OMIA:001033-9615 : Urolithiasis in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: kangaroo , Rhesus monkey , domestic ferret , domestic cat , horse , pig , llama , taurine cattle , goat , sheep , domestic guinea pig , long-tailed chinchilla , Red shanked douc langur , Francois's langur , Dusky leaf-monkey , Siberian chipmunk , maned wolf , Silvery lutung , Javan langur , American mink

Categories: Renal / urinary system phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 220150 (trait) , 606142 (gene) , 612076 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2008

Cross-species summary: Formation of calculi ('stones') in the urinary tract, or the condition associated with the presence of such calculi.

Species-specific name: Hyperuricosuria and hyperuricemia

Species-specific symbol: huu

Species-specific description: This entry focuses on hyperuricosuria and hyperuricemia and resulting urate urolithiasis. Not all dogs with hyperuricosuria and hyperuricemia will develop urolithiasis. For cystine urolithiasis see various entries for cystinuria. The reference list below includes some papers relating to other forms of urolithiasis (e.g. calcium oxalate or struvites) and it is noted that some forms of urolithiasis do not have a genetic aetiology. For example, any cause of severe hepatic dysfunction may predispose dogs to urate lithogenesis (Bartges et al., 1999).

History: All Dalmations are homozygous for a SLC2A9 mutation that causes hyperuricosuria and hyperuricemia and this mutation occurs at lower allele frequency in many other breeds.

Mapping: Linkage mapping followed by positional cloning by Bannasch et al. (2008) localised this disorder to a 2.5Mb region on chromosome CFA3. Homozygosity mapping reduced the region to 333kb, containg just four genes. By conducting a proof-of-principle across-breed GWAS on "10 total affected dogs from three breeds and 59 controls from 25 breeds", each genotyped with the Affymetrix Version 2 Custom Canine SNP (comprising 49,663 SNPs), Bannasch et al. (2010) confirmed the location of the causal gene on chromosome CFA3 first reported by Bannasch et al. (2008).

Molecular basis: Sequencing and expression analysis of one of the four positional candidate genes (see Mapping section) by Bannasch et al. (2008) identified the causal mutation as "a missense mutation (G616T;C188F)" in the SLC2A9 gene. All Dalmations are homozygous for this mutation. Karmi et al. (2010) conducted two studies in which they genotyped dogs of several other breed for this variant and identified that the variant is present with lower allele frequencies in American Staffordshire Terrier, Australian Shepherd, German Shepherd Dog, Giant Schnauzer, Parson (Jack) Russell Terrier, Labrador Retriever, Large Munsterlander, Pomeranian, South African Boerboel, Weimaraner, Bulldogs and Black Russian Terriers breeds. Cosgrove, Hammond and Mclauchlan (2015) identified the variant in Spanish Water dogs.

Clinical features: Individuals with a mutation at the SLC2A9 gene accumulate uric acid due to inefficient transport of uric acid in both the liver and renal proximal tubules (Bannasch et al., 2008). High levels of uric acid excretion predispose the formation of ammonium urate uroliths (Bartges and Callens, 2015). Clinical signs are secondary to urate urolith formation in the ureter, bladder, and urethra. Uroliths are more commonly reported in male dogs with the first episode of calculus formation in Dalmatians in males at about 4.5 years and in females at 5.5 years of age (Case et al. 1993). Affected "dogs may have pollakiuria or hematuria, or they may be asymptomatic. Small uroliths may be voided in urine, or the urine may be turbid. If urethral obstruction is present, owners may notice the dog attempting to urinate and not voiding any urine or systemic signs of obstructive uropathy (i.e., anorexia, vomiting, muscle fasciculations, depression, collapse). Urate nephroliths may be asymptomatic or may be associated with silent gross hematuria. Nephroliths that obstruct both renal pelves or both ureters are associated with systemic signs of postrenal azotemia" (Bartges et al. 1999) Systemically, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and dehydration can be observed in some animals (Bartges and Callens, 2015). IT thanks DVM student Nancy Wang, who provided the basis of this contribution in May 2023.

