OMIA:000985-9823 : Teat / nipple, number in Sus scrofa (pig)

In other species: llama , taurine cattle , goat , sheep , rabbit , alpaca

Categories: Endocrine / exocrine gland phene (incl mammary gland)

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 163700 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: no

Cross-species summary: Also known as supernumerary teats, multi-nippled, polymastia and hyperthelia

Inheritance: This is a classic multifactorial trait.

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2021). OMIA:000985-9823: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Deng, M., Qiu, Z., Liu, C., Zhong, L., Fan, X., Han, Y., Wang, R., Li, P., Huang, R., Zhao, Q. :
Genome-wide association analysis revealed new QTL and candidate genes affecting the teat number in Dutch Large White pigs. Anim Genet , 2024. Pubmed reference: 38191772. DOI: 10.1111/age.13397.
2023 Chen, W., Cai, X., Diao, S., Teng, J., Xu, Z., Zhang, W., Zeng, H., Zhong, Z., Wu, X., Gao, Y., Li, J., Zhang, Z. :
Integrating genome-wide association study with a multi-tissue transcriptome analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture of teat traits in pigs. J Genet Genomics , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37453676. DOI: 10.1016/j.jgg.2023.07.003.
Earnhardt-San, A.L., Gray, K.A., Knauer, M.T. :
Genetic parameter estimates for teat and mammary traits in commercial sows. Animals (Basel) 13, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37570209. DOI: 10.3390/ani13152400.
Li, T., Wan, P., Lin, Q., Wei, C., Guo, K., Li, X., Lu, Y., Zhang, Z., Li, J. :
Genome-wide association study meta-analysis elucidates genetic structure and identifies candidate genes of teat number traits in pigs. Int J Mol Sci 25:451, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38203622. DOI: 10.3390/ijms25010451.
Obermier, D.R., Howard, J.T., Gray, K.A., Knauer, M.T. :
The impact of functional teat number on reproductive throughput in swine. Transl Anim Sci 7:txad100, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37662897. DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad100.
Park, J., Do, K.T., Park, K.D., Lee, H.K. :
Genome-wide association study using a single-step approach for teat number in Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire pigs in Korea. Anim Genet , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37814452. DOI: 10.1111/age.13357.
Yang, L., Li, X., Zhuang, Z., Zhou, S., Wu, J., Xu, C., Ruan, D., Qiu, Y., Zhao, H., Zheng, E., Cai, G., Wu, Z., Yang, J. :
Genome-wide association study identifies the crucial candidate genes for teat number in crossbred commercial pigs. Animals (Basel) 13, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37889833. DOI: 10.3390/ani13111880.
2022 Martins, T.F., Braga Magalhães, A.F., Verardo, L.L., Santos, G.C., Silva Fernandes, A.A., Gomes Vieira, J.I., Irano, N., Dos Santos, D.B. :
Functional analysis of litter size and number of teats in pigs: From GWAS to post-GWAS. Theriogenology 193:157-166, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36209572. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2022.09.005.
2021 Bovo, S., Ballan, M., Schiavo, G., Ribani, A., Tinarelli, S., Utzeri, V.J., Dall'Olio, S., Gallo, M., Fontanesi, L. :
Single-marker and haplotype-based genome-wide association studies for the number of teats in two heavy pig breeds. Anim Genet 52:440-50, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34096632. DOI: 10.1111/age.13095.
Hong, Y., Ye, J., Dong, L., Li, Y., Yan, L., Cai, G., Liu, D., Tan, C., Wu, Z. :
Genome-wide association study for body length, body height, and total teat number in Large White pigs. Front Genet 12:650370, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34408768. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2021.650370.
Niu, N., Wang, H., Shi, G., Liu, X., Liu, H., Liu, Q., Yang, M., Wang, L., Zhang, L. :
Genome scanning reveals novel candidate genes for vertebral and teat number in the Beijing Black Pig. Anim Genet 52:734-8, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34192356. DOI: 10.1111/age.13111.
2020 Zhuang, Z., Ding, R., Peng, L., Wu, J., Ye, Y., Zhou, S., Wang, X., Quan, J., Zheng, E., Cai, G., Huang, W., Yang, J., Wu, Z. :
Genome-wide association analyses identify known and novel loci for teat number in Duroc pigs using single-locus and multi-locus models. BMC Genomics 21:344, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32380955. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-020-6742-6.
2019 van Son, M., Lopes, M.S., Martell, H.J., Derks, M.F.L., Gangsei, L.E., Kongsro, J., Wass, M.N., Grindflek, E.H., Harlizius, B. :
A QTL for number of teats shows breed specific effects on number of vertebrae in pigs: Bridging the gap between molecular and quantitative genetics. Front Genet 10:272, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30972109. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00272.
