OMIA:001372-9913 : Slick hair in Bos taurus (taurine cattle)
Categories: Integument (skin) phene
Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 176761 (gene)
Links to MONDO diseases: No links.
Mendelian trait/disorder: yes
Mode of inheritance: Autosomal dominant
Considered a defect: yes
Key variant known: yes
Year key variant first reported: 2014
Species-specific description: This single-locus autosomal dominant trait confers increased thermotolerance within the breeds in which it originated (Senepol and Carora; Olsen et al., 2003) and also within Hosteins, into which it was introgressed (Dikmen et al., 2008; 2014).
In the USA, FDA has determined in March 2022 that beef cattle with a genome edit to the PRLR gene and their offspring do not raise any safety concerns. "Based on the safety of consumption of meat from conventional breeds with the same mutation, the FDA finds no reason to regulate these CRISPR cattle. ... These cattle are the third genetically altered animals to be approved by the FDA, after AquaBounty’s AquAdvantage salmon and Revivicor’s GalSafe pigs." (PMID:35418643) (GMO)
Inheritance: Olson et al. (2003) reported "a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat . . . in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America . . .[and] in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed".
Sosa et al. (2021) "evaluated whether the inheritance of the SLICK1 allele ...is inherited in a fashion consistent with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. It was hypothesized that any deleterious effect of inheriting the allele on embryonic or fetal function would result in reduced frequency of the allele in offspring. A total of 525 Holstein and Senepol cattle produced from matings involving one or both parents with the SLICK1 allele were genotyped. The observed frequency of the SLICK1 allele (0.247) was not signiﬁcantly different than the expected frequency of 0.269. These results support the idea that inheritance of the SLICK1 allele does not act in the embryo or fetus to modify its competence to complete development to term."
Mapping: From a genome scan with microsatellite markers, Mariasegaram et al. (2007) mapped this locus to a region of chromosome BTA20. Using a 50k SNP chip, Flori et al. (2012) refined this region to just one positional candidate gene, namely "Retinoic Acid induced 14 gene (RAI14 or NORPEG)". Huson et al. (2014) narrowed this region even further, to "a 0.8 Mb (37.7-38.5 Mb) consensus region for the SLICK locus on BTA20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes". From various lines of evidence, the authors concluded that there are "potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus."
Molecular basis: By sequencing the most likely positional functional candidate gene within the BTA20 region to which this trait had been mapped (see Mapping section), Littlejohn et al. (2014) identified a causal mutation as "a single homozygous frameshift mutation . . . consisting of a single base deletion in exon 10 that introduces a frameshift and a premature stop codon (p.(Ala461fs) and loss of 120 C-terminal amino acids from the long isoform of the receptor (ss1067289408; chr20:39136558GC>G".
Porto-Neto et al. (2018) identified two other likely causal variants in the same PRLR gene, namely the stop-gained (nonsense) variants p.Ser465∗ (in the Limonero breed) and p.Arg497∗ (in the Carora and Limonero breeds). These two variants "explained almost 90% of investigated cases of animals that had slick coats, but which also did not carry the Senepol slick allele"; which indicates that there are more likely causal variants for slick hair yet to be discovered.
Flórez Murillo et al. (2021) discovered three new variants, namely SLICK4, SLICK5 and SLICK6 (details in variant table below).
Carora, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) (VBO_0005370),
Holstein (black and white) (Cattle) (VBO_0000237),
Limonero, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) (VBO_0005372),
Romosinuano, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) (VBO_0005376),
Senepol (Cattle) (VBO_0000371).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. For breeds in which a likely causal variant has been documented, see the variant table below
|Symbol||Description||Species||Chr||Location||OMIA gene details page||Other Links|
|PRLR||prolactin receptor||Bos taurus||20||NC_037347.1 (38915987..39108971)||PRLR||Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene|
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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.
Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.
