OMIA:001346-9615 : Retinal atrophy, progressive, autosomal dominant, RHO-related in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: crab-eating macaque , pig

Categories: Vision / eye phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 610445 (trait) , 613731 (trait) , 136880 (trait) , 180380 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal dominant

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2002

Cross-species summary: This disorder has been renamed in OMIA on the basis of the review by Miyadera et al. (2011) (PMID:22065099)

Species-specific name: retinitis pigmentosa

Species-specific symbol: ADPRA

Molecular basis: Kijas et al. (2002) discovered an autosomal-dominant progressive retinal atrophy in English Mastiff dogs, with clinical signs very similar to a human dominant retinitis pigmentosa that is due to mutations in the gene for rhodopsin. Taking the rhodopsin gene as a strong comparative candidate, Kijas et al. (2002) sequenced all five exons of the canine rhodopsin gene from a heterozygous affected dog, and discovered a missense mutation (C-to-G transversion) at nucleotide 11, giving rise to a Thr-to-Arg amino acid substitution at position 4 of the peptide (T4R), in the extracellular domain. Noting that the mutation generates a BsmFI restriction fragment length polymorphism, Kijas et al. genotyped 26 affected and 21 related normal English Mastiffs. Three of the affected dogs were homozygous for the mutant allele; the rest were heterozygous. All related normal dogs were homozygous for the normal allele, as were 156 normal dogs from 17 other dog breeds [Frank Nicholas, 26 June 2002] Kijas et al. (2003) noted that "Testing of PRA-affected animals from [other] 16 breeds revealed that none carry the T4R mutation, indicating a different cause of PRA".

Clinical features: As detailed by Kijas et al. (2002), rod vision is normal for at least the first few months. But by 12-18 months, degeneration is evident, spreading slowly from a disease focus in one retinal region. In addition, there is an abnormally slow recovery of rod photoreceptor function after exposure to light.Homozygotes have more severe clinical signs than heterozygotes [Frank Nicholas, 26 June 2002] Iwabe et al. (2016) reported that "a short single exposure to a dose of white light that is not retinotoxic in [wild-type] WT dogs causes in the T4R RHO retina an acute loss of ONL in the central to mid peripheral region that keeps progressing over the course of several weeks. However, this severe retinal damage does not affect visual behavior presumably because of islands of surviving photoreceptors found in the area centralis including the newly discovered canine fovea-like area, and the lack of damage to peripheral photoreceptors."

Breeds: Bull Mastiff (Dog) (VBO_0200253), English Mastiff (Dog) (VBO_0200492).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
RHO rhodopsin Canis lupus familiaris 20 NC_051824.1 (5667219..5661948) RHO Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
29 English Mastiff (Dog) Autosomal dominant PRA RHO missense Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 20 g.5637394G>C c.11C>G p.(T4R) 2002 11972042 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2024). OMIA:001346-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Ghilardi, S., Bagardi, M., Frattini, S., Barbariga, G.E., Brambilla, P.G., Minozzi, G., Polli, M. :
Genotypic and allelic frequencies of progressive rod-cone degeneration and other main variants associated with progressive retinal atrophy in Italian dogs. Vet Rec Open 10:e77, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38028226. DOI: 10.1002/vro2.77.
2022 Ji, R.L., Tao, Y.X. :
Mutations in rhodopsin, endothelin B receptor, and CC chemokine receptor 5 in large animals: Modeling human diseases. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 189:155-178, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35595348. DOI: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2022.02.003.
2021 Genetics Committee of the American College of Veterinary Opthalmologists :
The Blue Book: Ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in purebred dogs. 13th Edition , 2021.
2018 Cideciyan, A.V., Sudharsan, R., Dufour, V.L., Massengill, M.T., Iwabe, S., Swider, M., Lisi, B., Sumaroka, A., Marinho, L.F., Appelbaum, T., Rossmiller, B., Hauswirth, W.W., Jacobson, S.G., Lewin, A.S., Aguirre, G.D., Beltran, W.A. :
Mutation-independent rhodopsin gene therapy by knockdown and replacement with a single AAV vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115:E8547-E8556, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30127005. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805055115.
2017 Sudharsan, R., Simone, K.M., Anderson, N.P., Aguirre, G.D., Beltran, W.A. :
Acute and protracted cell death in light-induced retinal degeneration in the canine model of rhodopsin autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 58:270-281, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28114588. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.16-20749.
2016 Iwabe, S., Ying, G.S., Aguirre, G.D., Beltran, W.A. :
Assessment of visual function and retinal structure following acute light exposure in the light sensitive T4R rhodopsin mutant dog. Exp Eye Res 146:341-353, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27085210. DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2016.04.006.
Palanova, A. :
The genetics of inherited retinal disorders in dogs: implications for diagnosis and management. Vet Med (Auckl) 7:41-51, 2016. Pubmed reference: 30050836. DOI: 10.2147/VMRR.S63537.
2015 Marsili, S., Genini, S., Sudharsan, R., Gingrich, J., Aguirre, G.D., Beltran, W.A. :
Exclusion of the unfolded protein response in light-induced retinal degeneration in the canine T4R RHO model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. PLoS One 10:e0115723, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25695253. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115723.
2012 Miyadera, K., Acland, G.M., Aguirre, G.D. :
Genetic and phenotypic variations of inherited retinal diseases in dogs: the power of within- and across-breed studies. Mamm Genome 23:40-61, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22065099. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-011-9361-3.
2009 Gu, D., Beltran, WA., Pearce-Kelling, S., Li, Z., Acland, GM., Aguirre, GD. :
Steroids do not prevent photoreceptor degeneration in the light-exposed T4R rhodopsin mutant dog retina irrespective of AP-1 inhibition. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3482-94, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19234347. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.08-3111.
2005 Cideciyan, AV., Jacobson, SG., Aleman, TS., Gu, D., Pearce-Kelling, SE., Sumaroka, A., Acland, GM., Aguirre, GD. :
In vivo dynamics of retinal injury and repair in the rhodopsin mutant dog model of human retinitis pigmentosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5233-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 9618546.
Weinkle, TK., Center, SA., Randolph, JF., Warner, KL., Barr, SC., Erb, HN. :
Evaluation of prognostic factors, survival rates, and treatment protocols for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs: 151 cases (1993-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:1869-80, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15934255.
2004 Zhu, L., Jang, G.F., Jastrzebska, B., Filipek, S., Pearce-Kelling, S.E., Aguirre, G.D., Stenkamp, R.E., Acland, G.M., Palczewski, K. :
A naturally occurring mutation of the opsin gene (T4R) in dogs affects glycosylation and stability of the G protein-coupled receptor. J Biol Chem 279:53828-39, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15459196. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M408472200.
2003 Kijas, JW., Miller, BJ., Pearce-Kelling, SE., Aguirre, GD., Acland, GM. :
Canine models of ocular disease: outcross breedings define a dominant disorder present in the English mastiff and bull mastiff dog breeds. J Hered 94:27-30, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12692159.
2002 Kijas, J.W., Cideciyan, A.V., Aleman, T.S., Pianta, M.J., Pearce-Kelling, S.E., Miller, B.J., Jacobson, S.G., Aguirre, G.D., Acland, G.M. :
Naturally occurring rhodopsin mutation in the dog causes retinal dysfunction and degeneration mimicking human dominant retinitis pigmentosa Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:6328-6333, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11972042. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.082714499.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 15 Nov 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 02 Dec 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 12 Dec 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 20 Sep 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 05 Aug 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 26 Apr 2016
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 18 Jan 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Jun 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 09 Jan 2024