa (pig)

Categories: Muscle phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 604976 (gene) , 619030 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal dominant

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2000

Species-specific name: "Hampshire effect"

Species-specific symbol: RN

Species-specific description: The Rendement Napole (RN) gene was first documented by Leroy et al. (1990). In longissimus dorsi muscles, carriers of this dominant gene show lower pH, higher surface and internal reflectance values, lower protein extractability, lower water-holding capacity, lower Napole yield (yield after curing and cooking), and greater cooking loss. On the positive side, carriers have a lower shear force value, a stronger taste and smell, and greater acidity. The primary cause of these differences is that the mutant allele results in higher stored glycogen content in muscle.

Mapping: Using a genome scan with 63 markers, Milan et al. (1995) mapped the RN locus to chromosome SSC15, 18cM from marker S008. Fine-mapping on SSC15 by Milan et al. (1996) narrowed the location to "between markers Sw120 and Sw936, at 2 cM from Sw936 (LOD = 38.1)". These same authors also physically mapped Sw936, and hence RN, to SSC15q21-22. In an independent study involving a genome scan with 19 microsatellites and one other marker, Mariani et al. (1996) also mapped the RN locus to SSC15, and then fine-mapped it with a further three microsatellite markers. The closest marker, Sw936, is 4.8cM from RN. Noting that the next-nearest marker (S0088; 10.6 cM from RN) is 3cM from the DPP4 gene, which had been physically mapped to SSC15q2.1, Mariani et al. (1996) concluded that RN is located in the region SSC15q2.1-15qtel.

Molecular basis: Building on the mapping results describe above in the Mapping section, Milan et al. (2000) constructed a 2.5 Mb contig of BAC clones covering the region in which RN resides, and used it to fine-map the RN locus. Sequencing of the most likely BAC clone revealed three putative coding sequences, one which showed some homology with genes encoding the gamma subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Noting that AMPK "has a key role in regulating energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells", Milan et al. (2000) had identified a likely positional coding sequence. Noting this coding sequence's similarity with, but distinctness from, the only two human genes then known to encode the gamma subunit of AMPK, namely PRKAG1 and PRKAG2, Milan et al. (2000) named their new gene PRKAG3. Sequencing of this gene in the RN genotypes revealed the causative mutation to be a missense mutation (c.599G>A) resulting in a "nonconservative substitution (R200Q)". The following year, Ciobanu et al. (2001) showed that one of the other alleles at this locus, namely I199V (first reported by Milan et al., 2000) has a substantial effect on glycogen content and meat quality in populations for which the R200Q allele is not segregating.

Breed: Hampshire Down (Sheep) (VBO_0001431).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
PRKAG3 protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit Sus scrofa 15 NC_010457.5 (120866308..120859486) PRKAG3 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
175 Meat quality (Rendement Napole) PRKAG3 RN- missense Naturally occurring variant Sscrofa11.1 15 g.120863533C>T c.749G>A p.(R250Q) The paper by Milan et al. (2000) reported this variant as c.599G>A and p.R200Q rs1109104772 2000 10818001 The genomic location on Sscrofa11.1 was determined and the effect was confirmed with Ensembl VEP in the following transcript: ENSSSCT00000017641.4 by Stephanie Shields (27/05/2020)
176 Meat quality (Rendement Napole) PRKAG3 RN- missense Naturally occurring variant Sscrofa11.1 15 g.120863537C>T c.745G>A p.(I249V) rs1108399077 2001 11729159 he genomic location on Sscrofa11.1 was determined and the effect was confirmed with Ensembl VEP in the following transcript: ENSSSCT00000017641.4 by Stephanie Shields (27/05/2020)

