OMIA 000162-9615 : Cardiomyopathy, dilated in Canis lupus familiaris

In other species: domestic cat , cattle , pig , turkey , golden hamster , sea otter , rabbit

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s)s (MIM numbers): 107970 , 115200 , 611880 , 302060 , 302045 , 600884 , 601494

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Key variant is published: no

Cross-species summary: A disorder characterised by cardiac enlargement (especially of the left ventricle), poor myocardial contractility, and congestive heart failure.

Species-specific name: Dilated cardiomyopathy

Species-specific symbol: DCM

Inheritance: A juvenile form of this disorder, unique to Portugese water dogs, is autosomal recessive (Dambach et al., 1999; Alroy et al., 2000; Sleeper et al., 2002).

In Doberman pinschers, Meurs et al. (2007) reported autosomal recessive inheritance with incomplete penetrance, which is, in effect, multifactorial inheritance.

Mapping: A genome scan by Werner et al. (2008) of 40 affected and 69 normal Portuguese water dogs, each genotyped with an initial set of 120 microsatellites, mapped this disorder in this breed to a 3.9Mb region of chromosome CFA8.

As part of the LUPA consortium, Mausberg et al. (2011) conducted a GWAS on 71 affected and 70 control Doberman Pinschers, each of which was genotyped with the Illumina Canine HD chip (yielding 75,916 informative SNPs for analysis). The results indicated that a risk factor located in a 3 Mb region between 52 Mb and 55 Mb on chromosome CFA5 is responsible for about 50% of the dilated cardiomyopathy cases in Doberman Pinschers from Europe.

A GWAS conducted by Meurs et al. (2012) on 48 affected and 48 control Doberman pinschers, each genotyped with the Affymetrix Canine Genome 2.0 Array “Platinum Panel” (comprising 49,663 SNPs), highlighted a region on chromosome CFA14. Subsequent fine mapping reduced the region to 23,774,190–23,781,919.

A GWAS conducted by Philipp et al. (2012) on 106 affected and 84 control Irish Wolfhounds, each genotyped with the Illumina HD beadchip (yielding 83,621 SNPs for analysis), highlighted a region on chromosome CFA37, and less-significant regions on CFA1, 10, 15, 17, and 21.

Markers: Sequencing within their CFA14 candidate region (see Mapping section) enabled Meurs et al. (2012) to report "a 16-base pair deletion in the 5' donor splice site of intron 10 of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 [PDK4] gene" associated with the disorder in Dobermans. Their data showed that the deletion occurred in 82% of affected dogs and 39% of unaffected dogs, indicating that it is far from being causative. It could, however, be linked to a QTL for liability for the disorder. This PDK4 variant is not specific to Doberman Pinschers and it was not associated with DCM in the Doberman cohort from the European LUPA project (Owczarek-Lipska et al. 2013).

Meurs et al. (2013) reported that the 8bp deletion in the striatin (STRN) gene that is responsible for Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (OMIA 000878-9615) in Boxers, is strongly (but not completely) associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in Boxers.

Genetic testing: A DNA test for a linked marker of a juvenile form of this disorder (JDCM) in Portugese Water Dogs is included in the OFA's list at http://www.offa.org/dna_alltest.html, which directs enquiries to the PennGen laboratories, Section of Medical Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania: http://research.vet.upenn.edu/penngen. This linked marker is presumably based on the CFA8 results of Werner et al. (2008).

A DNA test for this disorder in Dobermans is also included in the OFA's list. In this case, enquiries are directed to the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Missouri. The basis for this test is the linked marker reported by Meurs et al. (2012). Given the results of Meurs et al. (2012), it is evident that any DNA test based on this mutation will not be a good indicator of liability to this disorder in Dobermans.

Breeds: Boxer, Doberman Pinscher, Irish Wolfhound.

