OMIA:000585-9823 : Leg weakness in Sus scrofa (pig)

In other species: Mallard , turkey , dog , domestic cat , taurine cattle , sheep , rabbit

Categories: Limbs / fins / digit / tail phene

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Cross-species summary: Congenital defect of the hindlimbs that prevents standing, because the hindlimbs are splayed. In some cases all limbs are affected.

Species-specific name: Splayleg, porcine congenital splay leg syndrome (PCS), spraddle leg syndrome, congenital myofibrillar hypoplasia

Species-specific description: Schumacher et al. (2021) provide a detailed review of clinical signs, biochemistry, pathology, incidence, mortality and genetic characterisation of splay leg syndrome.

Inheritance: A classic example of a multifactorial disorder with intermediate heritability. Schumacher et al. (2021): 'Quantitative, genetic analyses revealed an oligo- or polygenic heredity with an estimated heritability of up to 0.47 [Stigler et al., 1991; Sellier et al., 1999]."

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2021). OMIA:000585-9823: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Schumacher, T., Reyer, H., Maak, S., Röntgen, M. :
Homer 1 genotype AA variant relates to congenital splay leg syndrome in piglets by repressing Pax7 in myogenic progenitors. Front Vet Sci 10:1028879, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38099002. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1028879.
2021 Johnsson, M., Jungnickel, M.K. :
Evidence for and localization of proposed causative variants in cattle and pig genomes. Genet Sel Evol 53:67, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34461824. DOI: 10.1186/s12711-021-00662-x.
Schumacher, T., Röntgen, M., Maak, S. :
Congenital splay leg syndrome in piglets - Current knowledge and a new approach to etiology. Front Vet Sci 8:609883, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33718467. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.609883.
2019 Abah, K.O., Itodo, J.I., Ubah, S.A., Shettima, I. :
Reproductive performance of pigs raised by intensive management system in Abuja, Nigeria. Vet World 12:305-308, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31040574. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.305-308.
Madson, DM., Arruda, PHE., Arruda, BL. :
Nervous and locomotor system In: JJ Zimmerman, LA Karriker, A Ramirez, KJ Schwartz, GW Stevenson, J Zhang, editors, Diseases of Swine. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons :339-372, 2019. DOI: doi: 10.1002/9781119350927.ch19.
2018 Stock, J.D., Calderón Díaz, J.A., Rothschild, M.F., Mote, B.E., Stalder, K.J. :
Objective evaluation of female feet and leg joint conformation at time of selection and post first parity in swine1. J Anim Sci 96:3549-3557, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29893887. DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky227.
Wu, T., Zhang, X., Tian, M., Tao, Q., Zhang, L., Ding, Y., Zhang, X., Yin, Z. :
Transcriptome analysis reveals candidate genes involved in splay leg syndrome in piglets. J Appl Genet 59:475-483, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29978277. DOI: 10.1007/s13353-018-0454-5.
Xu, S., Hao, X., Zhang, M., Wang, K., Li, S., Chen, X., Yang, L., Hu, L., Zhang, S. :
Polymorphisms of HOMER1 gene are associated with piglet splay leg syndrome and one significant SNP can affect its intronic promoter activity in vitro. BMC Genet 19:110, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30526478. DOI: 10.1186/s12863-018-0701-0.
2017 Hao, X., Plastow, G., Zhang, C., Xu, S., Hu, Z., Yang, T., Wang, K., Yang, H., Yin, X., Liu, S., Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Zhang, S. :
Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for piglet splay leg syndrome in different populations. BMC Genet 18:64, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28679362. DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0532-4.
2013 Guo, Y.M., Zhang, X.F., Ren, J., Ai, H.S., Ma, J.W., Huang, L.S. :
A joint genomewide association analysis of pig leg weakness and its related traits in an F2 population and a Sutai population. J Anim Sci 91:4060-8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23825321. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2012-6210.
2012 Papatsiros, V. :
The splay leg syndrome in piglets: a review Am J Anim Vet Sci 7:80-83, 2012. DOI: doi: 10.3844/ajavsp.2012.80.83.