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2021). OMIA:001085-9823: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Figueroa, C.E., Mac Allister, M.E., Acosta, D.B., Fernández, G.P., Merino, M.L. :
Genetic characterization of domestic pigs in the core zone of swine production of Argentina. Trop Anim Health Prod 56:20, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38110670. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-023-03852-5.
2021 Jiang, A., Yin, D., Zhang, L., Li, B., Li, R., Zhang, X., Zhang, Z., Liu, H., Kim, K., Wu, W. :
Parsing the microRNA genetics basis regulating skeletal muscle fiber types and meat quality traits in pigs. Anim Genet 52:292-303, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33840112. DOI: 10.1111/age.13064.
2018 Huang, H., Scheffler, T.L., Gerrard, D.E., Larsen, M.R., Lametsch, R. :
Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics Analysis Revealed Different Regulatory Mechanisms of Halothane and Rendement Napole Genes in Porcine Muscle Metabolism. J Proteome Res 17:2834-2849, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29916714. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00294.
2017 Salas, R.C., Mingala, C.N. :
Genetic factors affecting pork quality: Halothane and Rendement Napole genes. Anim Biotechnol 28:148-155, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27854153. DOI: 10.1080/10495398.2016.1243550.
2013 Scheffler, T.L., Kasten, S.C., England, E.M., Scheffler, J.M., Gerrard, D.E. :
The creatine analog β-guanidinopropionic acid hastens postmortem muscle metabolism in pigs with AMP-activated protein kinase γ3 R200Q mutation Meat Sci , 2013.
2011 Cherel, P., Pires, J., Glenisson, J., Milan, D., Iannuccelli, N., Herault, F., Damon, M., Le Roy, P. :
Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci and major-effect causative mutations affecting meat quality and carcass composition traits in pigs. BMC Genet 12:76, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21875434. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-12-76.
Closter, AM., Guldbrandtsen, B., Henryon, M., Nielsen, B., Berg, P. :
Consequences of elimination of the Rendement Napole allele from Danish Hampshire. J Anim Breed Genet 128:192-200, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21554413. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2010.00900.x.
Scheffler, T.L., Park, S., Gerrard, D.E. :
Lessons to learn about postmortem metabolism using the AMPKγ3(R200Q) mutation in the pig Meat Sci 89:244-50, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21632185. DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.04.030.
2010 Cherel, P., Glénisson, J., Figwer, P., Pires, J., Damon, M., Franck, M., Le Roy, P. :
Updated estimates of HAL n and RN- effects on pork quality: fresh and processed loin and ham. Meat Sci 86:949-54, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20826068. DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.07.022.
2007 Jennen, D.G., Brings, A.D., Liu, G., Jüngst, H., Tholen, E., Jonas, E., Tesfaye, D., Schellander, K., Phatsara, C. :
Genetic aspects concerning drip loss and water-holding capacity of porcine meat. J Anim Breed Genet 124 Suppl 1:2-11, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17988245. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2007.00681.x.
2006 Carr, CC., Morgan, JB., Berg, EP., Carter, SD., Ray, FK. :
Growth performance, carcass composition, quality, and enhancement treatment of fresh pork identified through deoxyribonucleic acid marker-assisted selection for the Rendement Napole gene. J Anim Sci 84:910-7, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16543569.
Roux, M., Nizou, A., Forestier, L., Ouali, A., Levéziel, H., Amarger, V. :
Characterization of the bovine PRKAG3 gene: structure, polymorphism, and alternative transcripts. Mamm Genome 17:83-92, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16416094. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-005-0093-0.
2005 Essén-Gustavsson, B., Jensen-Waern, M., Jonasson, R., Andersson, L. :
Effect of exercise on proglycogen and macroglycogen content in skeletal muscles of pigs with the Rendement Napole mutation. Am J Vet Res 66:1197-201, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16111158.
2004 Demeure, O., Liaubet, L., Riquet, J., Milan, D. :
Determination of PRKAG1 coding sequence and mapping of PRKAG1 and PRKAG2 relatively to porcine back fat thickness QTL. Anim Genet 35:123-5, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15025572. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2004.01102.x.
Hedegaard, J., Horn, P., Lametsch, R., Søndergaard Møller, H., Roepstorff, P., Bendixen, C., Bendixen, E. :
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is upregulated in carriers of the porcine RN- mutation in the AMP-activated protein kinase. Proteomics 4:2448-54, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15274139. DOI: 10.1002/pmic.200300761.
Huang, LS., Ma, JW., Ren, J., Ding, NS., Guo, YM., Ai, HS., Li, L., Zhou, LH., Chen, CY. :
Genetic variations of the porcine PRKAG3 gene in Chinese indigenous pig breeds. Genet Sel Evol 36:481-6, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15231235. DOI: 10.1051/gse:2004012.
