OMIA 000585-9823 : Leg weakness in Sus scrofa

In other species: turkey , cattle , sheep

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Cross-species summary: Congenital defect of the hindlimbs that prevents standing, because the hindlimbs are splayed.

Species-specific name: Splayleg

Inheritance: A classic example of a multifactorial disorder with intermediate heritability.


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2017 Hao, X., Plastow, G., Zhang, C., Xu, S., Hu, Z., Yang, T., Wang, K., Yang, H., Yin, X., Liu, S., Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Zhang, S. :
Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for piglet splay leg syndrome in different populations. BMC Genet 18:64, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28679362. DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0532-4.
2013 Guo, Y.M., Zhang, X.F., Ren, J., Ai, H.S., Ma, J.W., Huang, L.S. :
A joint genomewide association analysis of pig leg weakness and its related traits in an F2 population and a Sutai population. J Anim Sci 91:4060-8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23825321. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2012-6210.
2012 Rangkasenee, N., Murani, E., Brunner, R., Schellander, K., Cinar, M.U., Scholz, A.M., Luther, H., Hofer, A., Ponsuksili, S., Wimmers, K. :
KRT8, FAF1 and PTH1R gene polymorphisms are associated with leg weakness traits in pigs. Mol Biol Rep :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23196707. DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2301-9.
2009 Fan, B., Onteru, SK., Mote, BE., Serenius, T., Stalder, KJ., Rothschild, MF. :
Large-scale association study for structural soundness and leg locomotion traits in the pig. Genet Sel Evol 41:14, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19284518. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-41-14.
Fan, B., Onteru, SK., Nikkila, MT., Stalder, KJ., Rothschild, MF. :
Identification of genetic markers associated with fatness and leg weakness traits in the pig. Anim Genet 40:967 - 970, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19519793. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01932.x.
Jensen, T.B., Kristensen, A.R., Toft, N., Baadsgaard, N.P., Ƙstergaard, S., Houe, H. :
An object-oriented Bayesian network modeling the causes of leg disorders in finisher herds. Prev Vet Med 89:237-48, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19303155. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.02.009.
2005 Anil, SS., Anil, L., Deen, J. :
Evaluation of patterns of removal and associations among culling because of lameness and sow productivity traits in swine breeding herds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:956-61, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15787000.
2003 Maak, S., Jaesert, S., Neumann, K., von, Lengerken, G. :
Characterization of the porcine CDKN3 gene as a potential candidate for congenital splay leg in piglets Genetics Selection Evolution 35:S157-65, 2003.
2002 Kolb, E. :
Pathobiochemical aspects of the development of inability to stand (splayleg) of newborn piglets - a review Praktische Tierarzt 83:546-+, 2002.
2001 Maak, S., Jaesert, S., Neumann, K., Yerle, M., von, Lengerken, G. :
Isolation of expressed sequence tags of skeletal muscle of neonatal healthy and splay leg piglets and mapping by somatic cell hybrid analysis Animal Genetics 32:303-307, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11683718.
2000 Jorgensen, B. :
Longevity of breeding sows in relation to leg weakness symptoms at six months of age Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 41:105-121, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10965562.
1999 Josiassen, M.K., Christensen, J. :
Change in lameness risk estimates in piglets due to the modelling of herd-level variation Preventive Veterinary Medicine 42:57-65, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10532322.
Maak, S., Jasert, S., von, Lengerken, G. :
Identification of candidate genes for congenital splay leg in piglets - first results Archiv fur Tierzucht-Archives of Animal Breeding 42:167-169, 1999.
Sellier, P., Dando, E., Dando, P. :
Induction of parturition in the sow and incidence of splayleg syndrome in the newborn piglet Annales de Zootechnie 48:153-161, 1999.
1998 Schulze, V., Rohe, R., Looft, H., Kalm, E. :
Genetic improvement of exterior and leg soundness in swine [German] Zuchtungskunde 70:43-60, 1998.
1996 Antalikova, L., Horak, V., Matolin, S. :
