OMIA 000279-9615 : Diabetes mellitus in Canis lupus familiaris

In other species: domestic cat , cattle , golden hamster , koala , rabbit , long-tailed chinchilla , domestic guinea pig , horse , pig

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s)s (MIM numbers): 125850 (trait) , 125851 (trait) , 125852 (trait) , 125853 (trait) , 176730 (gene) , 222100 (trait) , 222300 (trait) , 520000 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Inheritance: In a textbook example of investigating the heritability and mode of inheritance of a disorder, Cai et al. (2019) estimated heritability of diabetes mellitus (DM) in American Eskimo Dogs (AED) to be 0.62 (95% posterior interval 0.01-0.99) and the mode of inheritance to be "polygenic, with no evidence for a single gene of large effect." The low precision of the heritability estimate is due to the relatively small numbers of animals available, namely "71 AED without DM, 47 AED with an unknown phenotype, and 38 AED with spontaneous DM".

In another textbook example of investigating the heritability and mode of inheritance of a disorder, Mui et al. (2020) reported that "Heritability of diabetes in Australian Terriers was estimated at 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.0-0.67). There was no significant difference in the effect of males and females on disease outcome. Complex segregation analysis suggested that the mode of diabetes inheritance in Australian Terriers is polygenic, with no evidence for a large effect single gene influencing diabetes."

Mapping: Sanz et al. (2021) "conducted both whole-genome scans for selection signatures and GWASs to compare the genomes of 136 dogs belonging to 29 breeds previously described at low or high risk for developing DM. ... The only genomic region under selection (CFA8:72 700 000-74 600 000; CanFam3.1) retrieved by our analyses is included in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene cluster, which has already been related to human human type 1 diabetes susceptibility. This region contains two non-synonymous variants, rs852072969 and rs851728071, showing significant associations with high or low risk for IDD, respectively"

Control: As concluded by Cai et al. (2019), "Breeders could successfully implement a breeding program to decrease the incidence of DM in AED."

