OMIA 000985-9823 : Teat/nipple number in Sus scrofa

In other species: cattle , sheep , goat

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 163700

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: no

Cross-species summary: Also known as Supernumerary teats, multi-nippled, polymastia and hyperthelia

Inheritance: This is a classic multifactorial trait.


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2019 van Son, M., Lopes, M.S., Martell, H.J., Derks, M.F.L., Gangsei, L.E., Kongsro, J., Wass, M.N., Grindflek, E.H., Harlizius, B. :
A QTL for Number of Teats Shows Breed Specific Effects on Number of Vertebrae in Pigs: Bridging the Gap Between Molecular and Quantitative Genetics. Front Genet 10:272, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30972109. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00272.
2017 Rohrer, G.A., Nonneman, D.J. :
Genetic analysis of teat number in pigs reveals some developmental pathways independent of vertebra number and several loci which only affect a specific side. Genet Sel Evol 49:4, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28093083. DOI: 10.1186/s12711-016-0282-1.
Tan, C., Wu, Z., Ren, J., Huang, Z., Liu, D., He, X., Prakapenka, D., Zhang, R., Li, N., Da, Y., Hu, X. :
Genome-wide association study and accuracy of genomic prediction for teat number in Duroc pigs using genotyping-by-sequencing. Genet Sel Evol 49:35, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28356075. DOI: 10.1186/s12711-017-0311-8.
Tang, J., Zhang, Z., Yang, B., Guo, Y., Ai, H., Long, Y., Su, Y., Cui, L., Zhou, L., Wang, X., Zhang, H., Wang, C., Ren, J., Huang, L., Ding, N. :
Identification of loci affecting teat number by genome-wide association studies on three pig populations. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 30:1-7, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27165028. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.15.0980.
Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Zhang, T., Zhang, L., Yan, H., Liu, X., Wang, L. :
Genotyping by sequencing reveals a new locus for pig teat number. Anim Genet 48:470-472, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28370091. DOI: 10.1111/age.12547.
2016 Yang, J., Huang, L., Yang, M., Fan, Y., Li, L., Fang, S., Deng, W., Cui, L., Zhang, Z., Ai, H., Wu, Z., Gao, J., Ren, J. :
Possible introgression of the VRTN mutation increasing vertebral number, carcass length and teat number from Chinese pigs into European pigs. Sci Rep 6:19240, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26781738. DOI: 10.1038/srep19240.
2015 Arakawa, A., Okumura, N., Taniguchi, M., Hayashi, T., Hirose, K., Fukawa, K., Ito, T., Matsumoto, T., Uenishi, H., Mikawa, S. :
Genome-wide association QTL mapping for teat number in a purebred population of Duroc pigs. Anim Genet 46:571-5, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26202474. DOI: 10.1111/age.12331.
2014 Lopes, M.S., Bastiaansen, J.W., Harlizius, B., Knol, E.F., Bovenhuis, H. :
A genome-wide association study reveals dominance effects on number of teats in pigs. PLoS One 9:e105867, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25158056. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105867.
2011 Martínez-Giner, M., Noguera, J.L., Balcells, I., Alves, E., Varona, L., Pena, R.N. :
Expression study on the porcine PTHLH gene and its relationship with sow teat number. J Anim Breed Genet 128:344-53, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21906180. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2011.00925.x.
2009 Ding, N., Guo, Y., Knorr, C., Ma, J., Mao, H., Lan, L., Xiao, S., Ai, H., Haley, C.S., Brenig, B., Huang, L. :
Genome-wide QTL mapping for three traits related to teat number in a White Duroc x Erhualian pig resource population. BMC Genet 10:6, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19226448. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-10-6.
2008 Bidanel, J.P., Rosendo, A., Iannuccelli, N., Riquet, J., Gilbert, H., Caritez, J.C., Billon, Y., Amigues, Y., Prunier, A., Milan, D. :
Detection of quantitative trait loci for teat number and female reproductive traits in Meishan × Large White F2 pigs. Animal 2:813-20, 2008. Pubmed reference: 22443659. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731108002097.
Guo, Y.M., Lee, G.J., Archibald, A.L., Haley, C.S. :
Quantitative trait loci for production traits in pigs: a combined analysis of two Meishan x Large White populations. Anim Genet 39:486-95, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18651874. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2008.01756.x.
2007 Zhang, J., Xiong, Y., Zuo, B., Lei, M., Jiang, S., Li, F., Zheng, R., Li, J., Xu, D. :