Ultrastructural demonstration of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and glycogen in skeletal muscles of newborn piglets with the splayleg syndrome Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 36:205-212, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8663917.
1995 Huang, S.Y., Tsou, H.L., Kan, M.T., Lin, W.K., Chi, C.S. :
Genetic study on leg weakness and its relationship with economic traits in central tested boars in subtropical area Livestock Production Science 44:53-59, 1995.
Stern, S., Lundeheim, N., Johansson, K., Andersson, K. :
Osteochondrosis and leg weakness in pigs selected for lean tissue growth rate Livestock Production Science 44:45-52, 1995.
1994 Penny, R.H.C., Guise, H.J., Rolph, T.P., Tait, J.A., Johnston, A.M., Kempson, S.A., Gettinby, G. :
Influence of the beta-agonist salbutamol on claw horn lesions and walking soundness in finishing pigs Veterinary Record 135:374-381, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7831742.
1993 Simonsen, H.B. :
PST Treatment and Leg Disorders in Growing Swine - A Welfare Hazard Livestock Production Science 36:67-70, 1993.
Tomko, M. :
Influence of Parental Origin, Litter Size and Sex on the Frequency of Splayleg in Piglets - A Case Report Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 41:329-339, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8017236.
1992 Draper, D.D., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Effects of Divergent Selection for Leg Weakness on Muscle and Bone Characteristics in Duroc Swine Genetics Selection Evolution 24:363-374, 1992.
Hillert, S., Kolb, E., Buchner, A., Grundel, G., Schmidt, U. :
The Activity of the Aspartate-Aminotransferase, of the Alanine-Aminotransferase, of the Lactate-Dehydrogenase and of the Creatine-Phosphokinase in the Supernatant of the Homogenates of Some Tissues of Normal Developed Piglets and of That of Piglets with Splayleg Monatshefte Fur Veterinarmedizin 47:383-387, 1992.
Stigler, J., Distl, O., Kruff, B., Krausslich, H. :
Studies of Economically Important Congenital Anomalies of Pigs Tierarztliche Umschau 47:883-886, 1992.
1991 Draper, D.D., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Effects of Divergent Selection for Limb Weakness on Bone and Muscle Cross-Sectional Areas in Duroc Swine American Journal of Veterinary Research 52:164-168, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2021245.
Elschner, M., Kolb, E., Muller, I., Vallentin, G. :
Studies into DNA, RNA, and Total Protein Levels in Various Skeletal Muscles, Diaphragm, Right and Left Ventricles as Well as in Musculature of Oesophagus, Stomach, and Urinary Bladder of Normally Developed and Sprayleg Piglets of Differentiated Body Weight Archiv Fur Experimentelle Veterinarmedizin 45:131-143, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1724148.
Morrow, C.M.K., Rothschild, M.F., Draper, D.D., Christian, L.L. :
Analysis of Gait Parameters in DUROC Swine Genetically Divergent for Front-Leg Structure Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics - Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 108:280-289, 1991.
Piedrafita, J., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Differential Response to Restricted Feeding in 2 Divergent Lines of Duroc Swine Selected for Front-Leg Structure Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics-Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 108:139-146, 1991.
Stigler, J., Distl, O., Kruff, B., Krausslich, H. :
Segregation Analysis of Hereditary Defects in Pigs Zuchtungskunde 63:294-305, 1991.
1990 Ernst, C.W., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Ewan, R.C. :
Effect of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate on Leg Structure in Duroc Swine That Differ Genetically for Leg Weakness Journal of Animal Science 68:2583-2590, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2170318.
Jorgensen, B., Vestergaard, T. :
Genetics of Leg Weakness in Boars at the Danish Pig Breeding Stations Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 40:59-69, 1990.
Lauwers, H., Simoens, P., Lampo, P. :
Morphologic Study of Lesions in Slaughter Pigs with Leg Weakness Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 59:190-195, 1990.
Vanzeveren, A., Lampo, P., Denoo, H., Bouquet, Y. :
Leg Weakness in Belgian Landrace Piglets .1. Variation, Genetic Determination, Relationship with Daily Gain Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 59:179-183, 1990.
Vanzeveren, A., Lampo, P., Denoo, H., Bouquet, Y. :
Leg Weakness in Belgian Landrace Piglets .2. Research on Relationships with Some Proportions of Body Sizes and Blood Serum Components Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 59:184-189, 1990.