References


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2022 Shiel, R.E., Mooney, C.T. :
Insulins for the long term management of diabetes mellitus in dogs: a review. Canine Med Genet 9:1, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35152907. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-022-00114-9.
2021 Denyer, A.L., Catchpole, B., Davison, L.J. :
Genetics of canine diabetes mellitus part 1: Phenotypes of disease. Vet J 270:105611, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33641807. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2021.105611.
Denyer, A.L., Catchpole, B., Davison, L.J. :
Genetics of canine diabetes mellitus part 2: Current understanding and future directions. Vet J 270:105612, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33641811. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2021.105612.
Sanz, C.R., Sevane, N., Pérez-Alenza, M.D., Valero-Lorenzo, M., Dunner, S. :
Polymorphisms in canine immunoglobulin heavy chain gene cluster: a double-edged sword for diabetes mellitus in the dog. Anim Genet :, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33621396. DOI: 10.1111/age.13047.
2020 Denyer, A.L., Massey, J.P., Davison, L.J., Ollier, W.E.R., Catchpole, B., Kennedy, L.J. :
Dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotypes and risk of canine diabetes mellitus in specific dog breeds. Canine Med Genet 7:15, 2020. Pubmed reference: 33292601. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-020-00093-9.
Mui, M.L., Famula, T.R., Henthorn, P.S., Hess, R.S. :
Heritability and complex segregation analysis of naturally-occurring diabetes in Australian Terrier Dogs. PLoS One 15:e0239542, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32970763. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239542.
O'Kell, A.L., Wasserfall, C.H., Henthorn, P.S., Atkinson, M.A., Hess, R.S. :
Evaluation for type 1 diabetes associated autoantibodies in diabetic and non-diabetic Australian terriers and Samoyeds. Canine Med Genet 7:10, 2020. Pubmed reference: 33323126. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-020-00089-5.
2019 Cai, S.V., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M., Hess, R.S. :
Heritability and complex segregation analysis of diabetes mellitus in American Eskimo Dogs. J Vet Intern Med 33:1926-1934, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31318104. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.15570.
Hess, R., Henthorn, P., Devoto, M., Wang, F., Feng, R. :
An exploratory association analysis of the insulin gene region with diabetes mellitus in two dog breeds. J Hered :, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31587057. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esz059.
2017 Davison, L.J., Holder, A., Catchpole, B., O'Callaghan, C.A. :
The canine POMC gene, obesity in Labrador Retrievers and susceptibility to diabetes mellitus. J Vet Intern Med 31:343-348, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28176381. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.14636.
2016 Brito-Casillas, Y., Melián, C., Wägner, A.M. :
Study of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus through animal models. Endocrinol Nutr 63:345-53, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27246633. DOI: 10.1016/j.endonu.2016.03.011.
2014 Short, A.D., Holder, A., Rothwell, S., Massey, J., Scholey, R., Kennedy, L.J., Catchpole, B., Ollier, W.E. :
Searching for "monogenic diabetes" in dogs using a candidate gene approach. Canine Genet Epidemiol 1:8, 2014. Pubmed reference: 26401325. DOI: 10.1186/2052-6687-1-8.
2013 Catchpole, B., Adams, J.P., Holder, A.L., Short, A.D., Ollier, W.E., Kennedy, L.J. :
Genetics of canine diabetes mellitus: are the diabetes susceptibility genes identified in humans involved in breed susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs? Vet J 195:139-47, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23265864. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.11.013.
2010 Fall, T., Hedhammar, A., Wallberg, A., Fall, N., Ahlgren, K.M., Hamlin, H.H., Lindblad-Toh, K., Andersson, G., Kämpe, O. :
Diabetes mellitus in elkhounds is associated with diestrus and pregnancy. J Vet Intern Med 24:1322-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21054539. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0630.x.
2008 Catchpole, B., Kennedy, LJ., Davison, LJ., Ollier, WE. :
Canine diabetes mellitus: from phenotype to genotype. J Small Anim Pract 49:4-10, 2008. Pubmed reference: 17617163. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2007.00398.x.
2007 Short, AD., Catchpole, B., Kennedy, LJ., Barnes, A., Fretwell, N., Jones, C., Thomson, W., Ollier, WE. :
Analysis of candidate susceptibility genes in canine diabetes. J Hered 98:518-25, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17611256. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esm048.
2006 Kennedy, LJ., Davison, LJ., Barnes, A., Short, AD., Fretwell, N., Jones, CA., Lee, AC., Ollier, WE., Catchpole, B. :
Identification of susceptibility and protective major histocompatibility complex haplotypes in canine diabetes mellitus. Tissue Antigens 68:467-76, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17176436. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00716.x.
2005 Catchpole, B., Ristic, JM., Fleeman, LM., Davison, LJ. :