2003 Andersson, L. :
Identification and characterization of AMPK gamma 3 mutations in the pig Biochemical Society Transactions 31:232-235, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12546692. DOI: 10.1042/.
Byrne, D.V., O'Sullivan, M.G., Bredie, W.L.P., Andersen, H.J., Martens, M. :
Descriptive sensory profiling and physical/chemical analyses of warmed-over flavour in pork patties from carriers and non-carriers of the RN- allele Meat Science 63:211-224, 2003.
Fontanesi, L., Davoli, R., Nanni Costa, L., Scotti, E., Russo, V. :
Study of candidate genes for glycolytic potential of porcine skeletal muscle: identification and analysis of mutations, linkage and physical mapping and association with meat quality traits in pigs. Cytogenet Genome Res 102:145-51, 2003. Pubmed reference: 14970694. DOI: 10.1159/000075740.
Moeller, S.J., Baas, T.J., Leeds, T.D., Emnett, R.S., Irvin, K.M. :
Rendement Napole gene effects and a comparison of glycolytic potential and DNA genotyping for classification of Rendement Napole status in Hampshire-sired pigs Journal of Animal Science 81:402-10, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12643483.
2002 Hogberg, A., Pickova, J., Babol, J., Andersson, K., Dutta, P.C. :
Muscle lipids, vitamins E and A, and lipid oxidation as affected by diet and RN genotype in female and castrated male Hampshire crossbreed pigs Meat Science 60:411-420, 2002.
Meadus, W.J., MacInnis, R., Dugan, M.E.R., Aalhus, J.L. :
A PCR-RFLP method to identify the RN- gene in retailed pork chops Canadian Journal of Animal Science 82:449-451, 2002.
Olsson, V., Solyakov, A., Skog, K., Lundstrom, K., Jagerstad, M. :
Natural variations of precursors in pig meat affect the yield of heterocyclic amines - Effects of RN genotype, feeding regime, and sex Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 50:2962-2969, 2002.
2001 Ciobanu, D., Bastiaansen, J., Malek, M., Helm, J., Woollard, J., Plastow, G., Rothschild, M. :
Evidence for new alleles in the protein kinase adenosine monophosphate-activated gamma(3)-subunit gene associated with low glycogen content in pig skeletal muscle and improved meat quality Genetics 159:1151-1162, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11729159.
Daun, C., Johansson, M., Onning, G., Akesson, B. :
Glutathione peroxidase activity, tissue and soluble selenium content in beef and pork in relation to meat ageing and pig RN phenotype Food Chemistry 73:313-319, 2001.
Jeon, J.T., Amarger, V., Rogel-Gaillard, C., Robic, A., Bongcam-Rudloff, E., Paul, S., Looft, C., Milan, D., Chardon, P., Andersson, L. :
Comparative analysis of a BAC contig of the porcine RN region and the human transcript map: Implications for the cloning of trait loci Genomics 72:297-303, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11401445. DOI: 10.1006/geno.2000.6495.
2000 Bertram, H.C., Petersen, J.S., Andersen, H.J. :
Relationship between RN- genotype and drip loss in meat from Danish pigs Meat Science 56:49-55, 2000.
Hamilton, D.N., Ellis, M., Miller, K.D., McKeith, F.K., Parrett, D.F. :
The effect of the Halothane and Rendement Napole genes on carcass and meat quality characteristics of pigs Journal of Animal Science 78:2862-2867, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11063310.
Josell, A., Martinsson, L., Borggaard, C., Andersen, J.R., Tornberg, E. :
Determination of RN- phenotype in pigs at slaughter-line using visual and near-infrared spectroscopy Meat Science 55:273-278, 2000.
Le Roy, P., Elsen, J.M., Caritez, J.C., Talmant, A., Juin, H., Sellier, P., Monin, G. :
Comparison between the three porcine RN genotypes for growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits Genetics Selection Evolution 32:165-186, 2000. Pubmed reference: 14736400. DOI: 10.1051/gse:2000112.
Looft, C., Milan, D., Jeon, J.T., Paul, S., Reinsch, N., Rogel-Gaillard, C., Rey, V., Amarger, V., Robic, A., Kalm, E., Chardon, P., Andersson, L. :
A high-density linkage map of the RN region in pigs Genetics Selection Evolution 32:321-329, 2000.
Meadus, W.J., MacInnis, R. :
Testing for the RN- gene in retail pork chops Meat Science 54:231-237, 2000.
Milan, D., Jeon, J.T., Looft, C., Amarger, V., Robic, A., Thelander, M., Rogel-Gaillard, C., Paul, S., Iannuccelli, N., Rask, L., Ronne, H., Lundstrom, K., Reinsch, N., Gellin, J., Kalm, E., Le, Roy, P., Chardon, P., Andersson, L. :
A mutation in PRKAG3 associated with excess glycogen content in pig skeletal muscle Science 288:1248-1251, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10818001.
Miller, K.D., Ellis, M., McKeith, F.K., Bidner, B.S., Meisinger, D.J. :
Frequency of the rendement napole RN- allele in a population of American Hampshire pigs Journal of Animal Science 78:1811-1815, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10907822.
1999 Gariepy, C., Godbout, D., Fernandez, X., Talmant, A., Houde, A. :
The effect of RN gene on yields and quality of extended cooked cured hams Meat Science 52:57-64, 1999.
Lebret, B., Le, Roy, P., Monin, G., Lefaucheur, L., Caritez, J.C., Talmant, A., Elsen, J.M., Sellier, P. :
