OMIA:001899-9796 : Incontinentia pigmenti in Equus caballus (horse)

Categories: Pigmentation phene , Mortality / aging (incl. embryonic lethal) , Integument (skin) phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 308300 (trait) , 300248 (gene)

Links to relevant human diseases in MONDO:

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: X-linked incomplete dominant

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2013

Cross-species summary: Familial incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a genodermatosis that segregates as an X-linked dominant disorder and is usually lethal prenatally in males (for a summary of the human disorder, see Smahi et al., 2000). In affected females it causes highly variable abnormalities of the skin, hair, nails, teeth, eyes, and central nervous system. The prominent skin signs occur in 4 classic cutaneous stages: perinatal inflammatory vesicles, verrucous patches, a distinctive pattern of hyperpigmentation, and dermal scarring. Cells expressing the mutated X chromosome are eliminated selectively around the time of birth, so females with IP exhibit extremely skewed X-inactivation. As noted in the MIM entry hyperlinked above, it is possible that the bovine disorder Streaked hairlessness (also known as Streaked hypotrichosis) (OMIA 000542-9913) is actually homologous to Incontinentia pigmenti.

Species-specific name: Incontinentia pigmenti

Species-specific symbol: IP

Species-specific description: Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an ectodermal dysplasia characterized by skin lesions evolving over time, as well as dental, nail, and ocular abnormalities. Due to X-linked dominant inheritance IP symptoms can only be seen in female individuals while affected males die during development in utero.

History: This disorder was first reported in horses by Towers et al. (2013).

Inheritance: IP is inherited as an X-chromosomal dominant trait. Males that are hemizyous for the defect die during pregnancy in utero in horses and are aborted. Thus, the typical IP phenotype can only be seen in heterozygous females.

Mapping: Pedigree analysis of a horse family segregating for IP clearly indicated the X-chromosomal dominant inheritance (Towers et al. 2013).

Molecular basis: After having established the X-chromosomal inheritance the genome of an affected crossbred mare was re-sequenced at 19x coverage (Towers et al. 2013). The analysis of the sequence data yielded 557 non-synonymous variants on the X-chromosome with respect to the genome reference sequence of an unaffected Thoroughbred mare. Exclusion of variants that were also present in the genome sequences of 44 control horses from 11 breeds resulted in a reduced list of 33 private non-synonymous X-chromosomal variants in the IP affected mare. By visual inspection of this list and based on the knowledge of the human condition the authors concluded that a nonsense variant in the IKBKG gene is the most likely causative variant for IP in the investigated horse family. The variant is c.184C>T and predicted to result in p.Arg62* (OMIAvariantID:337). The same variant at the homologous position in the human IKBKG gene had been previously reported in a human IP patient. The variant also showed perfect co-segregation with IP in the horse family and was present in all 3 available cases (Towers et al. 2013).

Clinical features: Affected mares develop pruritic, exudative lesions soon after birth. These evolve into wart-like lesions and areas of alopecia. Occasionally, hair re-growth with a wooly appearance is observed. Affected horses also have streaks of darker and lighter coat coloration from birth resembling the brindled coat color. The cutaneous manifestations follow the lines of Blaschko. Other clinical symptoms include anomalies of tooth, hoof and ocular development (Towers et al. 2013).

Breeds: Quarter Horse (Horse) (VBO_0001057), Warmblood (Horse) (VBO_0017483).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
IKBKG inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma Equus caballus X NC_009175.3 (126889355..126915317) IKBKG Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
337 Quarter Horse (Horse) Warmblood (Horse) Incontinentia pigmenti IKBKG nonsense (stop-gain) Naturally occurring variant EquCab3.0 X NC_009175.3:g.126898409C>T NM_001284533.1:c.184C>T NP_001271462.1:p.(R62*) Previously listed as as c.202C>T and p.(R68*), updated in this table to reflect  NM_001284533.1 transcript rs3433281055 2013 24324710 Breed information updated based on PMID: 38600096

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2024). OMIA:001899-9796: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Durward-Akhurst, S.A., Marlowe, J.L., Schaefer, R.J., Springer, K., Grantham, B., Carey, W.K., Bellone, R.R., Mickelson, J.R., McCue, M.E. :
Predicted genetic burden and frequency of phenotype-associated variants in the horse. Sci Rep 14:8396, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38600096. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-024-57872-8.
2013 Towers, R.E., Murgiano, L., Millar, D.S., Glen, E., Topf, A., Jagannathan, V., Drögemüller, C., Goodship, J.A., Clarke, A.J., Leeb, T. :
A nonsense mutation in the IKBKG gene in mares with incontinentia pigmenti. PLoS One 8:e81625, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24324710. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081625.
2000 Smahi, A., Courtois, G., Vabres, P., Yamaoka, S., Heuertz, S., Munnich, A., Israël, A., Heiss, N.S., Klauck, S.M., Kioschis, P., Wiemann, S., Poustka, A., Esposito, T., Bardaro, T., Gianfrancesco, F., Ciccodicola, A., D'Urso, M., Woffendin, H., Jakins, T., Donnai, D., Stewart, H., Kenwrick, S.J., Aradhya, S., Yamagata, T., Levy, M., Lewis, R.A., Nelson, D.L. :
Genomic rearrangement in NEMO impairs NF-kappaB activation and is a cause of incontinentia pigmenti. The International Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP) Consortium. Nature 405:466-72, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10839543. DOI: 10.1038/35013114.

Edit History

  • Created by Tosso Leeb on 17 Dec 2013
  • Changed by Tosso Leeb on 17 Dec 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 17 Dec 2013
  • Changed by Tosso Leeb on 15 Aug 2016
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 23 Nov 2022
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 03 Jun 2024
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 04 Jun 2024