OMIA:001713-9615 : Blood group system/dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

Categories: Haematopoietic system phene

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal recessive

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: no

Key variant is published: no

Cross-species summary: Each blood group system consists of a set of blood types, each of which corresponds to a particular antigen (usually a glycoprotein) on the surface of red blood cells. The different types within a system are the result of the action of different alleles at a locus that usually encodes an enzyme that catalyses the creation of the feature of the glycoprotein unique to that type, e.g. the presence of a particular sugar at the end of a short chain of sugars.

Species-specific name: Previously known as Blood Group System A, or canine erythrocyte antigen (CEA) 1 and 2

Species-specific symbol: DEA 1

Inheritance: Symons and Bell (1991) provided convincing family-segregation evidence that the presence of antigen is dominant to its absence, in conformity with our understanding of the biology of blood groups. They also showed a dominance hierarchy of A1 > A2 > A3, meaning that heterozygotes for A1 and A2 exhibit only A1 and heterozygotes for A2 and A3 exhibit only A2.

Clinical features: As reported by Hale (1995): "DEA 1.1 and 1.2 antibody-antigen interactions result in acute hemolytic transfusion reactions." As reported by Hohenhaus (2004): "Reports of transfusion reactions mediated by alloantibodies are infrequent in dogs receiving transfusions, perhaps because of the low frequency of naturally occurring clinically significant antibodies, the rarity of second transfusions in dogs, or more likely underreporting. Retrospective studies of blood transfusions in dog report rates of adverse effects of transfusion between 3% and 13%. [Kerl and Hohenhaus, 1993; Callan et al., 1996]. The most immunogenic of the DEA is 1.1. Transfusion of DEA 1.2–positive erythrocytes into a previously sensitized recipient produces widely variable clinical signs depending on how strongly reactive the antibodies are [Swisher and Young, 1961]. An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction has been described because of an alloantibody against DEA 1.1 [Giger et al., 1995]. Three years before the reported reaction, a DEA 1.1–negative dog received an untyped and unmatched ransfusion for treatment of anemia caused by immune hemolysis. During relapse of the immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, the dog received an emergency transfusion of unmatched red blood cells. One hour later, the dog developed fever, hemoglobinemia, and hemoglobinuria. The recipient was DEA 1.1 negative and the donor DEA 1.1 positive, and it was hypothesized the recipient had been sensitized during the previous transfusion. The alloantibody was of the IgG class and had a hemolysin titer of 1:128 and a hemagglutinin titer of 1:16." More recently, Tocci (2010) reported that "Currently, DEAs 1.1 and 1.2 are considered important in transfusion medicine. DEA 1.1 is known to be extremely antigenic, and DEA 1.1 negative dogs exposed to DEA 1.1 positive RBCs likely become sensitized and produce an anti–DEA 1.1 alloantibody. Subsequent transfusions of DEA 1.1 positive RBC in the DEA 1.1 negative patient result in an acute hemolytic crisis. Therefore, DEA 1.1 is the antigen routinely determined in patients and donors, and 42% of the canine population is positive.[Hohenhaus, 2004]. An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR) has been reported in a DEA 1.1 negative dog, which had developed antibodies to DEA 1.1 from a previous transfusion of DEA 1.1 positive RBC.[Giger et al., 1995]"