References


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2018 Bilić, P., Guillemin, N., Kovačević, A., Beer Ljubić, B., Jović, I., Galan, A., Eckersall, P.D., Burchmore, R., Mrljak, V. :
Serum proteome profiling in canine idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy using TMT-based quantitative proteomics approach. J Proteomics :, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29530679. DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2018.03.007.
Dutton, E., López-Alvarez, J. :
An update on canine cardiomyopathies - is it all in the genes? J Small Anim Pract :, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29665072. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12841.
2017 Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T.P., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders. Canine Genet Epidemiol 4:6, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28560045. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-017-0044-6.
2016 Harmon, M.W., Leach, S.B., Lamb, K.E. :
Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Standard Schnauzers: Retrospective Study of 15 Cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc :, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27841675. DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6506.
Janus, I., Noszczyk-Nowak, A., Nowak, M., Ciaputa, R., Kandefer-Gola, M., Pasławska, U. :
A comparison of the histopathologic pattern of the left atrium in canine dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic mitral valve disease. BMC Vet Res 12:3, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26728624. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-015-0626-z.
Reynoso Palomar, A.R., Rodriguez Bravo, M., Villa Mancera, A.E., Mucha, C.J. :
Expression and biochemical characteristics of two different aldosterone receptors in both healthy and dilated cardiomyopathy dog heart tissue. Vet Res Commun :, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27891565. DOI: 10.1007/s11259-016-9667-4.
Sosa, I., Estrada, A.H., Winter, B.D., Erger, K.E., Conlon, T.J. :
In vitro evaluation of mitochondrial dysfunction and treatment with adeno-associated virus vector in fibroblasts from Doberman Pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy and a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 mutation. Am J Vet Res 77:156-61, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27027709. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.77.2.156.
Vollmar, A.C., Aupperle, H. :
Cardiac pathology in Irish wolfhounds with heart disease. J Vet Cardiol 18:57-70, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26700743. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvc.2015.10.001.
2015 Oberbauer, A.M., Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R. :
Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401337. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0021-x.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Fonfara, S., Hetzel, U., Oyama, M.A., Kipar, A. :
The potential role of myocardial serotonin receptor 2B expression in canine dilated cardiomyopathy. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24440442. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.12.003.
Meurs, K.M., Stern, J.A., Sisson, D.D., Kittleson, M.D., Cunningham, S.M., Ames, M.K., Atkins, C.E., DeFrancesco, T., Hodge, T.E., Keene, B.W., Reina Doreste, Y., Leuthy, M., Motsinger-Reif, A.A., Tou, S.P. :
Association of dilated cardiomyopathy with the striatin mutation genotype in boxer dogs. J Vet Intern Med 27:1437-40, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24033487. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.12163.
Owczarek-Lipska, M., Mausberg, T.B., Stephenson, H., Dukes-McEwan, J., Wess, G., Leeb, T. :
A 16-bp deletion in the canine PDK4 gene is not associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in a European cohort of Doberman Pinschers. Anim Genet 44:239, 2013. Pubmed reference: 22834541. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2012.02396.x.
2012 Meurs, K.M., Lahmers, S., Keene, B.W., White, S.N., Oyama, M.A., Mauceli, E., Lindblad-Toh, K. :
A splice site mutation in a gene encoding for PDK4, a mitochondrial protein, is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Doberman pinscher. Hum Genet 131:1319-25, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22447147. DOI: 10.1007/s00439-012-1158-2.
Philipp, U., Vollmar, A., Häggström, J., Thomas, A., Distl, O. :
Multiple Loci are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in irish wolfhounds. PLoS One 7:e36691, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22761652. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036691.
Stephenson, H.M., Fonfara, S., López-Alvarez, J., Cripps, P., Dukes-McEwan, J. :
Screening for dilated cardiomyopathy in Great Danes in the United Kingdom. J Vet Intern Med 26:1140-7, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22882627. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00987.x.
2011 Mausberg, T.B., Wess, G., Simak, J., Keller, L., Drögemüller, M., Drögemüller, C., Webster, M.T., Stephenson, H., Dukes-McEwan, J., Leeb, T. :
A locus on chromosome 5 is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers. PLoS One 6:e20042, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21625443. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020042.