Canine diabetes mellitus: can old dogs teach us new tricks? Diabetologia 48:1948-56, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16151773. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-005-1921-1.
Cullen, CL., Ihle, SL., Webb, AA., McCarville, C. :
Keratoconjunctival effects of diabetes mellitus in dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 8:215-24, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16008700. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2005.00389.x.
Davison, L. :
Determining the genetics of canine diabetes mellitus. J Small Anim Pract 46:464, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16167601.
Davison, LJ., Herrtage, ME., Catchpole, B. :
Study of 253 dogs in the United Kingdom with diabetes mellitus. Vet Rec 156:467-71, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15828742.
Magori, E., Nakamura, M., Inoue, A., Tanaka, A., Sasaki, N., Fukuda, H., Mizutani, H., Sako, T., Kimura, N., Arai, T. :
Malate dehydrogenase activities are lower in some types of peripheral leucocytes of dogs and cats with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Res Vet Sci 78:39-44, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15500838. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2004.06.001.
Monroe, WE., Laxton, D., Fallin, EA., Richter, KP., Santen, DR., Panciera, DL., Towell, TL., Williams, KA., Hart, JR., Hill, S., Finkler, MR., Shinn, JS. :
Efficacy and safety of a purified porcine insulin zinc suspension for managing diabetes mellitus in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 19:675-82, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16231711.
2004 Fincham, SC., Drobatz, KJ., Gillespie, TN., Hess, RS. :
Evaluation of plasma-ionized magnesium concentration in 122 dogs with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective study. J Vet Intern Med 18:612-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15515574.
Fracassi, F., Pietra, M., Boari, A., Aste, G., Giunti, M., Famigli-Bergamini, P. :
Breed distribution of canine diabetes mellitus in Italy. Vet Res Commun 28 Suppl 1:339-42, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15372992.
Rand, JS., Fleeman, LM., Farrow, HA., Appleton, DJ., Lederer, R. :
Canine and feline diabetes mellitus: nature or nurture? J Nutr 134:2072S-2080S, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15284406.
Vargas, AM., Barros, RP., Zampieri, RA., Okamoto, MM., de Carvalho Papa, P., Machado, UF. :
Abnormal subcellular distribution of GLUT4 protein in obese and insulin-treated diabetic female dogs. Braz J Med Biol Res 37:1095-101, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15264018. DOI: /S0100-879X2004000700020.
2003 Casella, M., Wess, G., Hassig, M., Reusch, C.E. :
Home monitoring of blood glucose concentration by owners of diabetic dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 44:298-305, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12866927.
Good, K.L., Maggs, D.J., Hollingsworth, S.R., Scagliotti, R.H., Nelson, R.W. :
Corneal sensitivity in dogs with diabetes mellitus American Journal of Veterinary Research 64:7-11, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12518871.
Guptill, L., Glickman, L., Glickman, N. :
Time trends and risk factors for diabetes mellitus in dogs: analysis of veterinary medical data base records (1970-1999) Veterinary Journal 165:240-7, 2003.
Hess, R.S., Ilan, I. :
Renal abscess in a dog with transient diabetes mellitus Journal of Small Animal Practice 44:13-6, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12570346.
Hess, R.S., Kass, P.H., Van, Winkle, T.J. :
Association between diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism or hyperadrenocorticism, and atherosclerosis in dogs Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17:489-94, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12892299.
2002 Behrend, E.N. :
Diabetes mellitus: An update on oral hypoglycemic agents and monitoring options Veterinary Medicine 97:743-+, 2002.
Bennett, N. :
Monitoring techniques for diabetes mellitus in the dog and the cat Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 17:65-69, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12219718. DOI: 10.1053/svms.2002.33044.
Casella, M., Wess, G., Reusch, C.E. :
Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentrations by pet owners: A new tool in the management of diabetes mellitus Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 38:239-245, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12022410.
Greco, D.S. :
Diabetes mellitus: Monitoring and management in small animals - Foreword Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 17:VI, 2002.
Hoenig, M. :
Comparative aspects of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology 197:221-229, 2002.
Kimmel, S.E., Ward, C.R., Henthorn, P.S., Hess, R.S. :
Familial insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Samoyed dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 38:235-8, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12022409. DOI: 10.5326/0380235.
McGuire, N.C., Schulman, R., Ridgway, M.D., Bollero, G. :
Detection of occult urinary tract infections in dogs with diabetes mellitus Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 38:541-544, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12428885.
Prathaban, S., Gnanaprakasam, V. :
Complications of canine diabetes mellitus - A clinical survey Indian Veterinary Journal 79:1259-1261, 2002.
Stein, J.E., Greco, D.S. :