|OMIA Variant ID||Breed(s)||Variant Phenotype||Gene||Allele||Type of Variant||Source of Genetic Variant||Reference Sequence||Chr.||g. or m.||c. or n.||p.||Verbal Description||EVA ID||Inferred EVA rsID||Year Published||PubMed ID(s)||Acknowledgements|
|1447||Slick hair||PRLR||SLICK4||nonsense (stop-gain)||Naturally occurring variant||ARS-UCD1.2||20||g.39099113C>G||c.1281C>G||p.(Y427*)||NM_001039726.2; NP_001034815.1||2021||33259090|
|544||Carora, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) Romosinuano, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) Senepol (Cattle)||Slick hair||PRLR||SLICK1||deletion, small (<=20)||Naturally occurring variant||ARS-UCD1.2||20||g.39099214del||c.1382del||p.(A461Vfs*2)||NM_001039726.2; NP_001034815.1||rs517047387||rs517047387||2014||25519203||Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool; some variant information gleaned from or confirmed by Table 1 of Â Sharma et al. (2017) Animal Genetics 48(3):369-370|
|974||Limonero, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle)||Slick hair||PRLR||SLICK3||nonsense (stop-gain)||Naturally occurring variant||ARS-UCD1.2||20||g.39099226C>A||c.1394C>A||p.(S465*)||NM_001039726.2; NP_001034815.1||2018||29527221|
|1448||Carora, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) Romosinuano, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle)||Slick hair||PRLR||SLICK5||nonsense (stop-gain)||Naturally occurring variant||ARS-UCD1.2||20||g.39099228A>T||c.1396A>T||p.(K466*)||NM_001039726.2; NP_001034815.1||2021||33259090|
|1449||Carora, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) Romosinuano, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle)||Slick hair||PRLR||SLICK6||nonsense (stop-gain)||Naturally occurring variant||ARS-UCD1.2||20||g.39099267C>T||c.1435C>T||p.(Q479*)||NM_001039726.2; NP_001034815.1||2021||33259090|
|975||Carora, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) Limonero, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle) Romosinuano, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (Cattle)||Slick hair||PRLR||SLICK2||nonsense (stop-gain)||Naturally occurring variant||ARS-UCD1.2||20||g.39099321C>T||c.1489C>T||p.(R497*)||NM_001039726.2; NP_001034815.1||2018||29527221|
Cite this entry
Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
|2022||[No authors listed] :|
|CRISPR beef cattle get FDA green light. Nat Biotechnol 40:448, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35418643 . DOI: 10.1038/s41587-022-01297-z.|
|Sosa, F., Carmickle, A.T., Oliveira, L.J., Sagheer, M., Saleem, M., Yu, F.H., Altman, M.D., Dikmen, S., Denicol, A.C., Sonstegard, T.S., Larson, C.C., Hansen, P.J. :|
|Effects of the bovine SLICK1 mutation in PRLR on sweat gland area, FOXA1 abundance, and global gene expression in skin. J Dairy Sci 105:9206-9215, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36085108 . DOI: 10.3168/jds.2022-22272.|
|Sosa, F., Santos, J.E.P., Rae, D.O., Larson, C.C., Macchietto, M., Abrahante, J.E., Amaral, T.F., Denicol, A.C., Sonstegard, T.S., Hansen, P.J. :|
|Effects of the SLICK1 mutation in PRLR on regulation of core body temperature and global gene expression in liver in cattle. Animal 16:100523, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35468510 . DOI: 10.1016/j.animal.2022.100523.|
|2021||Caivio-Nasner, S., López-Herrera, A., González-Herrera, L.G., Rincón, J.C. :|
|Frequency of genotypic markers for genetic disorders, colour, polledness, and major genes in Blanco Orejinegro cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod 53:546, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34779908 . DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02990-y.|
|Flórez Murillo, J.M., Landaeta-Hernández, A.J., Kim, E.S., Bostrom, J.R., Larson, S.A., Pérez O'Brien, A.M., Montero-Urdaneta, M.A., Garcia, J.F., Sonstegard, T.S. :|
|Three novel nonsense mutations of prolactin receptor found in heat-tolerant Bos taurus breeds of the Caribbean Basin. Anim Genet 52:132-134, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33259090 . DOI: 10.1111/age.13027.|
|Johnsson, M., Jungnickel, M.K. :|
|Evidence for and localization of proposed causative variants in cattle and pig genomes. Genet Sel Evol 53:67, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34461824 . DOI: 10.1186/s12711-021-00662-x.|
|Landaeta-Hernández, A.J., Zambrano-Nava, S., Verde, O., Pinto-Santini, L., Montero-Urdaneta, M., Hernández-Fonseca, J.P., Fuenmayor-Morales, C., Sonstegard, T.S., Huson, H.J., Olson, T.A. :|
|Heat stress response in slick vs normal-haired Criollo Limonero heifers in a tropical environment. Trop Anim Health Prod 53:445, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34427775 . DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02856-3.|
