OMIA 001456-9796 : Recurrent airway obstruction in Equus caballus

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Species-specific name: Heaves

Species-specific symbol: RAO

History: This disorder was previously known as Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Chronic Hypersensitivity Bronchitis. The disease is also called equine asthma.


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2021 Borowska, A., Wolska, D., Niedzwiedz, A., Borowicz, H., Jaworski, Z., Siemieniuch, M., Szwaczkowski, T. :
Some genetic and environmental effects on equine asthma in Polish Konik horses. Animals (Basel) 11:, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34438743. DOI: 10.3390/ani11082285.
2018 Mason, V.C., Schaefer, R.J., McCue, M.E., Leeb, T., Gerber, V. :
eQTL discovery and their association with severe equine asthma in European Warmblood horses. BMC Genomics 19:581, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30071827. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-018-4938-9.
2016 Niedzwiedz, A., Borowicz, H., Januszewska, L., Markiewicz-Gorka, I., Jaworski, Z. :
Serum 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as a marker of DNA oxidative damage in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Acta Vet Scand 58:38, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27267076. DOI: 10.1186/s13028-016-0215-6.
2015 Gerber, V., Tessier, C., Marti, E. :
Genetics of upper and lower airway diseases in the horse. Equine Vet J 47:390-7, 2015. Pubmed reference: 24773614. DOI: 10.1111/evj.12289.
Korn, A., Miller, D., Dong, L., Buckles, E.L., Wagner, B., Ainsworth, D.M. :
Differential Gene Expression Profiles and Selected Cytokine Protein Analysis of Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Horses with Chronic Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO) Support an Interleukin-17 Immune Response. PLoS One 10:e0142622, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26561853. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142622.
Pacholewska, A., Jagannathan, V., Drögemüller, M., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Lanz, S., Hamza, E., Dermitzakis, E.T., Marti, E., Leeb, T., Gerber, V. :
Impaired Cell Cycle Regulation in a Natural Equine Model of Asthma. PLoS One 10:e0136103, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26292153. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136103.
2012 Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Gerber, V., Leeb, T. :
Association analysis of SNPs in the IL21R gene with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in Swiss Warmblood horses. Anim Genet 43:475-6, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22497324. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02289.x.
Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Swinburne, J.E., Drögemüller, C., Dolf, G., Janda, J., Leeb, T., Gerber, V. :
The interleukin 4 receptor gene and its role in recurrent airway obstruction in Swiss Warmblood horses. Anim Genet 43:450-3, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22497430. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02277.x.
Shakhsi-Niaei, M., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Drögemüller, C., Swinburne, J., Ehrmann, C., Saftic, D., Ramseyer, A., Gerber, V., Dolf, G., Leeb, T. :
Replication and fine-mapping of a QTL for recurrent airway obstruction in European Warmblood horses. Anim Genet 43:627-31, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22497545. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02315.x.
2011 Leclere, M., Lavoie-Lamoureux, A., Lavoie, J.P. :
Heaves, an asthma-like disease of horses. Respirology 16:1027-46, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21824219. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2011.02033.x.
2010 Scharrenberg, A., Gerber, V., Swinburne, J.E., Wilson, A.D., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Laumen, E., Marti, E. :
IgE, IgGa, IgGb and IgG(T) serum antibody levels in offspring of two sires affected with equine recurrent airway obstruction. Anim Genet 41 Suppl 2:131-7, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21070286. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02122.x.
Shakhsi-Niaei, M., Klukowska-Rotzler, J., Drogemuller, C., Swinburne, JE., Gerber, V., Leeb, T. :
Characterization of the equine ITGAX gene and its association with recurrent airway obstruction in European Warmblood horses. Anim Genet 41:559-560, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20477795. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02066.x.
2009 Gerber, V., Baleri, D., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Swinburne, J.E., Dolf, G. :
Mixed inheritance of equine recurrent airway obstruction. J Vet Intern Med 23:626-30, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19645845. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0292.x.
Swinburne, JE., Bogle, H., Klukowska-Rotzler, J., Drogemuller, M., Leeb, T., Temperton, E., Dolf, G., Gerber, V. :
A whole-genome scan for recurrent airway obstruction in Warmblood sport horses indicates two positional candidate regions. Mamm Genome 20:504-15, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19760324. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-009-9214-5.
2008 Art, T., Bureau, F., Robinson, NE. :
Hunting for a key to the enigma of heaves in the black box of the white cells. Vet J 177:307-8, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.10.005.
Art, T., Bureau, F. :
Hunting for a key to the enigma of heaves in the black box of the white cells (comment on Cunningham and Dunkel, 2008) Vet J 177:307-8, 2008.