Rangkasenee, N., Murani, E., Brunner, R., Schellander, K., Cinar, M.U., Scholz, A.M., Luther, H., Hofer, A., Ponsuksili, S., Wimmers, K. :
KRT8, FAF1 and PTH1R gene polymorphisms are associated with leg weakness traits in pigs. Mol Biol Rep 40:2859-66, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23196707. DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2301-9.
2010 Maak, S., Boettcher, D., Komolka, K., Tetens, J., Wimmers, K., Reinsch, N., Swalve, H.H., Thaller, G. :
Exclusion of sequence polymorphisms in the porcine ITGA5 and MIR148B loci as causal variation for congenital splay leg in piglets. Anim Genet 41:447-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20412125. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02047.x.
Maak, S., Boettcher, D., Tetens, J., Swalve, H.H., Wimmers, K., Thaller, G. :
Expression of microRNAs is not related to increased expression of ZDHHC9 in hind leg muscles of splay leg piglets. Mol Cell Probes 24:32-7, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19748569. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2009.09.001.
2009 Fan, B., Onteru, SK., Nikkila, MT., Stalder, KJ., Rothschild, MF. :
Identification of genetic markers associated with fatness and leg weakness traits in the pig. Anim Genet 40:967 - 970, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19519793. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01932.x.
Fan, B., Onteru, SK., Mote, BE., Serenius, T., Stalder, KJ., Rothschild, MF. :
Large-scale association study for structural soundness and leg locomotion traits in the pig. Genet Sel Evol 41:14, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19284518. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-41-14.
Jensen, T.B., Kristensen, A.R., Toft, N., Baadsgaard, N.P., Østergaard, S., Houe, H. :
An object-oriented Bayesian network modeling the causes of leg disorders in finisher herds. Prev Vet Med 89:237-48, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19303155. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.02.009.
Maak, S., Boettcher, D., Tetens, J., Wensch-Dorendorf, M., Nürnberg, G., Wimmers, K., Swalve, H.H., Thaller, G. :
Identification of candidate genes for congenital splay leg in piglets by alternative analysis of DNA microarray data. Int J Biol Sci 5:331-7, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19421343. DOI: 10.7150/ijbs.5.331.
2008 Boettcher, D., Schmidt, R., Rehfeldt, C., Thaller, G., Swalve, H., Maak, S. :
Evaluation of MAFbx expression as a marker for congenital splay leg in piglets In: M Pinard, C Gay, P Pastoret, B Dodet, editors, Animal Genomics for Animal Health. Basel: Karger :301-306, 2008. DOI: doi: 10.1159/000317175.
2007 Boettcher, D., Paul, S., Bennewitz, J., Swalve, H.H., Thaller, G., Maak, S. :
Exclusion of NFYB as candidate gene for congenital splay leg in piglets and radiation hybrid mapping of further five homologous porcine genes from human chromosome 12 (HSA12). Cytogenet Genome Res 118:67-71, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17901702. DOI: 10.1159/000106443.
2006 Ooi, P.T., da Costa, N., Edgar, J., Chang, K.C. :
Porcine congenital splayleg is characterised by muscle fibre atrophy associated with relative rise in MAFbx and fall in P311 expression. BMC Vet Res 2:23, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16869957. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-23.
2005 Anil, SS., Anil, L., Deen, J. :
Evaluation of patterns of removal and associations among culling because of lameness and sow productivity traits in swine breeding herds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:956-61, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15787000.
2003 Maak, S., Jaesert, S., Neumann, K., von, Lengerken, G. :
Characterization of the porcine CDKN3 gene as a potential candidate for congenital splay leg in piglets Genetics Selection Evolution 35:S157-65, 2003.
2002 Kolb, E. :
Pathobiochemical aspects of the development of inability to stand (splayleg) of newborn piglets - a review Praktische Tierarzt 83:546-+, 2002.
Maak, S., Jaesert, S., Neumann, K., von Lengerken, G. :
Rapid communication: nucleotide sequence and physical mapping of the porcine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene. J Anim Sci 80:1698-9, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12078753. DOI: 10.2527/2002.8061698x.
2001 Maak, S., Jaesert, S., Neumann, K., Yerle, M., von, Lengerken, G. :
Isolation of expressed sequence tags of skeletal muscle of neonatal healthy and splay leg piglets and mapping by somatic cell hybrid analysis Animal Genetics 32:303-307, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11683718.