Breeds: American Staffordshire Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0200055), Australian Shepherd (Dog) (VBO_0200095), Bichon Frise (Dog) (VBO_0200163), Black Russian Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0200174), Boerboel (Dog) (VBO_0200185), Dalmatian (Dog) (VBO_0200427), English Bulldog (Dog) (VBO_0200485), German Shepherd Dog (Dog) (VBO_0200577), Giant Schnauzer (Dog) (VBO_0200604), Labrador Retriever (Dog) (VBO_0200800), Large Munsterlander (Dog) (VBO_0200816), Lhasa Apso (Dog) (VBO_0200824), Majorca Mastiff (Dog) (VBO_0200845), Miniature Schnauzer (Dog) (VBO_0200896), Parson Russell Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0200987), Pekingese (Dog) (VBO_0200994), Pomeranian (Dog) (VBO_0201043), Poodle, Standard (Dog) (VBO_0201056), Scottish Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201198), Spanish Water Dog (Dog) (VBO_0201280), Weimaraner (Dog) (VBO_0201401).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
SLC2A9 solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 9 Canis lupus familiaris 3 NC_051807.1 (70150039..70345339) SLC2A9 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
83 Dalmatian (Dog) Majorca Mastiff (Dog) Urolithiasis SLC2A9 missense Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 3 g.69456869G>T c.563G>T p.(C188F) NM_001130835.2; NP_001124307.2; variant initially identified in Dalmatians and later reported in Majorca Mastiffs: PMID: 37582787 rs1152388406 2008 18989453 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2024). OMIA:001033-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Majchrakova, Z., Hrckova Turnova, E., Bielikova, M., Turna, J., Dudas, A. :
The incidence of genetic disease alleles in Australian Shepherd dog breed in European countries. PLoS One 18:e0281215, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36848350. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0281215.
Meadows, J.R.S., Kidd, J.M., Wang, G.D., Parker, H.G., Schall, P.Z., Bianchi, M., Christmas, M.J., Bougiouri, K., Buckley, R.M., Hitte, C., Nguyen, A.K., Wang, C., Jagannathan, V., Niskanen, J.E., Frantz, L.A.F., Arumilli, M., Hundi, S., Lindblad-Toh, K., Ginja, C., Agustina, K.K., André, C., Boyko, A.R., Davis, B.W., Drögemüller, M., Feng, X.Y., Gkagkavouzis, K., Iliopoulos, G., Harris, A.C., Hytönen, M.K., Kalthoff, D.C., Liu, Y.H., Lymberakis, P., Poulakakis, N., Pires, A.E., Racimo, F., Ramos-Almodovar, F., Savolainen, P., Venetsani, S., Tammen, I., Triantafyllidis, A., vonHoldt, B., Wayne, R.K., Larson, G., Nicholas, F.W., Lohi, H., Leeb, T., Zhang, Y.P., Ostrander, E.A. :
Genome sequencing of 2000 canids by the Dog10K consortium advances the understanding of demography, genome function and architecture. Genome Biol 24:187, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37582787. DOI: 10.1186/s13059-023-03023-7.
2022 Coffey, E.L., Gomez, A.M., Burton, E.N., Granick, J.L., Lulich, J.P., Furrow, E. :
Characterization of the urogenital microbiome in Miniature Schnauzers with and without calcium oxalate urolithiasis. J Vet Intern Med 36:1341-1352, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35796316. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16482.
Paulin, M.V., Dunn, M., Vachon, C., Beauchamp, G., Conversy, B. :
Association between hyperlipidemia and calcium oxalate lower urinary tract uroliths in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 36:146-155, 2022. Pubmed reference: 34854133. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16324.
Polat, E., Kaya, E., Oral, M.M., Çelikdemir, N. :
Evaluación microscópica y estudio descriptivo de cristales y urolitos encontrados en el sistema de vías urinarias de perros y gatos [Microscopic evaluation and Descriptive study of crystals and uroliths encountered in the urinary tract system of cats and dogs] Revista Científica de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias 32:e32161, 2022. DOI: 0000-0001-8638-0099.
2021 Kopecny, L., Palm, C.A., Segev, G., Westropp, J.L. :
Urolithiasis in dogs: Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and risk factors (2006-2018). J Vet Intern Med 35:1406-1415, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33960543. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16114.
2020 Alford, A., Furrow, E., Borofsky, M., Lulich, J. :
Animal models of naturally occurring stone disease. Nat Rev Urol 17:691-705, 2020. Pubmed reference: 33159170. DOI: 10.1038/s41585-020-00387-4.
2017 Houston, D.M., Weese, H.E., Vanstone, N.P., Moore, A.E., Weese, J.S. :
Analysis of canine urolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre, 1998-2014. Can Vet J 58:45-50, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28042154.