Bakos, Z. :
Digital luminescence thoracic radiography in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Rec 162:122-4, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18223270.
Christmann, U., Welles, EG., Waldridge, BM., Schumacher, J., Grier, BL., Hite, RD. :
Abnormalities in Lung Surfactant in Horses Clinically Affected with Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO). J Vet Intern Med :, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18761600. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0177.x.
Cunningham, FM., Dunkel, B. :
Equine recurrent airway obstruction and insect bite hypersensitivity: understanding the diseases and uncovering possible new therapeutic approaches. Vet J 177:334-44, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18023376. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.10.005.
Deluca, L., Erb, HN., Young, JC., Perkins, GA., Ainsworth, DM. :
The effect of adding oral dexamethasone to feed alterations on the airway cell inflammatory gene expression in stabled horses affected with recurrent airway obstruction. J Vet Intern Med 22:427-35, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18346142. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0055.x.
Gehlen, H., Oey, L., Rohn, K., Bilzer, T., Stadler, P. :
Pulmonary dysfunction and skeletal muscle changes in horses with RAO. J Vet Intern Med 22:1014-21, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18498323. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0111.x.
Gehlen, H., Bubeck, K., Rohn, K., Stadler, P. :
Influence of valvular insufficiency and recurrent airway obstruction on haemodynamics and therapy in warmblood horses with atrial fibrillation. Res Vet Sci 85:333-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18158167. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.11.001.
Gerber, V., Swinburne, J.E., Blott, S.C., Nussbaumer, P., Ramseyer, A., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Dolf, G., Marti, E., Burger, D., Leeb, T. :
[Genetics of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 115:271-5, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18672738.
Riihimäki, M., Raine, A., Pourazar, J., Sandström, T., Art, T., Lekeux, P., Couëtil, L., Pringle, J. :
Epithelial expression of mRNA and protein for IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in endobronchial biopsies in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. BMC Vet Res 4:8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18294392. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-4-8.
Riihimäki, M., Raine, A., Art, T., Lekeux, P., Couëtil, L., Pringle, J. :
Partial divergence of cytokine mRNA expression in bronchial tissues compared to bronchoalveolar lavage cells in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 122:256-64, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18243337. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.12.001.
Ryhner, T., Müller, N., Balmer, V., Gerber, V. :
Increased mucus accumulation in horses chronically affected with recurrent airway obstruction is not associated with up-regulation of CLCA1, EGFR, MUC5AC, Bcl-2, IL-13 and INF-gamma expression. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 125:8-17, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18597857. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.05.011.
Theegarten, D., Sachse, K., Mentrup, B., Fey, K., Hotzel, H., Anhenn, O. :
Chlamydophila spp. infection in horses with recurrent airway obstruction: similarities to human chronic obstructive disease. Respir Res 9:14, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18230187. DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-9-14.
2007 Abraham, G., Kottke, C., Ungemach, FR. :
Equine recurrent airway obstruction does not alter airway muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression and subtype distribution. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 30:401-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17803731. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2007.00897.x.
Ainsworth, DM., Wagner, B., Erb, HN., Young, JC., Retallick, DE. :
Effects of in vitro exposure to hay dust on expression of interleukin-17, -23, -8, and -1beta and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 by pulmonary mononuclear cells isolated from horses chronically affected with recurrent airway disease. Am J Vet Res 68:1361-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18052742. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.68.12.1361.
Berndt, A., Derksen, FJ., Venta, PJ., Ewart, S., Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, V., Robinson, NE. :
Elevated amount of Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA in bronchial epithelial cells is associated with airway inflammation in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 292:L936-43, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17158595. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00394.2006.
Dunkel, B., Rickards, KJ., Page, CP., Cunningham, FM. :
Platelet activation in ponies with airway inflammation. Equine Vet J 39:557-61, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18065316. DOI: 10.2746/042516407X217885.
Ewart, SL., Robinson, NE. :
Genes and respiratory disease: a first step on a long journey. Equine Vet J 39:270-4, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17520980.
Hotchkiss, JW., Reid, SW., Christley, RM. :
A survey of horse owners in Great Britain regarding horses in their care. Part 2: Risk factors for recurrent airway obstruction. Equine Vet J 39:301-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17722720.
Jost, U., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Dolf, G., Swinburne, J.E., Ramseyer, A., Bugno, M., Burger, D., Blott, S., Gerber, V. :
A region on equine chromosome 13 is linked to recurrent airway obstruction in horses. Equine Vet J 39:236-41, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17520975.
Künzle, F., Gerber, V., Van Der Haegen, A., Wampfler, B., Straub, R., Marti, E. :
IgE-bearing cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and allergen-specific IgE levels in sera from RAO-affected horses. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 54:40-7, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17359454. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.2007.00870.x.