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2013). OMIA:001713-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Bank, A.S., Farrell, K.S., Epstein, S.E. :
Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1 in a population of dogs tested in California. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 33:267-271, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36427164. DOI: 10.1111/vec.13263.
2021 Mangiaterra, S., Rossi, G., Antognoni, M.T., Cerquetella, M., Marchegiani, A., Miglio, A., Gavazza, A. :
Canine blood group prevalence and geographical distribution around the world: An updated systematic review. Animals (Basel) 11:342, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33572864. DOI: 10.3390/ani11020342.
2020 Ebelt, A.K., Fuchs, S., Weber, C., Müller, E., Giger, U. :
Survey of blood groups DEA 1, DEA 4, DEA 5, Dal, and Kai 1/Kai 2 in different canine breeds from a diagnostic laboratory in Germany. Front Vet Sci 7:85, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32185185. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00085.
2019 Guidetti, M., Goy-Thollot, I., Boisvineau, C., Giger, U. :
Alloimmunization of a dog erythrocyte antigen 1- dog transfused with weakly dog erythrocyte antigen 1+ blood. J Vet Intern Med 33:2037-2045, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31361062. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.15565.
Zaremba, R., Brooks, A., Thomovsky, E. :
Transfusion medicine: An update on antigens, antibodies and serologic testing in dogs and cats. Top Companion Anim Med 34:36-46, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30808496. DOI: 10.1053/j.tcam.2018.12.005.
2016 Euler, C.C., Lee, J.H., Kim, H.Y., Raj, K., Mizukami, K., Giger, U. :
Survey of Two New (Kai 1 and Kai 2) and Other Blood Groups in Dogs of North America. J Vet Intern Med 30:1642-1647, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27627791. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.14572.
Spada, E., Proverbio, D., Viñals Flórez, L.M., Serra Gómez de la Serna, B., Del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, M., Baggiani, L., Perego, R. :
Prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens 1, 4, and 7 in Podenco Ibicenco (Ibizan Hounds) from Ibiza Island. Vet Med Int 2016:1048257, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27034890. DOI: 10.1155/2016/1048257.
2015 Spada, E., Proverbio, D., Viñals Flórez, L.M., Del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, M., Perego, R., Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G., Baggiani, L. :
Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigens 1, 4, and 7 in galgos (Spanish Greyhounds). J Vet Diagn Invest 27:558-61, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26179093. DOI: 10.1177/1040638715592025.
2014 Acierno, M.M., Raj, K., Giger, U. :
DEA 1 expression on dog erythrocytes analyzed by immunochromatographic and flow cytometric techniques. J Vet Intern Med 28:592-8, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24611973. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.12321.
Mesa-Sanchez, I., Ruiz de Gopegui-Fernández, R., Granados-Machuca, M.M., Galan-Rodriguez, A. :
Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 in galgos (Spanish greyhounds). Vet Rec 174:351, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24578316. DOI: 10.1136/vr.102087.
2013 Blois, S.L., Richardson, D.M., Abrams-Ogg, A.C. :
Comparison of a gel column blood typing method and a point-of-care cartridge for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 23:340-3, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23648208. DOI: 10.1111/vec.12052.
2012 Kohn, B., Classe, G., Weingart, C. :
Clinical evaluation of the QuickVet/RapidVet canine dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood-typing test. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:539-45, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22529121. DOI: 10.1177/1040638712442880.
Seth, M., Jackson, K.V., Winzelberg, S., Giger, U. :
Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing. Am J Vet Res 73:213-9, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22280380. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.73.2.213.
2011 de A Lucidi, C., Takahira, R.K., Gerlach, J.A., Davis, J.M., Schwartz, K.A., Scott, M.A. :
Flow cytometric assessment of canine erythrocytes and platelets for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1. Vet Clin Pathol 40:435-43, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22136477. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00374.x.
Ergul Ekiz, E., Arslan, M., Ozcan, M., Gultekin, G.I., Gulay, O.Y., Kirmizibayrak, T., Giger, U. :
Frequency of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 in 4 breeds native to different areas in Turkey. Vet Clin Pathol 40:518-23, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22136478. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00370.x.
Ferreira, R.R., Gopegui, R.R., Matos, A.J. :
Frequency of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 expression in dogs from Portugal. Vet Clin Pathol 40:198-201, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21554361. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00311.x.
Riond, B., Schuler, E., Rogg, E., Hofmann-Lehmann, R., Lutz, H. :
Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 in dogs in Switzerland evaluated with the gel column technique. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 153:369-74, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21780065. DOI: 10.1024/0036-7281/a000223.
2010 Iazbik, M.C., O'Donnell, M., Marin, L., Zaldivar, S., Hudson, D., Couto, C.G. :
Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigens in retired racing Greyhounds. Vet Clin Pathol 39:433-5, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21198732. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2010.00261.x.
Kessler, RJ., Reese, J., Chang, D., Seth, M., Hale, AS., Giger, U. :
Dog erythrocyte antigens 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal blood typing and cross-matching by gel column technique. Vet Clin Pathol 39:306-16, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20727123. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2010.00249.x.
Tocci, L.J. :
Transfusion medicine in small animal practice. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 40:485-94, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20471531. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.02.005.
2005 Giger, U., Stieger, K., Palos, H. :
Comparison of various canine blood-typing methods. Am J Vet Res 66:1386-92, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16173482. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.1386.
2004 Hohenhaus, A.E. :
Importance of blood groups and blood group antibodies in companion animals. Transfus Med Rev 18:117-26, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15067591. DOI: 10.1016/j.tmrv.2003.12.003.
2002 van der Merwe, L.L., Jacobson, L.S., Pretorius, G.J. :
The breed prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa and its significance in selection of canine blood donors. J S Afr Vet Assoc 73:53-6, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12240769. DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v73i2.555.
1998 Kohn, B., Reitemeyer, S., Giger, U. :
Determination of the blood group dea 1.1 and its importance in dogs [German] Kleintierpraxis 43:77 ff., 1998.
1997 Corato, A., Mazza, G., Hale, A.S., Barker, R.N., Day, M.J. :
Biochemical characterization of canine blood group antigens: immunoprecipitation of DEA 1.2, 4 and 7 and identification of a dog erythrocyte membrane antigen homologous to human Rhesus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 59:213-23, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9477473. DOI: 10.1016/s0165-2427(97)00080-9.
1996 Callan, M.B., Oakley, D.A., Shofer, F.S., Giger, U. :
Canine red blood cell transfusion practice. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32:303-11, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8784721. DOI: 10.5326/15473317-32-4-303.
1995 Giger, U., Gelens, C.J., Callan, M.B., Oakley, D.A. :
An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 incompatibility in a previously sensitized dog J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:1358-62, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7775248.
Hale, AS. :
Canine blood groups and their importance in veterinary transfusion medicine. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 25:1323-32, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8619269. DOI: 10.1016/s0195-5616(95)50157-3.
1993 Kerl, M.E., Hohenhaus, A.E. :
Packed red blood cell transfusions in dogs: 131 cases (1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 202:1495-9, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8496108.
1992 Andrews, G.A., Chavey, P.S., Smith, J.E. :
Production, Characterization, and Applications of a Murine Monoclonal Antibody to Dog Erythrocyte Antigen 1.1 J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:1549-52, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1289333.
1991 Symons, M., Bell, K. :
Expansion of the canine A blood group system Animal Genetics 22:227-235, 1991.
1982 Ejima, H., Kurokawa, K., Ikemoto, S. :
DEA 1 blood group system of dogs reared in Japan. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 44:815-7, 1982. Pubmed reference: 7161999. DOI: 10.1292/jvms1939.44.815.
1961 Swisher, S.N., Young, L.E. :
The blood grouping systems of dogs. Physiol Rev 41:495-520, 1961. Pubmed reference: 13774318. DOI: 10.1152/physrev.1961.41.3.495.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 22 Aug 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 17 Apr 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 18 Apr 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 20 Apr 2013