|Sosa, F., Carmickle, A.T., Jiménez-Cabán, E., Ortega, M.S., Dikmen, S., Negrón-Pérez, V., Jannaman, E.A., Baktula, A., Rincon, G., Larson, C.C., Pagán-Morales, M., Denicol, A.C., Sonstegard, T.S., Hansen, P.J. :|
|Inheritance of the SLICK1 allele of PRLR in cattle. Anim Genet 52:887-890, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34642995 . DOI: 10.1111/age.13145.|
|2020||Sarlo Davila, K.M., Howell, A., Nunez, A., Orelien, A., Roe, V., Rodriguez, E., Dikmen, S., Mateescu, R.G. :|
|Genome-wide association study identifies variants associated with hair length in Brangus cattle. Anim Genet :, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32548856 . DOI: 10.1111/age.12970.|
|2019||Poole, R.K., Devine, T.L., Mayberry, K.J., Eisemann, J.H., Poore, M.H., Long, N.M., Poole, D.H. :|
|Impact of slick hair trait on physiological and reproductive performance in beef heifers consuming ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue1. J Anim Sci 97:1456-1467, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30772895 . DOI: 10.1093/jas/skz024.|
|2018||Porto-Neto, L.R., Bickhart, D.M., Landaeta-Hernandez, A.J., Utsunomiya, Y.T., Pagan, M., Jimenez, E., Hansen, P.J., Dikmen, S., Schroeder, S.G., Kim, E.S., Sun, J., Crespo, E., Amati, N., Cole, J.B., Null, D.J., Garcia, J.F., Reverter, A., Barendse, W., Sonstegard, T.S. :|
|Convergent evolution of slick coat in cattle through truncation mutations in the prolactin receptor. Front Genet 9:57, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29527221 . DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00057.|
|2016||Leroy, G., Besbes, B., Boettcher, P., Hoffmann, I., Capitan, A., Baumung, R. :|
|Rare phenotypes in domestic animals: unique resources for multiple applications. Anim Genet 47:141-53, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26662214 . DOI: 10.1111/age.12393.|
|2014||Dikmen, S., Khan, F.A., Huson, H.J., Sonstegard, T.S., Moss, J.I., Dahl, G.E., Hansen, P.J. :|
|The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 97:5508-20, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24996281 . DOI: 10.3168/jds.2014-8087.|
|Huson, H.J., Kim, E.S., Godfrey, R.W., Olson, T.A., McClure, M.C., Chase, C.C., Rizzi, R., O'Brien, A.M., Van Tassell, C.P., Garcia, J.F., Sonstegard, T.S. :|
|Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle. Front Genet 5:101, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24808908 . DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00101.|
|Littlejohn, M.D., Henty, K.M., Tiplady, K., Johnson, T., Harland, C., Lopdell, T., Sherlock, R.G., Li, W., Lukefahr, S.D., Shanks, B.C., Garrick, D.J., Snell, R.G., Spelman, R.J., Davis, S.R. :|
|Functionally reciprocal mutations of the prolactin signalling pathway define hairy and slick cattle. Nat Commun 5:5861, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25519203 . DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6861.|
|2012||Flori, L., Gonzatti, M.I., Thevenon, S., Chantal, I., Pinto, J., Berthier, D., Aso, P.M., Gautier, M. :|
|A quasi-exclusive European ancestry in the Senepol tropical cattle breed highlights the importance of the slick locus in tropical adaptation. PLoS One 7:e36133, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22675421 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036133.|
|2011||Landaeta-Hernández, A., Zambrano-Nava, S., Hernández-Fonseca, J.P., Godoy, R., Calles, M., Iragorri, J.L., Añez, L., Polanco, M., Montero-Urdaneta, M., Olson, T. :|
|Variability of hair coat and skin traits as related to adaptation in Criollo Limonero cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod 43:657-63, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21104126 . DOI: 10.1007/s11250-010-9749-1.|
|2008||Dikmen, S., Alava, E., Pontes, E., Fear, J.M., Dikmen, B.Y., Olson, T.A., Hansen, P.J. :|
|Differences in thermoregulatory ability between slick-haired and wild-type lactating Holstein cows in response to acute heat stress. J Dairy Sci 91:3395-402, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18765598 . DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1072.|
|2007||Mariasegaram, M., Chase, CC., Chaparro, JX., Olson, TA., Brenneman, RA., Niedz, RP. :|
|The slick hair coat locus maps to chromosome 20 in Senepol-derived cattle. Anim Genet 38:54-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17257189 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01560.x.|
|2003||Olson, T.A., Lucena, C., Chase, C.C, Jr., ., Hammond, A.C. :|
|Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle Journal of Animal Science 81:80-90, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12597376 .|
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