Miskovic, M., Couëtil, L.L., Thompson, C.A. :
Lung function and airway cytologic profiles in horses with recurrent airway obstruction maintained in low-dust environments. J Vet Intern Med 21:1060-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17939565.
Pietra, M., Peli, A., Bonato, A., Ducci, A., Cinotti, S. :
Equine bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines in the development of recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Res Commun 31 Suppl 1:313-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17682903. DOI: 10.1007/s11259-007-0055-y.
Ramseyer, A., Gaillard, C., Burger, D., Straub, R., Jost, U., Boog, C., Marti, E., Gerber, V. :
Effects of genetic and environmental factors on chronic lower airway disease in horses. J Vet Intern Med 21:149-56, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17338142.
Range, F., Mundhenk, L., Gruber, AD. :
A soluble secreted glycoprotein (eCLCA1) is overexpressed due to goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Pathol 44:901-11, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18039903. DOI: 10.1354/vp.44-6-901.
2006 Ainsworth, D.M., Wagner, B., Franchini, M., Grünig, G., Erb, H.N., Tan, J.Y. :
Time-dependent alterations in gene expression of interleukin-8 in the bronchial epithelium of horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res 67:669-77, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16579761. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.67.4.669.
Couëtil, L.L., Art, T., de Moffarts, B., Becker, M., Mélotte, D., Jaspar, F., Bureau, F., Lekeux, P. :
DNA binding activity of transcription factors in bronchial cells of horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 113:11-20, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16753225. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.03.020.
Hotchkiss, JW., Reid, SW., Christley, R. :
Construction and validation of a risk-screening questionnaire for the investigation of recurrent airway obstruction in epidemiological studies of horse populations in Great Britain. Prev Vet Med 75:8-21, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16488493. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.01.001.
Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Bugno, M., Sander, P., Slota, E., Dolf, G., Chowdhary, B.P., Leeb, T., Gerber, V. :
Chromosomal assignment of the two candidate genes (EGFR, CLCA1) for equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) by FISH and RH mapping. Hereditas 143:138-41, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17362347. DOI: 10.1111/j.2006.0018-0661.01947.x.
2005 Anton, F., Leverkoehne, I., Mundhenk, L., Thoreson, WB., Gruber, AD. :
Overexpression of eCLCA1 in small airways of horses with recurrent airway obstruction. J Histochem Cytochem 53:1011-21, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15879574. DOI: 10.1369/jhc.4A6599.2005.
Horohov, DW., Beadle, RE., Mouch, S., Pourciau, SS. :
Temporal regulation of cytokine mRNA expression in equine recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 108:237-45, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16098607. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.07.013.
2003 Couëtil, L.L., Ward, M.P. :
Analysis of risk factors for recurrent airway obstruction in North American horses: 1,444 cases (1990-1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:1645-50, 2003. Pubmed reference: 14664454.
Gerber, V., Robinson, NE., Venta, RJ., Rawson, J., Jefcoat, AM., Hotchkiss, JA. :
Mucin genes in horse airways: MUC5AC, but not MUC2, may play a role in recurrent airway obstruction. Equine Vet J 35:252-7, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12755421.
Léguillette, R. :
Recurrent airway obstruction--heaves. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 19:63-86, vi, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12747662.
2002 Davis, E., Rush, BR. :
Equine recurrent airway obstruction: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and patient management. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18:453-67, vi, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12516928.
1995 Marti, E., Lazary, S., Gerber, H. :
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [summary] Equine Veterinary Journal 27:413, 1995.
1991 Marti, E., Gerber, H., Essich, G., Oulehla, J., Lazary, S. :
The Genetic Basis of Equine Allergic Diseases .1. Chronic Hypersensitivity Bronchitis Equine Veterinary Journal 23:457-460, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1778165.
1985 Derksen, FJ., Robinson, NE., Armstrong, PJ., Stick, JA., Slocombe, RF. :
Airway reactivity in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). J Appl Physiol 58:598-604, 1985. Pubmed reference: 3980362.
1969 Gillespie, J.R., Tyler, W.S. :
Chronic alveolar emphysema in the horse. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 13:59-99, 1969. Pubmed reference: 4898008.
1959 Alexander, A.F. :
Chronic alveolar emphysema in the horse. Am Rev Respir Dis 80:141-6, 1959. Pubmed reference: 13670415.
1957 Koch, P. :
Heredity of chronic alveolar emphysema of the lungs in horses Deutsche Tierartzliche Wochenschrift 64:485-486, 1957.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2008
  • Changed by Carrie Finno on 11 Dec 2013
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Sep 2021