Influence of the three RN genotypes on chemical composition, enzyme activities, and myofiber characteristics of porcine skeletal muscle Journal of Animal Science 77:1482-1489, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10375225.
Robic, A., Seroude, V., Jeon, J.T., Yerle, M., Wasungu, L., Andersson, L., Gellin, J., Milan, D. :
A radiation hybrid map of the RN region in pigs demonstrates conserved gene order compared with the human and mouse genomes Mammalian Genome 10:565-568, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10341086.
van, Laack, R.L.J.M., Kauffman, R.G. :
Glycolytic potential of red, soft, exudative pork longissimus muscle Journal of Animal Science 77:2971-2973, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10568466.
1998 Devries, A.G., Sosnicki, A., Garnier, J.P., Plastow, G.S. :
The role of major genes and DNA technology in selection for meat quality in pigs Meat Science 49:S245-S255, 1998.
Lundstrom, K., Enfalt, A.C., Tornberg, E., Agerhem, H. :
Sensory and technological meat quality in carriers and non-carriers of the RN- allele in Hampshire crosses and in purebred Yorkshire pigs Meat Science 48:115-124, 1998.
Reinsch, N., Looft, C., Rudat, I., Kalm, E. :
Is the porcine RN locus a pleiotropic QTL - a Bayesian marker assisted segregation analysis Genetics Selection Evolution 30:257-273, 1998.
Tornsten, A., Jeon, J.T., Alexander, L.J., Andersson, L., Chowdhary, B.P. :
Physical ordering of six YACS from the RN region in pigs Animal Genetics 29:319-321, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9745672.
1997 Enfalt, A.C., Lundstrom, K., Karlsson, A., Hansson, I. :
Estimated frequency of the RN- allele in swedish hampshire pigs and comparison of glycolytic potential, carcass composition, and technological meat quality among Swedish Hampshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs Journal of Animal Science 75:2924-2935, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9374306.
Enfalt, A.C., Lundstrom, K., Hansson, I., Johansen, S., Nystrom, P.E. :
Comparison of non-carriers and heterozygous carriers of the rn(-) allele for carcass composition, muscle distribution and technological meat quality in hampshire-sired pigs Livestock Production Science 47:221-229, 1997.
Lahucky, R., Talmant, A., Monin, G. :
Some biophysical and biochemical traits in antemortem and postmortem skeletal muscle of pigs with different rn phenotype Zivocisna Vyroba 42:539-542, 1997.
Lundstrom, K., Enfalt, A.C. :
Rapid prediction of RN phenotype in pigs by means of meat juice Meat Science 45:127-131, 1997.
Reinsch, N., Looft, C., Rudat, I., Kalm, E. :
The Kiel RN experiment: final porcine chromosome 15 mapping results. J Anim Breed Genet 114:133-42, 1997. Pubmed reference: 21395810. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.1997.tb00500.x.
1996 Kuciel, J., Lahucky, R. :
Genes with major effect on pork quality [Czech] Zivocisna Vyroba 41:475-480, 1996.
Looft, C., Reinsch, N., Rudat, I., Kalm, E. :
Mapping the porcine RN gene to chromosome 15 Genetics Selection Evolution 28:437-442, 1996.
Lundstrom, K., Andersson, A., Hansson, I. :
Effect of the RN gene on technological and sensory meat quality in crossbred pigs with Hampshire as terminal sire Meat Science 42:145-153, 1996.
Mariani, P., Lundstrom, K., Gustafsson, U., Enfalt, A.C., Juneja, R.K., Andersson, L. :
A major locus (RN) affecting muscle glycogen content is located on pig chromosome 15 Mammalian Genome 7:52-54, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8903729.
Milan, D., Woloszyn, N., Yerle, M., Leroy, P., Bonnet, M., Riquet, J., Lahbibmansais, Y., Caritez, J.C., Robic, A., Sellier, P., Elsen, J.M., Gellin, J. :
Accurate mapping of the acid meat RN gene on genetic and physical maps of pig chromosome 15 Mammalian Genome 7:47-51, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8903728.
1995 Milan, D., Leroy, P., Woloszyn, N., Caritez, J.C., Elsen, J.M., Sellier, P., Gellin, J. :
The RN locus for meat quality maps to pig chromosome 15 Genetics Selection Evolution 27:195-199, 1995.
1994 Estrade, M., Ayoub, S., Talmant, A., Monin, G. :
Enzyme activities of glycogen metabolism and mitochondrial characteristics in muscles of RN(-) carrier pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B - Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 108:295-301, 1994.
1993 Estrade, M., Vignon, X., Rock, E., Monin, G. :
Glycogen Hyperaccumulation in White Muscle Fibres of RN- Carrier Pigs - A Biochemical and Ultrastructural Study Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B - Comparative Biochemistry 104:321-326, 1993.
1990 Leroy, P., Naveau, J., Elsen, J.M., Sellier, P. :
Evidence for a New Major Gene Influencing Meat Quality in Pigs Genetical Research 55:33-40, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2318414.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 01 Dec 2009
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 07 Sep 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 17 Nov 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 09 Dec 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 17 Sep 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 21 Aug 2013
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 14 Aug 2021