OMIA 001904-9031 : Feather colour, mottling in Gallus gallus

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2014

Species-specific symbol: mo

Species-specific description: As described by Somes (1980), this trait is characterised by "a white tip on an otherwise black feather".

History: This trait was first described in the genetics literature by Davenport (1906).

Inheritance: Davenport (1906) reported autosomal recessive inheritance. This was confirmed by Asmundson and Milne (1930). The symbol "mo" was proposed by Hutt (1949). Somes (1980) also confirmed autosomal recessive inheritance. Carefoot (1987) reported "that pi [pied] and mo are one and the same gene for which I retain the symbol mo". A new allele at this locus, conferring white plumage with black eyes in the Minohiki breed (from Japan), was reported by Kinoshita et al. (2014), who allocated it the symbol mo^w, with the name tyrosine-independent recessive white.

Molecular basis: Adopting a comparative-candidate-gene strategy, based on a mutation in the gene EDNRB2 being causal for a similar phenotype (panda) in Japanese quail (OMIA 000375-93934), and on the appearance of an F1 hybrid between a panda (s/s) quail and a mo^w/mo^w chicken, Kinoshita et al. (2014) identified "a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2) in the mutant [mo^w] chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution [G1272A] leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo) plumage phenotype."

Breed: Minohiki.

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
EDNRB2 endothelin receptor B subtype 2 Gallus gallus 4 NC_006091.5 (11158651..11169803) EDNRB2 Homologene, Ensembl, NCBI gene


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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
Feather colour, mottling EDNRB2 missense c.1008G>T p.C244F 2014 24466053
Feather colour, mottling EDNRB2 missense c.1272G>A p.R332H 2014 24466053


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2014 Kinoshita, K., Akiyama, T., Mizutani, M., Shinomiya, A., Ishikawa, A., Younis, H.H., Tsudzuki, M., Namikawa, T., Matsuda, Y. :
Endothelin Receptor B2 (EDNRB2) Is Responsible for the Tyrosinase-Independent Recessive White (mo(w) ) and Mottled (mo) Plumage Phenotypes in the Chicken. PLoS One 9:e86361, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24466053. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086361.
1987 Carefoot, W.C. :
Evidence that the mottled (mo) and pied (pi) plumage genes of the domestic fowl are identical British Poultry Science 28:753-754, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3446343. DOI: 10.1080/00071668708417013.
1980 Somes, R.G. :
The mottling gene, the basis of six plumage color patterns in the domestic fowl. Poult Sci 59:1370-4, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7393852.
1949 Hutt, F.B. :
Genetics of the fowl. McGraw-Hill, New York. :, 1949.
1930 Asmundson, V. S., Milne, H.I. :
Inheritance of plumage and skin color in the Ancona. Sci Agr 10:293-304, 1930.
1906 Davenport, C.B. :
"Inheritance in poultry". Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington. Publication 52. :1-136, 1906.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 29 Jan 2014
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 29 Jan 2014