Zhou, L., Zhao, W., Fu, Y., Fang, X., Ren, S., Ren, J. :
Genome-wide detection of genetic loci and candidate genes for teat number and body conformation traits at birth in Chinese Sushan pigs. Anim Genet 50:753-756, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31475745. DOI: 10.1111/age.12844.
2017 Rohrer, G.A., Nonneman, D.J. :
Genetic analysis of teat number in pigs reveals some developmental pathways independent of vertebra number and several loci which only affect a specific side. Genet Sel Evol 49:4, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28093083. DOI: 10.1186/s12711-016-0282-1.
Tan, C., Wu, Z., Ren, J., Huang, Z., Liu, D., He, X., Prakapenka, D., Zhang, R., Li, N., Da, Y., Hu, X. :
Genome-wide association study and accuracy of genomic prediction for teat number in Duroc pigs using genotyping-by-sequencing. Genet Sel Evol 49:35, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28356075. DOI: 10.1186/s12711-017-0311-8.
Tang, J., Zhang, Z., Yang, B., Guo, Y., Ai, H., Long, Y., Su, Y., Cui, L., Zhou, L., Wang, X., Zhang, H., Wang, C., Ren, J., Huang, L., Ding, N. :
Identification of loci affecting teat number by genome-wide association studies on three pig populations. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 30:1-7, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27165028. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.15.0980.
Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Zhang, T., Zhang, L., Yan, H., Liu, X., Wang, L. :
Genotyping by sequencing reveals a new locus for pig teat number. Anim Genet 48:470-472, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28370091. DOI: 10.1111/age.12547.
2016 Yang, J., Huang, L., Yang, M., Fan, Y., Li, L., Fang, S., Deng, W., Cui, L., Zhang, Z., Ai, H., Wu, Z., Gao, J., Ren, J. :
Possible introgression of the VRTN mutation increasing vertebral number, carcass length and teat number from Chinese pigs into European pigs. Sci Rep 6:19240, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26781738. DOI: 10.1038/srep19240.
2015 Arakawa, A., Okumura, N., Taniguchi, M., Hayashi, T., Hirose, K., Fukawa, K., Ito, T., Matsumoto, T., Uenishi, H., Mikawa, S. :
Genome-wide association QTL mapping for teat number in a purebred population of Duroc pigs. Anim Genet 46:571-5, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26202474. DOI: 10.1111/age.12331.
2014 Lopes, M.S., Bastiaansen, J.W., Harlizius, B., Knol, E.F., Bovenhuis, H. :
A genome-wide association study reveals dominance effects on number of teats in pigs. PLoS One 9:e105867, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25158056. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105867.
2011 Martínez-Giner, M., Noguera, J.L., Balcells, I., Alves, E., Varona, L., Pena, R.N. :
Expression study on the porcine PTHLH gene and its relationship with sow teat number. J Anim Breed Genet 128:344-53, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21906180. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2011.00925.x.
2009 Ding, N., Guo, Y., Knorr, C., Ma, J., Mao, H., Lan, L., Xiao, S., Ai, H., Haley, C.S., Brenig, B., Huang, L. :
Genome-wide QTL mapping for three traits related to teat number in a White Duroc x Erhualian pig resource population. BMC Genet 10:6, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19226448. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-10-6.
2008 Bidanel, J.P., Rosendo, A., Iannuccelli, N., Riquet, J., Gilbert, H., Caritez, J.C., Billon, Y., Amigues, Y., Prunier, A., Milan, D. :
Detection of quantitative trait loci for teat number and female reproductive traits in Meishan × Large White F2 pigs. Animal 2:813-20, 2008. Pubmed reference: 22443659. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731108002097.
Guo, Y.M., Lee, G.J., Archibald, A.L., Haley, C.S. :
Quantitative trait loci for production traits in pigs: a combined analysis of two Meishan x Large White populations. Anim Genet 39:486-95, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18651874. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2008.01756.x.
2007 Zhang, J., Xiong, Y., Zuo, B., Lei, M., Jiang, S., Li, F., Zheng, R., Li, J., Xu, D. :
Detection of quantitative trait loci associated with several internal organ traits and teat number trait in a pig population. J Genet Genomics 34:307-14, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17498628. DOI: 10.1016/S1673-8527(07)60032-0.
2005 Kim, J.S., Jin, D.I., Lee, J.H., Son, D.S., Lee, S.H., Yi, Y.J., Park, C.S. :
Effects of teat number on litter size in gilts. Anim Reprod Sci 90:111-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15894439. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.01.013.
Rodríguez, C., Tomás, A., Alves, E., Ramirez, O., Arqué, M., Muñoz, G., Barragán, C., Varona, L., Silió, L., Amills, M., Noguera, J.L. :