2010 Martin, MW., Stafford Johnson, MJ., Strehlau, G., King, JN. :
Canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of prognostic findings in 367 clinical cases. J Small Anim Pract 51:428-36, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20670254. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.00985.x.
Sleeper, MM., Bish, LT., Sweeney, HL. :
Status of therapeutic gene transfer to treat canine dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 40:717-24, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20610021. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.03.005.
Wess, G., Schulze, A., Butz, V., Simak, J., Killich, M., Keller, LJ., Maeurer, J., Hartmann, K. :
Prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers in various age groups. J Vet Intern Med 24:533-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20202106. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0479.x.
2009 Martin, MW., Stafford Johnson, MJ., Celona, B. :
Canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of signalment, presentation and clinical findings in 369 cases. J Small Anim Pract 50:23-9, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19037887. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00659.x.
O'Grady, MR., O'Sullivan, ML., Minors, SL., Horne, R. :
Efficacy of benazepril hydrochloride to delay the progression of occult dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers. J Vet Intern Med 23:977-83, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19572914. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0346.x.
Oyama, MA., Chittur, SV., Reynolds, CA. :
Decreased triadin and increased calstabin2 expression in Great Danes with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 23:1014-9, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19674278. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0360.x.
Sleeper, MM., Bish, LT., Sweeney, HL. :
Gene therapy in large animal models of human cardiovascular genetic disease. ILAR J 50:199-205, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19293462.
2008 Meurs, KM., Hendrix, KP., Norgard, MM. :
Molecular evaluation of five cardiac genes in Doberman Pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Vet Res 69:1050-3, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18672969. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.69.8.1050.
Werner, P., Raducha, MG., Prociuk, U., Sleeper, MM., Van Winkle, TJ., Henthorn, PS. :
A novel locus for dilated cardiomyopathy maps to canine chromosome 8. Genomics 91:517-521, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18442891. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.03.007.
2007 Distl, O., Vollmar, AC., Broschk, C., Hamann, H., Fox, PR. :
Complex segregation analysis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Irish wolfhounds. Heredity 99:460-5, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17611491. DOI: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6801024.
Meurs, KM., Fox, PR., Norgard, M., Spier, AW., Lamb, A., Koplitz, SL., Baumwart, RD. :
A prospective genetic evaluation of familial dilated cardiomyopathy in the Doberman pinscher. J Vet Intern Med 21:1016-20, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17939558.
Philipp, U., Broschk, C., Vollmar, A., Distl, O. :
Evaluation of tafazzin as candidate for dilated cardiomyopathy in Irish wolfhounds. J Hered 98:506-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17621587. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esm045.
Wiersma, AC., Leegwater, PA., van Oost, BA., Ollier, WE., Dukes-McEwan, J. :
Canine candidate genes for dilated cardiomyopathy: annotation of and polymorphic markers for 14 genes. BMC Vet Res 3:28, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17949487. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-3-28.
Wiersma, AC., Stabej, P., Leegwater, PA., van Oost, BA., Ollier, WE., Dukes-McEwan, J. :
Evaluation of 15 Candidate Genes for Dilated Cardiomyopathy in the Newfoundland Dog. J Hered 99:73-80, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17998275. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esm090.
2005 Alroy, J., Rush, JE., Sarkar, S. :
Infantile dilated cardiomyopathy in Portuguese water dogs: correlation of the autosomal recessive trait with low plasma taurine at infancy. Amino Acids 28:51-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15611846. DOI: 10.1007/s00726-004-0149-6.
Broschk, C., Distl, O. :
[Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs--pathological, clinical, diagnosis and genetic aspects] Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 112:380-5, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16320572.
Nikolaidis, LA., Mathier, MA., Doverspike, A., Hentosz, T., Huerbin, R., Stolarski, CJ., Shannon, RP. :
Coronary blood flow responses are impaired independent of NO and endothelial function in conscious dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Card Fail 11:313-21, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15880342.
Oyama, MA., Chittur, S. :
Genomic expression patterns of cardiac tissues from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Vet Res 66:1140-55, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16111151.
Stabej, P., Leegwater, PA., Imholz, S., Versteeg, SA., Zijlstra, C., Stokhof, AA., Domanjko-Petrie, A., van Oost, BA. :