Szalay, F., Zsarnovszky, A., Fekete, S., Hullár, I., Jancsik, V., Hajós, F. :
Retarded myelination in the lumbar spinal cord of piglets born with spread-leg syndrome. Anat Embryol (Berl) 203:53-9, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11195089. DOI: 10.1007/s004290000129.
2000 Jorgensen, B. :
Longevity of breeding sows in relation to leg weakness symptoms at six months of age Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 41:105-121, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10965562.
1999 Josiassen, M.K., Christensen, J. :
Change in lameness risk estimates in piglets due to the modelling of herd-level variation Preventive Veterinary Medicine 42:57-65, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10532322.
Maak, S., Jasert, S., von, Lengerken, G. :
Identification of candidate genes for congenital splay leg in piglets - first results Archiv fur Tierzucht-Archives of Animal Breeding 42:167-169, 1999.
Sellier, P., Dando, E., Dando, P. :
Induction of parturition in the sow and incidence of splayleg syndrome in the newborn piglet Annales de Zootechnie 48:153-161, 1999.
1998 Schulze, V., Rohe, R., Looft, H., Kalm, E. :
Genetic improvement of exterior and leg soundness in swine [German] Zuchtungskunde 70:43-60, 1998.
1996 Antalikova, L., Horak, V., Matolin, S. :
Ultrastructural demonstration of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and glycogen in skeletal muscles of newborn piglets with the splayleg syndrome Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 36:205-212, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8663917.
1995 Huang, S.Y., Tsou, H.L., Kan, M.T., Lin, W.K., Chi, C.S. :
Genetic study on leg weakness and its relationship with economic traits in central tested boars in subtropical area Livestock Production Science 44:53-59, 1995.
Stern, S., Lundeheim, N., Johansson, K., Andersson, K. :
Osteochondrosis and leg weakness in pigs selected for lean tissue growth rate Livestock Production Science 44:45-52, 1995.
1994 Penny, R.H.C., Guise, H.J., Rolph, T.P., Tait, J.A., Johnston, A.M., Kempson, S.A., Gettinby, G. :
Influence of the beta-agonist salbutamol on claw horn lesions and walking soundness in finishing pigs Veterinary Record 135:374-381, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7831742.
1993 Partlow, G.D., Fisher, K.R., Page, P.D., MacMillan, K., Walker, A.F. :
Prevalence and types of birth defects in Ontario swine determined by mail survey. Can J Vet Res 57:67-73, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8490809.
Simonsen, H.B. :
PST Treatment and Leg Disorders in Growing Swine - A Welfare Hazard Livestock Production Science 36:67-70, 1993.
Tomko, M. :
Influence of Parental Origin, Litter Size and Sex on the Frequency of Splayleg in Piglets - A Case Report Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 41:329-339, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8017236.
1992 Draper, D.D., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Effects of Divergent Selection for Leg Weakness on Muscle and Bone Characteristics in Duroc Swine Genetics Selection Evolution 24:363-374, 1992.
Hillert, S., Kolb, E., Buchner, A., Grundel, G., Schmidt, U. :
The Activity of the Aspartate-Aminotransferase, of the Alanine-Aminotransferase, of the Lactate-Dehydrogenase and of the Creatine-Phosphokinase in the Supernatant of the Homogenates of Some Tissues of Normal Developed Piglets and of That of Piglets with Splayleg Monatshefte Fur Veterinarmedizin 47:383-387, 1992.
Stigler, J., Distl, O., Kruff, B., Krausslich, H. :
Studies of economically important congenital anomalies of pigs. Tierarztliche Umschau 47:883-886, 1992.
1991 Draper, D.D., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Effects of Divergent Selection for Limb Weakness on Bone and Muscle Cross-Sectional Areas in Duroc Swine American Journal of Veterinary Research 52:164-168, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2021245.
Elschner, M., Kolb, E., Muller, I., Vallentin, G. :
Studies into DNA, RNA, and Total Protein Levels in Various Skeletal Muscles, Diaphragm, Right and Left Ventricles as Well as in Musculature of Oesophagus, Stomach, and Urinary Bladder of Normally Developed and Sprayleg Piglets of Differentiated Body Weight Archiv Fur Experimentelle Veterinarmedizin 45:131-143, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1724148.
