OMIA:001504-9615 : Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, 1 in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)
In other species: sheep
Links to MONDO diseases:
Mendelian trait/disorder: yes
Mode of inheritance: Autosomal recessive
Considered a defect: yes
Key variant known: yes
Year key variant first reported: 2010
Cross-species summary: One of several variants of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) or Batten disease: CLN1; NCL1
Species-specific description: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage diseases characterized by intraneuronal accumulation of fluorescent granules, early neuronal death, and progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. NCL1 is a rare disorder of dachshunds caused by severely deficient palmitoyl protein thioesterase (PPT1) activity. Signs appear as early as nine months of age, and include behavioral changes, nervousness, disorientation, ataxia, weakness, kyphosis, stiffness of gait, uncontrolled rhythmic head movements, and visual impairment. Fundic examination may show diffuse retinal thinning and retinal vessel degeneration. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. There is no effective treatment.
Edited by Vicki N. Meyers-Wallen, VMD, PhD, Dipl. ACT
Molecular basis: A causative mutation in Dachshunds is a single nucleotide insertion (c.736-737insC) in exon 8 of PPT1, which causes a frameshift in amino acid codons and a premature stop codon. The resultant truncated PPT1 protein lacks a hydrophobic region that is key to enzyme activity, such that the affected dachshund brain has only 3% activity of normal dogs (Sanders et al., 2010).
Whole-genome sequencing of an affected Cane Corso dog by Kolicheski et al. (2017) revealed the likely causal variant to be "a PPT1c.124 + 1G>A splice donor mutation. This nonreference assembly allele was homozygous in the affected dog, has not previously been reported in dbSNP, and was absent from the whole genome sequences of 45 control dogs and 31 unaffected Cane Corsos."
Clinical features: Diffuse retinal thinning and severe retinal vessel degeneration were present at 7 months of age, followed by complete blindness at 8 months of age (Sanders et al., 2010). Additional signs appeared at nine months of age, including disorientation, ataxia, weakness, visual impairment, and behavioral changes. These progressed to kyphosis and stiffness in gait, uncontrolled rhythmic head movements, inability to recognize the owner, severe vision loss, sensitivity to loud noise, inappropriate vocalization, circling, loss of coordination and general weakness. There is no effective treatment.
Pathology: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage diseases characterized by intraneuronal accumulation of fluorescent granules, early neuronal death, and progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. Affected dogs are severely deficient in palmitoyl protein thioesterase (PPT1), a key enzyme in creating hydrophobic regions in proteins, allowing them to interact with membranes, participate in vesicular transport and signal transduction, and maintain cellular architecture. As a result of severely deficient PPT1 activity, autofluorescent material accumulates in neuronal lysosomes of the retina, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex, followed by progressive neurodegeneration (Sanders et al., 2010). The central retina maintains its normal thickness and structure, and has inclusions in many retinal layers, including photoreceptor inner segments, outer nuclear layer, and ganglion cell layer. The peripheral retina appears significantly thinned with loss of the photoreceptor cell layer and absence of normal structural layering (Sanders et al., 2010). Storage material is widely abundant in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. In the latter, increased concentration was identified in the granular layer with little or no accumulation in Purkinje cells (Sanders et al., 2010).
Prevalence: Thus far, one affected animal and three carriers from the same pedigree have been identified (Sanders et al., 2010).
Control: Parents of affected dogs are obligate carriers. Siblings of affected animals should be tested. Breeding of affected or carrier dogs is not recommended.
Genetic testing: A test is available to detect the causative mutation in Dachshunds.
Italian Cane Corso.
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. For breeds in which a likely causal variant has been documented, see the variant table below
|Symbol||Description||Species||Chr||Location||OMIA gene details page||Other Links|
|PPT1||palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1||Canis lupus familiaris||15||NC_051819.1 (2902313..2973313)||PPT1||Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene|
By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective.
Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending
order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column
WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.
Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.
|OMIA Variant ID||Breed(s)||Variant Phenotype||Gene||Allele||Type of Variant||Source of Genetic Variant||Reference Sequence||Chr.||g. or m.||c. or n.||p.||Verbal Description||EVA ID||Inferred EVA rsID||Year Published||PubMed ID(s)||Acknowledgements|
|423||Italian Cane Corso||Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, 1||PPT1||splicing||Naturally occurring variant||CanFam3.1||15||g.2860424G>A||c.124+1G>A||2017||28008682|
|579||Dachshund||Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, 1||PPT1||insertion, small (<=20)||Naturally occurring variant||CanFam3.1||15||g.2883477_2883478insC||c.736_737insC||p.(F246Lfs*29)||NM_001010944.1; NP_001010944.1||2010||20494602||p. information obtained from Katz et al. (2017) Neurobiol Dis. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2017.08.017; genomic coordinates in CanFam3.1 provided by Zoe Shmidt and Robert Kuhn.|
Cite this entry
Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
|2021||Cerda-Gonzalez, S., Packer, R.A., Garosi, L., Lowrie, M., Mandigers, P.J.J., O'Brien, D.P., Volk, H.A. :|
|International veterinary canine dyskinesia task force ECVN consensus statement: Terminology and classification. J Vet Intern Med 35:1218-1230, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33769611 . DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16108.|
|2020||Story, B.D., Miller, M.E., Bradbury, A.M., Million, E.D., Duan, D., Taghian, T., Faissler, D., Fernau, D., Beecy, S.J., Gray-Edwards, H.L. :|
|Canine models of inherited musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases. Front Vet Sci 7:80, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32219101 . DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00080.|
|2017||Katz, M.L., Rustad, E., Robinson, G.O., Whiting, R.E.H., Student, J.T., Coates, J.R., Narfstrom, K. :|
|Canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses: Promising models for preclinical testing of therapeutic interventions. Neurobiol Dis 108:277-87, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28860089 . DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2017.08.017.|
|Kolicheski, A., Barnes Heller, H.L., Arnold, S., Schnabel, R.D., Taylor, J.F., Knox, C.A., Mhlanga-Mutangadura, T., O'Brien, D.P., Johnson, G.S., Dreyfus, J., Katz, M.L. :|
|Homozygous PPT1 splice donor mutation in a Cane Corso dog with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. J Vet Intern Med 31:149-157, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28008682 . DOI: 10.1111/jvim.14632.|
|2013||Bond, M., Holthaus, S.M., Tammen, I., Tear, G., Russell, C. :|
|Use of model organisms for the study of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1832:1842-65, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23338040 . DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.01.009.|
|2010||Bellettato, C.M., Scarpa, M. :|
|Pathophysiology of neuropathic lysosomal storage disorders. J Inherit Metab Dis 33:347-62, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20429032 . DOI: 10.1007/s10545-010-9075-9.|
|Sanders, DN., Farias, FH., Johnson, GS., Chiang, V., Cook, JR., O'Brien, DP., Hofmann, SL., Lu, JY., Katz, ML. :|
|A mutation in canine PPT1 causes early onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in a Dachshund. Mol Genet Metab 100:349-56, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20494602 . DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2010.04.009.|
- Created by Frank Nicholas on 26 Oct 2010
- Changed by Martha MaloneyHuss on 23 Aug 2011
- Changed by Vicki Meyers-Wallen on 18 Sep 2011
- Changed by Frank Nicholas on 12 Dec 2011
- Changed by Frank Nicholas on 31 Dec 2016
- Changed by Frank Nicholas on 12 Jul 2018