QTL mapping for teat number in an Iberian-by-Meishan pig intercross. Anim Genet 36:490-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16293122. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2005.01358.x.
2004 Fernández, A., Toro, M., Rodríguez, C., Silió, L. :
Heterosis and epistasis for teat number and fluctuating asymmetry in crosses between Jiaxing and Iberian pigs. Heredity (Edinb) 93:222-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15241457. DOI: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800498.
2003 Sanchez, M.P., Bidanel, J.P., Zhang, S., Naveau, J., Burlot, T., Le Roy, P. :
Likelihood and Bayesian analyses reveal major genes affecting body composition, carcass, meat quality and the number of false teats in a Chinese European pig line. Genet Sel Evol 35:385-402, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12927073. DOI: 10.1051/gse:2003030.
2001 Hirooka, H., De Koning, DJ., Harlizius, B., van Arendonk, JA., Rattink, AP., Groenen, MA., Brascamp, EW., Bovenhuis, H. :
A whole-genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting teat number in pigs. J Anim Sci 79:2320-6, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11583418.
2000 Wada, Y., Akita, T., Awata, T., Furukawa, T., Sugai, N., Inage, Y., Ishii, K., Ito, Y., Kobayashi, E., Kusumoto, H., Matsumoto, T., Mikawa, S., Miyake, M., Murase, A., Shimanuki, S., Sugiyama, T., Uchida, Y., Yanai, S., Yasue, H. :
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis in a Meishan x Göttingen cross population. Anim Genet 31:376-84, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11167524. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2052.2000.00696.x.
1999 Drickamer, L.C., Rosenthal, T.L., Arthur, R.D. :
Factors affecting the number of teats in pigs Journal of Reproduction & Fertility 115:97-100, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10341727.
1995 Ligonesche, B., Bazin, C., Bidanel, J.P. :
Variabilite genetique du nombre de tetines chez le porc. Relations avec les caracteres de production et de reproduction Journees de la Recherche en France 27:121-126, 1995.
1994 Brevern, N. von, Schimpf, B., Worner, R., Swalve, H. :
Parameter Estimation for Teat Characters in Hybrid Sows Zuchtungskunde 66:339-348, 1994.
1993 Bejar, F., Rodriguez, M.C., Toro, M.A. :
Estimation of Genetic Trends for Weaning Weight and Teat Number in Iberian Pigs Using Mixed Model Methodology Livestock Production Science 33:239-251, 1993.
1990 McKay, R.M., Rahnefeld, G.W. :
Heritability of Teat Number in Swine Canadian Journal of Animal Science 70:425-430, 1990.
1986 Smith, P.R., McPhee, C.P., Natoli, W.J. :
Heritability of teat number and its relationship to production characters in male pigs Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 26:539-541, 1986.
Toro, M., Dobao, M.T., Rodrigáñez, J., Silio, L. :
Heritability of a canalized trait: teat number in Iberian pigs. Genet Sel Evol 18:173-84, 1986. Pubmed reference: 22879241. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-18-2-173.
1984 Chen, S., Yao, F. :
[A preliminary study of the genetics of teat number in Erhualian pigs and crossbreds] Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica 15:39-42, 1984.
1983 Jungst, S.B., Kuhlers, D.L. :
Effect of teat number, teat abnormalities and underline length on litter sizes and weights at 21 and 42 days in swine. J Anim Sci 57:802-6, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6643297.
Zhang, W.C., Cao, Z.Q., Ji, J.Y., Jiao, D.S., Zhang, R., Zhang, B.S. :
[Studies on the characteristics of teats of Shanxi Black sows] Chinese Journal of Animal Science :1-3, 1983.
1981 Clayton, G.A., Powell, J.C., Hiley, P.G. :
Inheritance of teat number and teat inversion in pigs Animal Production 33:299-304, 1981.
1980 Pumfrey, R.A., Johnson, R.K., Cunningham, P.J., Zimmerman, D.R. :
Inheritance of teat number and its relationship to maternal traits in swine. J Anim Sci 50:1057-60, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7400051.
1974 Hanset, R., Camerlynck, R. :
L'heritabilite du nombre de mamelles chez le porc de Pietrain et le porc Landrace Belge Annals de Genetique et de la Selection Animale 6:91-102, 1974.
1963 Skerjvold, H. :
Inheritance of teat number in swine and the relationship to performance Acta Agricultura Scandinavica 13:323-333, 1963.
Willham, R.L., Whatley, J.A. :
Genetic variation in nipple number in swine Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 78:350-363, 1963.
1961 Enfield, F.D., Rempel, W.E. :
Inheritance of teat number and relationship of teat number to various maternal traits in swine Journal of Animal Science 20:876-879, 1961.
1913 Wentworth, E.N. :
Inheritance of mammae in Duroc Jersey swine American Naturalist 47:257-278, 1913.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 13 Dec 2012
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 16 Jun 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 28 Aug 2021