Morrow, C.M.K., Rothschild, M.F., Draper, D.D., Christian, L.L. :
Analysis of Gait Parameters in DUROC Swine Genetically Divergent for Front-Leg Structure Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics - Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 108:280-289, 1991.
Piedrafita, J., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Differential Response to Restricted Feeding in 2 Divergent Lines of Duroc Swine Selected for Front-Leg Structure Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics-Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 108:139-146, 1991.
Stigler, J., Distl, O., Kruff, B., Krausslich, H. :
Segregation analysis of hereditary defects in pigs. Zuchtungskunde 63:294-305, 1991.
Svendsen, L., Weström, B., Svendsen, J,., Olsson, A., Karlsson, B. :
Blod serum parametre hos nyfødte grise: En sammenligning mellem normale grise og grise fra 5 forskellige mortalitetsgrupper. [Blood Serum Characteristics of Newborn Pigs: Comparison of Unaffected Pigs with Pigs Belonging to Five Mortality Groups] Acta Vet Scand 32:287–299, 1991. DOI: doi: 10.1186/BF03546957.
1990 Ernst, C.W., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Ewan, R.C. :
Effect of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate on Leg Structure in Duroc Swine That Differ Genetically for Leg Weakness Journal of Animal Science 68:2583-2590, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2170318.
Jorgensen, B., Vestergaard, T. :
Genetics of Leg Weakness in Boars at the Danish Pig Breeding Stations Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 40:59-69, 1990.
Lauwers, H., Simoens, P., Lampo, P. :
Morphologic Study of Lesions in Slaughter Pigs with Leg Weakness Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 59:190-195, 1990.
Vanzeveren, A., Lampo, P., Denoo, H., Bouquet, Y. :
Leg Weakness in Belgian Landrace Piglets .2. Research on Relationships with Some Proportions of Body Sizes and Blood Serum Components Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 59:184-189, 1990.
Vanzeveren, A., Lampo, P., Denoo, H., Bouquet, Y. :
Leg Weakness in Belgian Landrace Piglets .1. Variation, Genetic Determination, Relationship with Daily Gain Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 59:179-183, 1990.
1989 Boggess, M.V., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Comparison of foot and leg structure in crossbred pigs sired by Duroc boars differing in degree of leg weakness Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 106:44-50, 1989.
Kolb, E., Wahren, M., Dobeleit, G., Gründel, G. :
[The content of ascorbic acids in different tissues of cattle, normally developed piglets, splay-legged piglets, adult swine and dogs]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed 43:327-34, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2774831.
Van Der Heyde, H., De Mets, JP., Porreye, L., Henderickx, H., Calus, A., Bekaert, H., Buysse, F. :
Influence of season, litter size, parity, gestation length, birth weight, sex and farrowing pen on frequency of congenital splayleg in piglets. Livest Prod Sci 21:143-155, 1989. DOI: doi: 10.1016/0301-6226(89)90045-6.
1988 Draper, D.D., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Goedegebuure, S.A. :
Effects of divergent selection for leg weakness on angularity of joints in Duroc swine Journal of Animal Science 66:1636-1642, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3403394.
Goedegebuure, S.A., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Ross, R.F. :
Severity of osteochondrosis in three genetic lines of Duroc swine divergently selected for front-leg weakness Livestock Production Science 19:487-498, 1988.
Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L. :
Genetic control of front leg weakness in Duroc swine. I. Direct response to five generations of divergent selection Livestock Production Science 19:459-471, 1988.
Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Jung, Y.C. :
Genetic control of front-leg weakness in Duroc swine. II. Correlated responses in growth rate, backfat and reproduction from five generations of divergent selection Livestock Production Science 19:473-485, 1988.
1987 Björklund, N.E., Svendsen, J., Svendsen, L.S. :
Histomorphological studies of the perinatal pig: comparison of five mortality groups with unaffected pigs. Acta Vet Scand 28:105-16, 1987. Pubmed reference: 3687641. DOI: 10.1186/BF03548261.
Hillert, S., Kolb, E., Buchner, A. :
Untersuchungen uber den Gehalt an DNA, RNA, Protein und Nichtprotein-N in Geweben von normal entwickelten Ferkeln sowie von Gratschferkeln sehr unterschiedlicher Geburtsmasse. 1. Ergebnisse der Analysen des Gross-und des Kleinhirns, der Pons mit Medulla oblongata. Arch Exp Veterinaermed 41:65-77, 1987.