The canine sarcoglycan delta gene: BAC clone contig assembly, chromosome assignment and interrogation as a candidate gene for dilated cardiomyopathy in Dobermann dogs. Cytogenet Genome Res 111:140-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16103655. DOI: 10.1159/000086383.
Stabej, P., Leegwater, PA., Stokhof, AA., Domanjko-Petric, A., van Oost, BA. :
Evaluation of the phospholamban gene in purebred large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Vet Res 66:432-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15822587.
Tidholm, A., Jönsson, L. :
Histologic characterization of canine dilated cardiomyopathy. Vet Pathol 42:1-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15657266. DOI: 10.1354/vp.42-1-1.
Weng, Q., Murase, T., Asano, M., Tsubota, T. :
Male Pseudohermaphroditism in a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procynoides). J Vet Med Sci 67:603-5, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15997188.
2004 Chetboul, V., Sampedrano, CC., Testault, I., Pouchelon, JL. :
Use of tissue Doppler imaging to confirm the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in a dog with equivocal echocardiographic findings. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:1877-80, 1864, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15643837.
Stabej, P., Imholz, S., Versteeg, SA., Zijlstra, C., Stokhof, AA., Domanjko-Petric, A., Leegwater, PA., van Oost, BA. :
Characterization of the canine desmin (DES) gene and evaluation as a candidate gene for dilated cardiomyopathy in the Dobermann. Gene 340:241-9, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15475165. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2004.06.050.
2003 Shen, Y.T., Lynch, J.J., Hargreaves, R.J., Gould, R.J. :
A growth hormone secretagogue prevents ischemic-induced mortality independently of the growth hormone pathway in dogs with chronic dilated cardiomyopathy Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics 306:815-20, 2003.
2002 Sleeper, M.M., Henthorn, P.S., Vijayasarathy, C., Dambach, D.M., Bowers, T., Tijskens, P., Armstrong, C.F., Lankford, E.B. :
Dilated cardiomyopathy in juvenile Portuguese Water Dogs Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 16:52-62, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11822805.
2001 Alroy, J., Rush, J.E. :
Response to letter to the editor by Sleeper et al. "Differing opinion regarding the etiology of juvenile cardiomyopathy in Portuguese water dogs" American Journal of Medical Genetics 104:264, 2001.
Borgarelli, M., Tarducci, A., Tidholm, A., Haggstrom, J. :
Canine idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Part II: Pathophysiology and therapy Veterinary Journal 162:182-195, 2001.
Calvert, C.A., Wall, M. :
Effect of severity of myocardial failure on heart rate variability in Doberman Pinschers with and without echocardiographic evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219:1084-1088, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11700705.
Calvert, C.A., Wall, T.M. :
Correlations among time and frequency measures of heart rate variability recorded by use of a Holter monitor in overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers with and without echocardiographic evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:1787-1792, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11703025.
Cesselli, D., Jakoniuk, I., Barlucchi, L., Beltrami, A.P., Hintze, T.H., Nadal-Ginard, B., Kajstura, J., Leri, A., Anversa, P. :
Oxidative stress-mediated cardiac cell death is a major determinant of ventricular dysfunction and failure in dog dilated cardiomyopathy Circulation Research 89:279-286, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11485979.
Chugh, S.S., Johnson, S.B., Packer, D.L. :
Amplified effects of d,l-sotalol in canine dilated cardiomyopathy Pace-Pacing & Clinical Electrophysiology 24:1783-1788, 2001.
Elliot, J., Marr, C.M. :
Understanding the pathophysiology is the key to novel therapies for canine dilated cardiomyopathy Veterinary Journal 162:168-169, 2001.
Meurs, K.M., Magnon, A.L., Spier, A.W., Miller, M.W., Lehmkuhl, L.B., Towbin, J.A. :
Evaluation of the cardiac actin gene in Doberman Pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:33-36, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11197556.
Meurs, K.M., Miller, M.W., Wright, N.A. :
Clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy in Great Danes and results of a pedigree analysis: 17 cases (1990-2000) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218:729-732, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11280406.
Morales, M., Ynaraja, E., Montoya, J.A. :
Dilated cardiomyopathy in Presa canario dogs: ECG findings Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin - Reihe A 48:577-580, 2001.
Spier, A.W., Meurs, K.M., Coovert, D.D., Lehmkuhl, L.B., O'Grady, M.R., Freeman, L.M., Burghes, A.H., Towbin, J.A. :
Use of western immunoblot for evaluation of myocardial dystrophin, alpha-sarcoglycan, and beta-dystroglycan in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:67-71, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11197563.
Tidholm, A., Haggstrom, J., Borgarelli, M., Tarducci, A. :
Canine idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Part I: Aetiology, clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathology Veterinary Journal 162:92-107, 2001.