O'Kell, A.L., Grant, D.C., Khan, S.R. :
Pathogenesis of calcium oxalate urinary stone disease: species comparison of humans, dogs, and cats. Urolithiasis 45:329-336, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28361470. DOI: 10.1007/s00240-017-0978-x.
Westropp, J.L., Larsen, J.A., Johnson, E.G., Bannasch, D., Fascetti, A.J., Biourge, V., Queau, Y. :
Evaluation of dogs with genetic hyperuricosuria and urate urolithiasis consuming a purine restricted diet: a pilot study. BMC Vet Res 13:45, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28178975. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-0958-y.
2015 Bartges, J.W., Callens, A.J. :
Urolithiasis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 45:747-68, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26002797. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2015.03.001.
Cosgrove, L., Hammond, G., Mclauchlan, G. :
Primary portal vein hypoplasia and SLC2A9 mutation associated with urate urolithiasis in a Spanish water dog. Can Vet J 56:1153-7, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26538670.
2013 Jacinto, A.M., Mellanby, R.J., Chandler, M., Bommer, N.X., Carruthers, H., Fairbanks, L.D., Gow, A.G. :
Urine concentrations of xanthine, hypoxanthine and uric acid in UK Cavalier King Charles spaniels. J Small Anim Pract 54:395-8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23859747. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12106.
Lulich, J.P., Osborne, C.A., Albasan, H., Koehler, L.A., Ulrich, L.M., Lekcharoensuk, C. :
Recent shifts in the global proportions of canine uroliths. Vet Rec 172:363, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23396526. DOI: 10.1136/vr.101056.
Palma, D., Langston, C., Gisselman, K., McCue, J. :
Canine struvite urolithiasis. Compend Contin Educ Vet 35:E1; quiz E1, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23677867.
2012 Dijcker, J.C., Kummeling, A., Hagen-Plantinga, E.A., Hendriks, W.H. :
Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Vet Rec 171:646, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23180150. DOI: 10.1136/vr.101130.
Kaiser, J., Stĕpánková, K., Koř Istková, T., Sedo, O., Melnyk, G., Hartl, M., Paloušek, D., Kucera, J. :
Determination of the cause of selected canine urolith formation by advanced analytical methods. J Small Anim Pract 53:646-51, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23034064. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2012.01292.x.
Roe, K., Pratt, A., Lulich, J., Osborne, C., Syme, H.M. :
Analysis of 14,008 uroliths from dogs in the UK over a 10-year period. J Small Anim Pract 53:634-40, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22957984. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2012.01275.x.
2010 Bannasch, D., Young, A., Myers, J., Truvé, K., Dickinson, P., Gregg, J., Davis, R., Bongcam-Rudloff, E., Webster, M.T., Lindblad-Toh, K., Pedersen, N. :
Localization of canine brachycephaly using an across breed mapping approach. PLoS One 5:e9632, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20224736. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009632.
Karmi, N., Safra, N., Young, A., Bannasch, DL. :
Validation of a urine test and characterization of the putative genetic mutation for hyperuricosuria in Bulldogs and Black Russian Terriers. Am J Vet Res 71:909-14, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20673090. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.71.8.909.
Karmi, N., Brown, EA., Hughes, SS., Mclaughlin, B., Mellersh, CS., Biourge, V., Bannasch, DL. :
Estimated frequency of the canine hyperuricosuria mutation in different dog breeds. J Vet Intern Med 24:1337-42, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21054540. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0631.x.
Low, W.W., Uhl, J.M., Kass, P.H., Ruby, A.L., Westropp, J.L. :
Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and characteristics of dogs with urolithiasis: 25,499 cases (1985-2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 236:193-200, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20074011. DOI: 10.2460/javma.236.2.193.
Speth, RC. :
Re: Inheritance of urinary calculi in the Dalmatian. J Vet Intern Med 24:1239-40; author reply 1241, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21054531. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0599.x.
Weiss, CH. :
The link between hyperuricosuria and urate urolithiasis. Am J Vet Res 71:1257; author reply 1257-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21034314. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.71.11.1257.