Maxwell, CV, Johnson, RK., Luce, WG. :
Effect of level of protein and supplemental choline on reproductive performance of gilts fed sorghum diets J Anim Sci 64:1044–1050, 1987. DOI: doi: 10.2527/jas1987.6441044x.
Rothschild, M.F., Goededebuure, S.A., Christian, L.L., Ross, R.F. :
Evidence of osteochondrosis in swine from 5 generations of divergent selection for leg weakness :92-93, 1987.
Wall, P.G. van der, Goedegebuure, S.A., Valk, P.C. van der, Engel, B., Essen, G. van :
Leg weakness and osteochondrosis in pigs: differences between the sexes of four breeds Livestock Production Science 16:65-74, 1987.
1986 Ducatelle, R., Maenhout, D., Coussement, W., Hoorens, J.K. :
Spontaneous and experimental myofibrillar hypoplasia and its relation to splayleg in newborn pigs. J Comp Pathol 96:433-45, 1986. Pubmed reference: 2426314. DOI: 10.1016/0021-9975(86)90039-3.
Lawrisuk, L.S., Ross, R.F., Rothschild, M.F., Christian, L.L., Meeker, D.L. :
Relationship between front leg soundness and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection in Duroc swine :665-670, 1986.
Leo, M., Kolb, E., Rohland, D., Schineff, C., Gründel, G. :
[ATPase activity in the nervous system of fetuses, healthy piglets and piglets with splayleg syndrome]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed 40:406-16, 1986. Pubmed reference: 2943251.
Pfeiffer, H., Hartlep, T., Lengerken, G. von :
[Occurrence of abnormalities of leg posture and movement in pigs of a meat-type breed] Tierzucht 40:470-471, 1986.
1985 Jirmanová, I., Lojda, L. :
Dexamethasone applied to pregnant minisows induces splayleg in minipiglets. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 32:445-58, 1985. Pubmed reference: 3927633. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.1985.tb01962.x.
Tucek, S., Svoboda, T., Rícný, J., Bass, A., Soukup, T., Vítek, V. :
The concentration of choline and the activities of cholinesterases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in the blood plasma of piglets with the syndrome of splayleg (congenital myofibrillar hypoplasia). Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 32:1-10, 1985. Pubmed reference: 3919513. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.1985.tb01908.x.
1984 Vogt, D.W., Gipson, T.A., Akremi, B., Dover, S., Ellersieck, M.R. :
Associations of sire, breed, birth weight, and sex in pigs with congenital splayleg. Am J Vet Res 45:2408-9, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6524736.
1982 Ollivier, L., Sellier, P. :
Pig genetics: a review Annales de Genetique et de Selection Animale 14:481-544, 1982.
Sellier, P., Ollivier, L. :
Genetic study of splayleg in the newborn piglet. 1. Multifactorial threshold model [French] Annales de Genetique et de Selection Animale 14:77-92, 1982.
Wittner, S., Kolb, E., Jaehnichen, S., Klug, E. :
Untersuchungen über die Aktivität der Acetylcholinesterase im zentralen Nervensystem von gesunden sowie von Grätschferkeln mit unterschiedlicher Körpermasse Mh Vet Med 36:221-235, 1982.
1980 Bradley, R. :
What do we know about splayleg? Pig Farming 28:51-55, 1980.
Hanzlíková, V. :
Histochemical patterns in normal and splaylegged piglet muscle fibers. Histochemistry 67:311-9, 1980. Pubmed reference: 6447132. DOI: 10.1007/BF00692763.
Klenovitskii, P.M., Gol'dman, I.L. :
Cytogenetic and genealogical study of piglets of the Urshumskaya breed with congenital leg abnormalities Tsitologiya i Genetika 14:51-54, 1980.
Schnapperelle, H., Koch, J. :
Occurrence and treatment of congenital splayleg in unweaned piglets Mh Vet Med 35:858-869, 1980.
Ward, PS., Bradley, R. :
The light microscopical morphology of the skeletal muscles of normal pigs and pigs with splayleg from birth to 1 week of age. J Comp Pathol. 90:421-431, 1980. DOI: doi: 10.1016/0021-9975(80)90012-2.