1989 Boggess, M.V., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Comparison of foot and leg structure in crossbred pigs sired by Duroc boars differing in degree of leg weakness Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 106:44-50, 1989.
1988 Draper, D.D., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Goedegebuure, S.A. :
Effects of divergent selection for leg weakness on angularity of joints in Duroc swine Journal of Animal Science 66:1636-1642, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3403394.
Goedegebuure, S.A., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Ross, R.F. :
Severity of osteochondrosis in three genetic lines of Duroc swine divergently selected for front-leg weakness Livestock Production Science 19:487-498, 1988.
Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Genetic control of front leg weakness in Duroc swine. I. Direct response to five generations of divergent selection Livestock Production Science 19:459-471, 1988.
Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Jung, Y.C. :
Genetic control of front-leg weakness in Duroc swine. II. Correlated responses in growth rate, backfat and reproduction from five generations of divergent selection Livestock Production Science 19:473-485, 1988.
1987 Rothschild, M.F., Goededebuure, S.A., Christian, L.L., Ross, R.F. :
Evidence of osteochondrosis in swine from 5 generations of divergent selection for leg weakness :92-93, 1987.
Wall, P.G. van der, Goedegebuure, S.A., Valk, P.C. van der, Engel, B., Essen, G. van :
Leg weakness and osteochondrosis in pigs: differences between the sexes of four breeds Livestock Production Science 16:65-74, 1987.
1986 Lawrisuk, L.S., Ross, R.F., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Meeker, D.L. :
Relationship between front leg soundness and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection in Duroc swine :665-670, 1986.
Pfeiffer, H., Hartlep, T., Lengerken, G. von :
[Occurrence of abnormalities of leg posture and movement in pigs of a meat-type breed] Tierzucht 40:470-471, 1986.
1982 Sellier, P., Ollivier, L. :
Genetic study of splayleg in the newborn piglet. 1. Multifactorial threshold model [French] Annales de Genetique et de Selection Animale 14:77-92, 1982.
1980 Bradley, R. :
What do we know about splayleg? Pig Farming 28:51-55, 1980.
Klenovitskii, P.M., Gol'dman, I.L. :
Cytogenetic and genealogical study of piglets of the Urshumskaya breed with congenital leg abnormalities Tsitologiya i Genetika 14:51-54, 1980.
1979 Bereskin, B. :
Genetic aspects of feet and leg soundness in swine Journal of Animal Science 48:1322-1328, 1979.
1978 Ward, P.S. :
The splayleg syndrome in newborn pigs - A review Veterinary Bulletin 48:279-295, 1978.
Willer, S. :
Relationship between genetically controlled polymorphic serum protein systems, serum parameters and locomotor abnormalities in meat pigs Archiv fur Tierzucht 21:13-23, 1978.
1975 Bertha, B. :
Occurrence of tremor and splayleg in piglets Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 30:413-416, 1975.
McPhee, C.P., Laws, L. :
An analysis of leg abnormalities of boars in the Queensland performance testing station Australian Veterinary Journal 52:123-125, 1975.
1974 Swatland, H.J. :
Developmental disorders of skeletal muscle in cattle, pigs and sheep Veterinary Bulletin 44:179-200, 1974.
1971 Deutsch, K., Done, J.T. :
Congenital myofibrillar hypoplasia of piglets : Ultrastructure of affected fibres Research in Veterinary Science 12:176-177, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5103108.
Lax, T. :
Hereditary splayleg in pigs Journal of Heredity 62:250-252, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5167597.
1969 Kohler, E.M., Cross, R.F., Ferguson, L.C. :
Experimental induction of spraddled legs in newborn pigs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 155:139-142, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5816231.
Thurley, D.C., Done, J.T. :
The histology of myofibrillar hypoplasia of newborn pigs Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin 16A:732-740, 1969.
1968 Dobson, K.J. :
Congenital splayleg of piglets Australian Veterinary Journal 44:26-28, 1968. Pubmed reference: 5689239.
Olson, L.D., Prange, J.F. :
Spraddle legged baby pigs Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 63:714 only, 1968. Pubmed reference: 5185651.
1967 Thurley, D.C., Gilbert, F.R., Done, J.T. :
Congenital splayleg of piglets : myofibrillar hypoplasia Veterinary Record 80:302-304, 1967. Pubmed reference: 6067658.
1966 Smith, C. :
A note on the heritability of leg weakness scores in pigs Animal Production 8:345-348, 1966.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 07 Jul 2017