Yoon, H.Y., Mann, F.A., Punke, J.P., Jeong, S.W. :
Bilateral ureteral ectopia with renal dysplasia and urolithiasis in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 46:209-14, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20439946.
2009 Bannasch, D., Henthorn, PS. :
Changing paradigms in diagnosis of inherited defects associated with urolithiasis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 39:111-25, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19038654. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.09.006.
Gisselman, K., Langston, C., Palma, D., McCue, J. :
Calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Compend Contin Educ Vet 31:496-502; quiz 502, 2009. Pubmed reference: 20180219.
Houston, DM., Moore, AE. :
Canine and feline urolithiasis: examination of over 50 000 urolith submissions to the Canadian veterinary urolith centre from 1998 to 2008. Can Vet J 50:1263-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 20190975.
Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P., Kruger, J.M., Ulrich, L.K., Koehler, L.A. :
Analysis of 451,891 canine uroliths, feline uroliths, and feline urethral plugs from 1981 to 2007: perspectives from the Minnesota Urolith Center. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 39:183-97, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19038658. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.09.011.
2008 Bannasch, D., Safra, N., Young, A., Karmi, N., Schaible, RS., Ling, GV. :
Mutations in the SLC2A9 gene cause hyperuricosuria and hyperuricemia in the dog. PLoS Genet 4:e1000246, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18989453. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000246.
Robinson, M.R., Norris, R.D., Sur, R.L., Preminger, G.M. :
Urolithiasis: not just a 2-legged animal disease. J Urol 179:46-52, 2008. Pubmed reference: 17997446. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.08.123.
2006 Safra, N., Schaible, RH., Bannasch, DL. :
Linkage analysis with an interbreed backcross maps Dalmatian hyperuricosuria to CFA03. Mamm Genome 17:340-5, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16596455. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-005-0137-5.
2005 Albasan, H., Lulich, JP., Osborne, CA., Lekcharoensuk, C. :
Evaluation of the association between sex and risk of forming urate uroliths in Dalmatians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:565-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16117063.
Safra, N., Ling, G.V., Schaible, R.H., Bannasch, D.L. :
Exclusion of urate oxidase as a candidate gene for hyperuricosuria in the Dalmatian dog using an interbreed backcross. J Hered 96:750-4, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15958795. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esi078.
Simkin, P.A. :
The Dalmatian defect: a hepatic endocrinopathy of urate transport. Arthritis Rheum 52:2257-62, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16052594. DOI: 10.1002/art.21241.
Snyder, DM., Steffey, MA., Mehler, SJ., Drobatz, KJ., Aronson, LR. :
Diagnosis and surgical management of ureteral calculi in dogs: 16 cases (1990-2003). N Z Vet J 53:19-25, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15731830. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2005.36464.
Sosnar, M., Bulkova, T., Ruzicka, M. :
Epidemiology of canine urolithiasis in the Czech Republic from 1997 to 2002. J Small Anim Pract 46:177-84, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15835236.
2004 Bannasch, DL., Ryun, JR., Bannasch, MJ., Schaible, RH., Breen, M., Ling, G. :
Exclusion of galectin 9 as a candidate gene for hyperuricosuria in the Dalmatian dog. Anim Genet 35:326-8, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15265074. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2004.01154.x.
Bannasch, DL., Ling, GV., Bea, J., Famula, TR. :
Inheritance of urinary calculi in the Dalmatian. J Vet Intern Med 18:483-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15822555.
Bende, B., Németh, T. :
High prevalence of urate urolithiosis in the Russian black terrier. Vet Rec 155:239-40, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15384507.
2003 Carvalho, M., Lulich, J.P., Osborne, C.A., Nakagawa, Y. :
Role of urinary inhibitors of crystallization in uric acid nephrolithiasis: Dalmatian dog model Urology 62:566-70, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12946778.
2001 Bende, B., Dunay, M., Zsomboly, M. :
Cystine urolithiasis in dogs. Examination and treatment of a hereditary metabolic disorder and its consequences Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 123:486-491, 2001.
