OMIA 001311-9615 : Photoreceptor dysplasia in Canis lupus familiaris

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2019

Species-specific symbol: pd

Inheritance: Parshall et al. (1991): "Pedigree analysis and test-mating studies conclusively establish that inheritance is autosomal recessive."

Murgiano et al. (2019): "Pedigree analysis suggested monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance".

Mapping: Murgiano et al. (2019): "GWAS and homozygosity mapping defined a critical interval in the first 4,796,806 bp of CFA15."

Molecular basis: Zhang et al. (1998) showed that some Miniature Schnauzers with this disorder are homozygous for a missense mutation in codon 82 (CGA -> GGA) of the gene for phosducin, creating an amino acid substiturion of Arg -> Gly. However, since some affected dogs are heterozygous for this mutation, and other affecteds are homozygous for the normal allele, it remains an open question as to whether this mutation has anything to do with the disorder.

Zhang et al. (1999) "conclusively excluded four photoreceptor-specific genes [RHO, PRPH, GNAT1, ROM1] as candidates for pd by linkage analysis"

Murgiano et al. (2019) reported unpublished information from Aguirre, confirming that the phosducin variant reported by Zhang et al. (1998) "subsequently was found to not be disease-associated".

Murgiano et al. (2019) reported a likely causal variant as "a complex structural variant consisting of the duplication of exon 5 of the PPT1 gene along with a conversion and insertion (named PPT1^dci ). PPT1^dci was confirmed homozygous in a cohort of 22 cases, and 12 more cases were homozygous for the CFA15 haplotype. Additionally, the variant was found homozygous in 6 non-affected dogs of age higher than the average age of onset. . . . We detected the wildtype and three aberrant PPT1 transcripts in isolated white blood cell mRNA extracted from a PRA case homozygous for PPT1dci, and the aberrant transcripts involved inclusion of the duplicated exon 5 and novel exons following the activation of cryptic splice sites. No neurological signs were detected among the dogs homozygous for the PPT1^dci variant. Therefore, we propose PPT1^dci as causative for a non-syndromic form of PRA (PRA^PPT1 ) that shows incomplete penetrance in Miniature Schnauzers, potentially related to the presence of the wild-type transcript."

Breed: Miniature Schnauzer.

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
PPT1 palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 Canis lupus familiaris 15 NC_006597.3 (2815428..2886474) PPT1 Homologene, Ensembl, NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
Miniature Schnauzer Photoreceptor dysplasia PPT1 PPT1^dci complex rearrangement CanFam3.1 15 g.2,874,661_2,875,048con2,877,563-2,877,607inv 2019 30541930


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2019 Murgiano, L., Becker, D., Torjman, D., Niggel, J.K., Milano, A., Cullen, C., Feng, R., Wang, F., Jagannathan, V., Pearce-Kelling, S., Katz, M.L., Leeb, T., Aguirre, G.D. :
Complex Structural <i>PPT1</i> Variant Associated with Non-syndromic Canine Retinal Degeneration. G3 (Bethesda) 9:425-437, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30541930. DOI: 10.1534/g3.118.200859.
1999 Zhang, Q., Baldwin, V.J., Acland, G.M., Parshall, C.J., Haskel, J., Aguirre, G.D., Ray, K. :
Photoreceptor dysplasia (pd) in miniature schnauzer dogs: Evaluation of candidate genes by molecular genetic analysis Journal of Heredity 90:57-61, 1999. Pubmed reference: 9987905.
1998 Zhang, Q., Acland, G.M., Parshall, C.J., Haskell, J., Ray, K., Aguirre, G.D. :
Characterization of canine photoreceptor phosducin cDNA and identification of a sequence variant in dogs with photoreceptor dysplasia Gene 215:231-239, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9714819.
1991 Parshall, C., Wyman, M., Nitroy, S., Acland, G., Aguirre, G. :
Photoreceptor dysplasia: an inherited progressive retinal atrophy of miniature schnauzer dogs. Prog. Vet. Comp. Ophth. 1:187-203, 1991.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 05 Aug 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 11 Apr 2019