Tidholm, A., Haggstrom, J., Hansson, K. :
Effects of dilated cardiomyopathy on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, atrial natriuretic peptide activity, and thyroid hormone concentrations in dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:961-967, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11400857.
2000 Alroy, J., Rush, J.E., Freeman, L., Kumar, M.S.A., Karuri, A., Chase, K., Sarkar, S. :
Inherited infantile dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs: Genetic, clinical, biochemical, and morphologic findings American Journal of Medical Genetics 95:57-66, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11074496.
Calvert, C.A., Jacobs, G.J. :
Heart rate variability in Doberman Pinschers with and without echocardiographic evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy American Journal of Veterinary Research 61:506-511, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10803644.
Gilbert, S.J., Wotton, P.R., Bailey, A.J., Sims, T.J., Duance, V.C. :
Alterations in the organisation, ultrastructure and biochemistry of the myocardial collagen matrix in Doberman pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy Research in Veterinary Science 69:267-274, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11124099. DOI: 10.1053/rvsc.2000.0423.
1999 Borgarelli, M., Badino, P., Bergamasco, L., Bussadori, C., Odore, R., Re, G., Tarducci, A., Dotta, U. :
Lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor downregulation in great danes with occult dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and with DCM and heart failure Veterinary Journal 158:128-134, 1999.
Brownlie, S.E., Cobb, M.A. :
Observations on the development of congestive heart failure in Irish wolfhounds with dilated cardiomyopathy Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:371-377, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10476524.
Dambach, D.M., Lannon, A., Sleeper, M.M., Buchanan, J. :
Familial dilated cardiomyopathy of young Portuguese Water Dogs Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 13:65-71, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10052066.
Everett, R.M., McGann, J., Wimberly, H.C., Althoff, J. :
Dilated cardiomyopathy of Doberman Pinschers: Retrospective histomorphologic evaluation of heart from 32 cases Veterinary Pathology 36:221-227, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10332830.
Freeman, L.M., Brown, D.J., Rush, J.E. :
Assessment of degree of oxidative stress and antioxidant concentrations in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215:644-646, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10476709.
Power, J.M., Raman, J., Dornom, A., Farish, S.J., Burrell, L.M., Tonkin, A.M., Buxton, B., Alferness, C.A. :
Passive ventricular constraint amends the course of heart failure: a study in an ovine model of dilated cardiomyopathy Cardiovascular Research 44:549-555, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10690287.
Re, G., Bergamasco, L., Badino, P., Borgarelli, M., Odore, R., Tarducci, A., Zanatta, R., Girardi, C. :
Canine dilated cardiomyopathy: Lymphocyte and cardiac alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor concentrations in normal and affected great danes Veterinary Journal 158:120-127, 1999.
Schatzberg, S., Olby, N., Steingold, S., Keene, B., Atkins, C., Meurs, K., Solomon, G., Goedegebuure, S.A., Wilton, S., Sharp, N. :
A polymerase chain reaction screening strategy for the promoter of the canine dystrophin gene American Journal of Veterinary Research 60:1040-1046, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10490068.
Shahrara, S., Tidholm, A., Drvota, V., Haggstom, J., Sylven, C. :
Upregulation of thyroid hormone receptor beta(1) and beta(2) messenger RNA in the myocardium of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy or chronic valvular disease American Journal of Veterinary Research 60:848-852, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10407478.
Vollmar, A.C. :
Use of echocardiography in the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in Irish wolfhounds Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 35:279-283, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10416770.
1998 Gut, M., Glaus, T.M., Suter, P.F. :
What is your diagnosis - veterinary diagnostic exercise - atrial fibrillation and dilated cardiomyopathy in a 9-year-old boxer [German] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 140:337-340, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9719733.
Pagel, P.S., Hettrick, D.A., Kersten, J.R., Lowe, D., Warltier, D.C. :
Cardiovascular effects of propofol in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy Anesthesiology 88:180-189, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9447871.
Pagel, P.S., Hettrick, D.A., Kersten, J.R., Tessmer, J.P., Lowe, D., Warltier, D.C. :
Etomidate adversely alters determinants of left ventricular afterload in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy Anesthesia & Analgesia 86:932-938, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9585271.
Tidholm, A., Haggstrom, J., Jonsson, L. :
Prevalence of attenuated wavy fibers in myocardium of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212:1732-1734, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9621879.
1997 Gavaghan, B.J., Kittleson, M.D. :