2000 Lekcharoensuk, C., Lulich, J.P., Osborne, C.A., Pusoonthornthum, R., Allen, T.A., Koehler, L.A., Urlich, L.K., Carpenter, K.A., Swanson, L.L. :
Patient and environmental factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217:515-519, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10953715.
1999 Bartges, J.W., Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P., Kruger, J.M., Sanderson, S.L., Koehler, L.A., Ulrich, L.K. :
Canine urate urolithiasis. Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:161-91, xii-xiii, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028157.
Feeney, D.A., Weichselbaum, R.C., Jessen, C.R., Osborne, C.A. :
Imaging canine urocystoliths. Detection and prediction of mineral content. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:59-72, x-xi, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028152.
Franti, C.E., Ling, G.V., Ruby, A.L., Johnson, D.L. :
Urolithiasis in dogs - V: Regional comparisons of breed, age, sex, anatomic location, and mineral type of calculus American Journal of Veterinary Research 60:29-42, 1999. Pubmed reference: 9918145.
Hulsen, J. :
Urolithiasis in cats and dogs [Dutch] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 124:351-354, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10372422.
Kruger, J.M., Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P. :
Canine calcium phosphate uroliths. Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:141-59, xii, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028156.
Leidinger, J. :
Urolith diagnosis in dogs and cats [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 86:18-23, 1999.
Lulich, J.P., Osborne, C.A., Lekcharoensuk, C., Allen, T.A., Nakagawa, Y. :
Canine calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Case-based applications of therapeutic principles. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:123-39, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028155.
Lulich, J.P., Osborne, C.A., Thumchai, R., Lekcharoensuk, C., Ulrich, L.K., Koehler, L.A., Bird, K.A., Swanson, L.L., Nakagawa, Y. :
Epidemiology of canine calcium oxalate uroliths. Identifying risk factors. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:113-22, xi, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028154.
Osborne, C.A., Sanderson, S.L., Lulich, J.P., Bartges, J.W., Ulrich, L.K., Koehler, L.A., Bird, K.A., Swanson, L.L. :
Canine cystine urolithiasis. Cause, detection, treatment, and prevention. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:193-211, xiii, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028158. DOI: 10.1016/s0195-5616(99)50011-9.
Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P., Bartges, J.W. :
The rocket science of canine urolithiasis - Preface Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 29:XVII-XVIII, 1999.
Osborne, C.A. :
Medical dissolution and prevention of canine uroliths. Seven steps from science to service. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:1-15, ix, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028148.
Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P. :
Risk and protective factors for urolithiasis. What do they mean? Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:39-43, x, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028150.
Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P., Polzin, D.J., Allen, T.A., Kruger, J.M., Bartges, J.W., Koehler, L.A., Ulrich, L.K., Bird, K.A., Swanson, L.L. :
Medical dissolution and prevention of canine struvite urolithiasis. Twenty years of experience. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:73-111, xi, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028153.
Osborne, C.A., Jacob, F., Lulich, J.P., Hansen, M.J., Lekcharoensul, C., Ulrich, L.K., Koehler, L.A., Bird, K.A., Swanson, L.L. :
Canine silica urolithiasis. Risk factors, detection, treatment, and prevention. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:213-30, xiii, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028159.
Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P., Polzin, D.J. :
Canine retrograde urohydropropulsion. Lessons from 25 years of experience. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:267-81, xiv, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028162.
Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P., Bartges, J.W., Ulrich, L.K., Koehler, L.A., Bird, K.A., Swanson, L.L., Austin, G.W., Prien, E.L., Steinam, K.U. :
Drug-induced urolithiasis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:251-66, xiv, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10028161.