Portable blood glucose meters as a means of monitoring blood glucose concentrations in dogs and cats with diabetes mellitus Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 17:70-72, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12219719. DOI: 10.1053/svms.2002.33041.
Webb, C.B. :
Troubleshooting the diabetic small animal patient Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 17:79-85, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12219721. DOI: 10.1053/svms.2002.33037.
2001 Reusch, C.E., Wess, G., Casella, M. :
Home monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the management of diabetes mellitus Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 23:544-+, 2001.
2000 Briggs, C.E., Nelson, R.W., Feldman, E.C., Elliott, D.A., Neal, L.A. :
Reliability of history and physical examination findings for assessing control of glycemia in dogs with diabetes mellitus: 53 cases (1995-1998) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217:48-53, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10909446.
Hess, R.S., Ward, C.R. :
Effect of insulin dosage on glycemic response in dogs with diabetes mellitus: 221 cases (1993-1998) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216:217-221, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10649757.
Hess, R.S., Kass, P.H., Ward, C.R. :
Breed distribution of dogs with diabetes mellitus admitted to a tertiary care facility Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216:1414-1417, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10800511.
Hess, R.S., Saunders, H.P., Van, Winkle, T.J., Ward, C.R. :
Concurrent disorders in dogs with diabetes mellitus: 221 cases (1993-1998) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217:1166-1173, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11043687.
Horn, B., Mitten, R.W. :
Evaluation of an insulin zinc suspension for control of naturally occurring diabetes mellitus in dogs Australian Veterinary Journal 78:831-834, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11194469.
Nelson, R.W., Robertson, J., Feldman, E.C., Briggs, C. :
Effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on control of glycemia in dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216:1265-1269, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10767967.
1999 Forrester, S.D., Troy, G.C., Dalton, M.N., Huffman, J.W., Holtzman, G. :
Retrospective evaluation of urinary tract infection in 42 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus or both Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 13:557-560, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10587255.
Nelson, R.W., Feldman, E.C. :
Insulin therapy for diabetic dogs and cats (reprinted from Proceedings of the 15th Waltham/Osu Symposium) Irish Veterinary Journal 52:328-+, 1999.
Remillard, R.L. :
Nutritional management of diabetic dogs Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 21:699-+, 1999.
Sottiaux, J. :
Atherosclerosis in a dog with diabetes mellitus Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:581-584, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10664956.
1998 Hess, R.S., Ward, C.R. :
Diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, and hypothyroidism in a dog Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 34:204-207, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9590447.
Hess, R.S., Ward, C.R. :
Concurrent canine hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes mellitus - diagnosis and treatment Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 20:701 ff., 1998.
Loste, A., Marca, M.C. :
Diabetes mellitus in dogs - a study of the critical difference for canine serum fructosamine Veterinary Record 142:547-548, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9637382.
Nelson, R.W., Duesberg, C.A., Ford, S.L., Feldman, E.C., Davenport, D.J., Kiernan, C., Neal, L. :
Effect of dietary insoluble fiber on control of glycemia in dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212:380 ff., 1998.
Struble, A.L., Feldman, E.C., Nelson, R.W., Kass, P.H. :
Systemic hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with diabetes mellitus Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213:822 ff., 1998.
1997 Diez, M., Istasse, L. :
Dietary fibres in dogs .5. effects on glucose metabolism and use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus [Review] [French] Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 141:273 ff., 1997.
Minkus, G., Breuer, W., Arun, S., Kirsch, M., Muller, D., Mueller, J., Hermanns, W. :
Ductuloendocrine cell proliferation in the pancreas of two young dogs with diabetes mellitus Veterinary Pathology 34:164-167, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9066086.
Thoresen, S.I., Lorenzen, F.H. :
Treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs using isophane insulin penfills and the use of serum fructosamine assays to diagnose and monitor the disease Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 38:137-146, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9257449.
1996 Kirsch, M., Reusch, C. :
Urinalysis in dogs with diabetes mellitus - does diabetic nephropathy occur in dogs - second communication [Hungarian] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 51:719-720, 1996.
Montgomery, T.M., Nelson, R.W., Feldman, E.C., Robertson, K., Polonsky, K.S. :