Dilated cardiomyopathy in an American Cocker Spaniel with taurine deficiency Australian Veterinary Journal 75:862-868, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9469219.
Gilbert, S.J., Wotton, P.R., Tarlton, J.F., Duance, V.C., Bailey, A.J. :
Increased expression of promatrix METALLOPROTEINASE-9 and neutrophil elastase in canine dilated cardiomyopathy Cardiovascular Research 34:377-383, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9205552.
Hettrick, D.A., Pagel, P.S., Kersten, J.R., Lowe, D., Warltier, D.C. :
The effects of isoflurane and halothane on left ventricular afterload in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy Anesthesia & Analgesia 85:979-986, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9356087.
Kittleson, M.D., Keene, B., Pion, P.D., Loyer, C.G., Beardow, A.W., Knight, D.H., Bonagura, J.D., Burgener, D.C., Delellis, L.A., Goullaud, R., Kramer, G.A., Loyer, C., Miller, M., Ogburn, P., Ware, W.A. :
Results of the multicenter spaniel trial (must) - taurine- and carnitine-responsive dilated cardiomyopathy in american cocker spaniels with decreased plasma taurine concentration Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 11:204-211, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9298474.
Obrien, P.J. :
Deficiencies of myocardial troponin-t and creatine kinase mb isoenzyme in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy American Journal of Veterinary Research 58:11-16, 1997. Pubmed reference: 8989489.
Tidholm, A., Jonsson, L. :
A retrospective study of canine dilated cardiomyopathy (189 cases) Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 33:544-550, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9358426.
Tidholm, A., Svensson, H., Sylven, C. :
Survival and prognostic factors in 189 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 33:364-368, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9204475.
White, R.N., Cobb, M.A., Brownlie, S.E., Pattison, C.W., Cumming, D.V.E., Jones, D.G.C., Williamson, H.A., Yacoub, M.H. :
Skeletal muscle extra-aortic counterpulsation in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy Journal of Small Animal Practice 38:554-560, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9444637.
1996 Freeman, L.M., Michel, K.E., Brown, D.J., Kaplan, P.M., Stamoulis, M.E., Rosenthal, S.L., Keene, B.W., Rush, J.E. :
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in Dalmatians - nine cases (1990-1995) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209:1592 ff., 1996.
Koch, J., Pedersen, H.D., Jensen, A.L., Flagstad, A. :
M-mode echocardiographic diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in giant breed dogs Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin - Reihe A 43:297-304, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8779804.
Tidholm, A.E.M. :
Canine dilated cardiomyopathy - a study of 189 cases in 38 breeds Veterinary Quarterly 18:S 34-S 35, 1996.
Tidholm, A., Jonsson, L. :
Dilated cardiomyopathy in the Newfoundland - a study of 37 cases (1983-1994) Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 32:465-470, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8906721.
1995 Koch, J., Pedersen, H.D., Jensen, A.L., Flagstad, A., Poulsen, K. :
Activation of the renin-angiotensin system in dogs with asymptomatic and symptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy Research in Veterinary Science 59:172-175, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8525110.
1994 Costa, ND., Labuc, RH. :
Case report: efficacy of oral carnitine therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy in boxer dogs. J Nutr 124:2687S-2692S, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7996270.
Monnet, E., Orton, E.C. :
Dynamic Cardiomyoplasty for Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Dogs Seminars in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery - Small Animal 9:240-246, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7839036.
1992 McCutcheon, L.J., Cory, C.R., Nowack, L., Shen, H., Mirsalami, M., Lahucky, R., Kovac, L., O'Grady, M., Horne, R., Obrien, P.J. :
Respiratory Chain Defect of Myocardial Mitochondria in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy of Doberman-Pinscher Dogs Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 70:1529-1533, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1338376.
1991 Keene, B.W., Panciera, D.P., Atkins, C.E., Regitz, V., Schmidt, M.J., Shug, A.L. :
Myocardial L-Carnitine Deficiency in a Family of Dogs with Dilated Cardiomyopathy Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198:647-650, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2019534.

Edit History


  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 21 Jul 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 10 Aug 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 29 Aug 2011
  • Changed by Tosso Leeb on 01 Sep 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 03 Sep 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 22 Jun 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 01 Jul 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 20 May 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 22 May 2013
  • Changed by Tosso Leeb on 29 May 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 25 Sep 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 24 Oct 2015