Osborne, C.A., Lulich, J.P., Polzin, D.J., Sanderson, S.L., Koehler, L.A., Ulrich, L.K., Bird, K.A., Swanson, L.L., Pederson, L.A., Sudo, S.Z. :
Analysis of 77,000 canine uroliths - Perspectives from the Minnesota Urolith Center Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 29:17-, 1999.
Schafer, S., Remtisch, C., Iben, C. :
Urolithiasis in a bitch during pregnancy [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 86:281-285, 1999.
1998 Hess, R.S., Kass, P.H., Ward, C.R. :
Association between hyperadrenocorticism and development of calcium-containing uroliths in dogs with urolithiasis Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212:1889 ff., 1998.
Jones, B.R., Kirkman, J.H., Hogan, J., Holmes, S. :
Analysis of uroliths from cats and dogs in New Zealand, 1993-96 New Zealand Veterinary Journal 46:233-236, 1998.
Ling, G.V., Franti, C.E., Johnson, D.L., Ruby, A.L. :
Urolithiasis in dogs iv - survey of interrelations among breed, mineral composition, and anatomic location of calculi, and presence of urinary tract infection American Journal of Veterinary Research 59:650-660, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9582971.
Ling, G.V., Franti, C.E., Ruby, A.L., Johnson, D.L., Thurmond, M. :
Urolithiasis in dogs i - mineral prevalence and interrelations of mineral composition, age, and sex American Journal of Veterinary Research 59:624-629, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9582968.
Ling, G.V., Franti, C.E., Ruby, A.L., Johnson, D.L. :
Urolithiasis in dogs ii - breed prevalence, and interrelations of breed, sex, age, and mineral composition American Journal of Veterinary Research 59:630-642, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9582969.
Ling, G.V., Franti, C.E., Johnson, D.L., Ruby, A.L. :
Urolithiasis in dogs iii - prevalence of urinary tract infection and interrelations of infection, age, sex, and mineral composition American Journal of Veterinary Research 59:643-649, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9582970.
1993 Case, L.C., Ling, G.V., Ruby, A.L., Johnson, D.L., Franti, C.E., Stevens, F. :
Urolithiasis in Dalmatians - 275 Cases (1981-1990) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203:96-100, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8407468.
Lulich, J.P., Osborne, C.A., Carlson, M., Unger, L.K., Samelson, L.L., Koehler, L.A., Bird, K.A. :
Nonsurgical removal of urocystoliths in dogs and cats by voiding urohydropropulsion. J Am Vet Med Assoc 203:660-3, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8407532.
Sorenson, J.L., Ling, G.V. :
Metabolic and Genetic Aspects of Urate Urolithiasis in Dalmatians Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203:857-862, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8226242.
Sorenson, J.L., Ling, G.V. :
Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Urate Urolithiasis in Dalmatians Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203:863-869, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8226243.
1986 Schaible, R.H. :
Genetic predisposition to purine uroliths in Dalmatian dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 16:127-31, 1986. Pubmed reference: 3486508.
1971 Yu, T.F. :
Low uricase activity in the Dalmatian dog simulated in mongrels given uronic acid American Journal of Physiology 220:973-979, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5551153.
1955 Brodey, R.S. :
Canine urolithiasis: a survey and discussion of 52 clinical cases Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 126:1-9, 1955. Pubmed reference: 13221500.
1948 Friedman, M., Byers, S.O. :
Effect of sodium salicylate upon the uric acid clearance of the Dalmatian dog American Journal of Physiology 1544:167-173, 1948.
Friedman, M., Byers, S.O. :
Observations concerning the causes of the excess excretion of uric acid in the Dalmatian dog Journal of Biological Chemistry 175:727-735, 1948.
1940 Keeler, C.E. :
The inheritance of predisposition to renal calculi in the Dalmatian Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 96:507-510, 1940.
1938 Trimble, H.C., Keeler, C.E. :
The inheritance of "high uric acid excretion" in dogs Journal of Heredity 29:281-189, 1938.
1923 Onslow, H. :
Uric acid and allantoin excretion among offspring of Dalmatian hybrids. Biochem J 17:564-8, 1923. Pubmed reference: 16743253. DOI: 10.1042/bj0170564.
Onslow, H. :
The relation between uric acid and allantoin excretion in hybrids of the Dalmatian hound. Biochem J 17:334-340.1, 1923. Pubmed reference: 16743187. DOI: 10.1042/bj0170334.
1918 Well, H.G. :
The purine metabolism of the Dalmatian Coach Hound Journal of Biological Chemistry 35:221, 1918.

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