Basal and glucagon-stimulated plasma c-peptide concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with diabetes mellitus, and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 10:116-122, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8743209.
Nelson, R.W. :
Treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats Veterinary Quarterly 18:S 27-S 29, 1996.
Reusch, C. :
Diabetes mellitus in the dog and cat - diagnosis, therapy and long-term monitoring [German] Praktische Tierarzt 77:98 ff., 1996.
Vankeulen, L.J.M., Wesdorp, J.L., Kooistra, H.S. :
Diabetes mellitus in a dog with a growth hormone-producing acidophilic adenoma of the adenohypophysis Veterinary Pathology 33:451-453, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8817849.
Yoshida, M., Barata, K., Jin, A.L., Takahashi, M., Maekawa, A. :
A case report of superficial necrolytic dermatitis in a beagle dog with diabetes mellitus Toxicologic Pathology 24:498-501, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8864192.
1995 Basher, A.W.P., Roberts, S.M. :
Ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus: Diabetic cataracts in dogs Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 25:661-676, 1995.
Elie, M., Hoenig, M. :
Canine immune-mediated diabetes mellitus Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 31:295-299, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7552660.
Hoenig, M. :
Pathophysiology of canine diabetes Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 25:553-561, 1995.
Jensen, A.L. :
Glycated blood proteins in canine diabetes mellitus Veterinary Record 137:401-405, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8545938.
Munana, K.R. :
Long-term complications of diabetes mellitus .1. Retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 25:715-730, 1995.
Parthaban, S., Gnanaprakasam, V., Dhanapalan, P. :
Canine diabetes mellitus - a clinical survey Indian Veterinary Journal 72:965-968, 1995.
Peterson, M.E. :
Diagnosis and management of insulin resistance in dogs and cats with diabetes mellitus Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 25:691-713, 1995.
Plotnick, A.N., Greco, D.S. :
Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats - Contrasts and comparisons Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 25:563-570, 1995.
Prathaban, S., Gnanaprakasam, V. :
Glycosylated haemoglobin in experimental and clinical canine diabetes mellitus Indian Veterinary Journal 72:265-268, 1995.
Reusch, C., Kirsch, M., Vochezer, R. :
The importance of fructosamine-analysis in the control of diabetes mellitus .1. Investigations in normal and diabetic dogs Kleintierpraxis 40:85, 1995.
1994 Grooters, A.M., Sherding, R.G., Biller, D.S., Johnson, S.E. :
Hepatic Abscesses Associated with Diabetes Mellitus in 2 Dogs Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 8:203-206, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8064655.
Jensen, A.L. :
Serum fructosamine as a screening test for diabetes mellitus in non-healthy middle-aged to older dogs Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe A - Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 41:480-484, 1994.
1993 Barrie, J., Watson, T.D.G., Stear, M.J., Nash, A.S. :
Plasma Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Concentrations in the Dog - The Effects of Age, Breed, Gender and Endocrine Disease Journal of Small Animal Practice 34:507-512, 1993.
Ford, S.L., Nelson, R.W., Feldman, E.C., Niwa, D. :
Insulin Resistance in 3 Dogs with Hypothyroidism and Diabetes mellitus Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202:1478-1480, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8496104.
1990 Blaxter, A.C., Gruffydd-Jones, T.J. :
Concurrent Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperadrenocorticism in the Dog - Diagnosis and Management of 8 Cases Journal of Small Animal Practice 31:117-122, 1990.
1989 Hoenig, M., Ferguson, D.C. :
Diabetes Mellitus in the Dog and Cat Companion Animal Practice 19:12-16, 1989.
1988 Kramer, J.W., Klaassen, J.K., Baskin, D.G., Prieur, D.J., Rantanen, N.W., Robinette, J.D., Graber, W.R., Rashti, L. :
Inheritance of diabetes mellitus in Keeshond dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 49:428-431, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3358555.
1982 Engerman, R.L., Kramer, J.W. :
Dogs with induced or spontaneous diabetes as models for the study of human diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 31:26-9, 1982. Pubmed reference: 6761192. DOI: 10.2337/diab.31.1.s26.
1981 Kramer, J.W. :
Animal model of human disease: Inherited early-onset, insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus in keeshond dogs. Am J Pathol 105:194-6, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7027806.
1980 Kramer, J.W., Nottingham, S., Robinette, J., Lenz, G., Sylvester, S., Dessouky, M.I. :
Inherited, early onset, insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus of Keeshond dogs. Diabetes 29:558-65, 1980. Pubmed reference: 6991341. DOI: 10.2337/diab.29.7.558.
1960 Krook, L., Larrson, S., Rooney, J.T. :
The interrelationship between diabetes mellitus, obesity and pyometra in the dog American Journal of Veterinary Research VL :120-124, 1960.

Edit History


  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 26 Jan 2020
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 26 Oct 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 09 Apr 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 12 Apr 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Sep 2021