1979 Bereskin, B. :
Genetic aspects of feet and leg soundness in swine Journal of Animal Science 48:1322-1328, 1979.
Cox, C.S., Ward, P.S., Baskerville, A. :
Quantitative image analysis of skeletal muscle from newborn pigs with myofibrillar hypoplasia and splayleg. Br Vet J 135:370-5, 1979. Pubmed reference: 534931. DOI: 10.1016/s0007-1935(17)32840-3.
Hörügel, K., Lorenz, A. :
Untersuchungen zum angeborenen Beinspreizen bei Ferkeln in einer industriemäßig produzierenden Zuchtanlage Mh Vet Med 34:183-184, 1979.
Maass, D., Schulze, J. :
Zur genetischen Disposition des angeborenen Beinspreizens bei Saugferkeln. Mh Vet Med 34:20-22, 1979.
Zelená, J., Jirmanová, I. :
Degenerative changes in skeletal muscles of piglets with congenital myofibrillar hypoplasia. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 26:652-65, 1979. Pubmed reference: 119373. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.1979.tb01643.x.
1978 Ward, P.S. :
The splayleg syndrome in newborn pigs - A review Veterinary Bulletin 48:279-295, 1978.
Willer, S. :
Relationship between genetically controlled polymorphic serum protein systems, serum parameters and locomotor abnormalities in meat pigs Archiv fur Tierzucht 21:13-23, 1978.
Zelená, J., Smetana, K., Jirmanová, I. :
Abnormalities of the nuclear envelope in porcine muscle affected with congenital myofibrillar hypoplasia. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol 28:157-65, 1978. Pubmed reference: 98911. DOI: 10.1007/BF02889066.
1976 Bergmann, V. :
Elektronenmikroskopische Befunde an der Skelettmuskulatur von neugeborenen Ferkeln mit Gratschstellung Arch Exp Veterinaermed. 30:239–260, 1976.
1975 Bertha, B. :
Occurrence of tremor and splayleg in piglets Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 30:413-416, 1975.
McPhee, C.P., Laws, L. :
An analysis of leg abnormalities of boars in the Queensland performance testing station Australian Veterinary Journal 52:123-125, 1975.
1974 Köhler, R., Seffner, W. :
Angeborenes Beinspreizen bei Saugferkeln Mh Vet Med 29:259–265, 1974.
Swatland, H.J. :
Developmental disorders of skeletal muscle in cattle, pigs and sheep Veterinary Bulletin 44:179-200, 1974.
1971 Deutsch, K., Done, J.T. :
Congenital myofibrillar hypoplasia of piglets : Ultrastructure of affected fibres Research in Veterinary Science 12:176-177, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5103108.
Dobson, K.J. :
Failure of choline and methionine to prevent splayleg in piglets. Aust Vet J 47:587-90, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5137938. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1971.tb02076.x.
Lax, T. :
Hereditary splayleg in pigs Journal of Heredity 62:250-252, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5167597.
1969 Kohler, E.M., Cross, R.F., Ferguson, L.C. :
Experimental induction of spraddled legs in newborn pigs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 155:139-142, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5816231.
Patterson, D.S., Sweasey, D., Allen, W.M., Berrett, S., Thurley, D.C. :
The chemical composition of neonatal piglet muscle and some observations on the biochemistry of myofibrillar hypoplasia occurring in otherwise normal litters. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 16:741-53, 1969. Pubmed reference: 4984105. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.1969.tb00558.x.
Thurley, D.C., Done, J.T. :
The histology of myofibrillar hypoplasia of newborn pigs Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin 16A:732-740, 1969.
1968 Dobson, K.J. :
Congenital splayleg of piglets Australian Veterinary Journal 44:26-28, 1968. Pubmed reference: 5689239.
Olson, L.D., Prange, J.F. :
Spraddle legged baby pigs Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 63:714 only, 1968. Pubmed reference: 5185651.
1967 Thurley, D.C., Gilbert, F.R., Done, J.T. :
Congenital splayleg of piglets : myofibrillar hypoplasia Veterinary Record 80:302-304, 1967. Pubmed reference: 6067658.
1966 Smith, C. :
A note on the heritability of leg weakness scores in pigs Animal Production 8:345-348, 1966.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 07 Jul 2017
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 09 Apr 2021