Detection of quantitative trait loci associated with several internal organ traits and teat number trait in a pig population. J Genet Genomics 34:307-14, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17498628. DOI: 10.1016/S1673-8527(07)60032-0.
2005 Kim, J.S., Jin, D.I., Lee, J.H., Son, D.S., Lee, S.H., Yi, Y.J., Park, C.S. :
Effects of teat number on litter size in gilts. Anim Reprod Sci 90:111-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15894439. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.01.013.
Rodríguez, C., Tomás, A., Alves, E., Ramirez, O., Arqué, M., Muñoz, G., Barragán, C., Varona, L., Silió, L., Amills, M., Noguera, J.L. :
QTL mapping for teat number in an Iberian-by-Meishan pig intercross. Anim Genet 36:490-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16293122. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2005.01358.x.
2004 Fernández, A., Toro, M., Rodríguez, C., Silió, L. :
Heterosis and epistasis for teat number and fluctuating asymmetry in crosses between Jiaxing and Iberian pigs. Heredity (Edinb) 93:222-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15241457. DOI: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800498.
2003 Sanchez, M.P., Bidanel, J.P., Zhang, S., Naveau, J., Burlot, T., Le Roy, P. :
Likelihood and Bayesian analyses reveal major genes affecting body composition, carcass, meat quality and the number of false teats in a Chinese European pig line. Genet Sel Evol 35:385-402, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12927073. DOI: 10.1051/gse:2003030.
2001 Hirooka, H., De Koning, DJ., Harlizius, B., van Arendonk, JA., Rattink, AP., Groenen, MA., Brascamp, EW., Bovenhuis, H. :
A whole-genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting teat number in pigs. J Anim Sci 79:2320-6, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11583418.
1999 Drickamer, L.C., Rosenthal, T.L., Arthur, R.D. :
Factors affecting the number of teats in pigs Journal of Reproduction & Fertility 115:97-100, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10341727.
1995 Ligonesche, B., Bazin, C., Bidanel, J.P. :
Variabilite genetique du nombre de tetines chez le porc. Relations avec les caracteres de production et de reproduction Journees de la Recherche en France 27:121-126, 1995.
1994 Brevern, N. von, Schimpf, B., Worner, R., Swalve, H. :
Parameter Estimation for Teat Characters in Hybrid Sows Zuchtungskunde 66:339-348, 1994.
1993 Bejar, F., Rodriguez, M.C., Toro, M.A. :
Estimation of Genetic Trends for Weaning Weight and Teat Number in Iberian Pigs Using Mixed Model Methodology Livestock Production Science 33:239-251, 1993.
1990 McKay, R.M., Rahnefeld, G.W. :
Heritability of Teat Number in Swine Canadian Journal of Animal Science 70:425-430, 1990.
1986 Smith, P.R., McPhee, C.P., Natoli, W.J. :
Heritability of teat number and its relationship to production characters in male pigs Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 26:539-541, 1986.
Toro, M., Dobao, M.T., Rodrigáñez, J., Silio, L. :
Heritability of a canalized trait: teat number in Iberian pigs. Genet Sel Evol 18:173-84, 1986. Pubmed reference: 22879241. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-18-2-173.
1984 Chen, S., Yao, F. :
[A preliminary study of the genetics of teat number in Erhualian pigs and crossbreds] Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica 15:39-42, 1984.
1983 Jungst, S.B., Kuhlers, D.L. :
Effect of teat number, teat abnormalities and underline length on litter sizes and weights at 21 and 42 days in swine. J Anim Sci 57:802-6, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6643297.
Zhang, W.C., Cao, Z.Q., Ji, J.Y., Jiao, D.S., Zhang, R., Zhang, B.S. :
[Studies on the characteristics of teats of Shanxi Black sows] Chinese Journal of Animal Science :1-3, 1983.
1981 Clayton, G.A., Powell, J.C., Hiley, P.G. :
Inheritance of teat number and teat inversion in pigs Animal Production 33:299-304, 1981.
1980 Pumfrey, R.A., Johnson, R.K., Cunningham, P.J., Zimmerman, D.R. :
Inheritance of teat number and its relationship to maternal traits in swine. J Anim Sci 50:1057-60, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7400051.
1974 Hanset, R., Camerlynck, R. :
L'heritabilite du nombre de mamelles chez le porc de Pietrain et le porc Landrace Belge Annals de Genetique et de la Selection Animale 6:91-102, 1974.
1963 Skerjvold, H. :
Inheritance of teat number in swine and the relationship to performance Acta Agricultura Scandinavica 13:323-333, 1963.
1961 Enfield, F.D., Rempel, W.E. :
Inheritance of teat number and relationship of teat number to various maternal traits in swine Journal of Animal Science 20:876-879, 1961.
1913 Wentworth, E.N. :
Inheritance of mammae in Duroc Jersey swine American Naturalist 47:257-278, 1913.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 13 Dec 2012