OMIA:001534-9031 : Resistance/susceptibility to myxovirus in Gallus gallus (chicken)

Categories: Immune system phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 147150 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2002

Species-specific symbol: Mx

Molecular basis: By cloning and sequencing a very likely comparative candidate gene (based on knowledge that the Mx gene product inhibits virus repliaction in other species), Ko et al. (2002) reported that a missense polymorphism at position 631 (Ser to Asn) of the chicken Mx gene confers susceptibility/resistance respectively, to viruses in chickens. The MX gene is now known as MX1.

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
MX1 myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78 (mouse) Gallus gallus - no genomic information (-..-) MX1 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
14 Resistance to myxovirus MX1 missense Naturally occurring variant GRCg6a 1 g.110260061G>A c.1892G>A p.(S631N) rs313590198 2002 11932243 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001534-9031: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2018 Li, J., Yang, C., Ran, J., Jiang, X., Du, H., Li, Z., Liu, Y., Zhang, L. :
Genotype frequency contributions of Mx1 gene in eight chicken breeds under different selection pressures. 3 Biotech 8:483, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30456017. DOI: 10.1007/s13205-018-1504-8.
2011 Ewald, S.J., Kapczynski, D.R., Livant, E.J., Suarez, D.L., Ralph, J., McLeod, S., Miller, C. :
Association of Mx1 Asn631 variant alleles with reductions in morbidity, early mortality, viral shedding, and cytokine responses in chickens infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Immunogenetics 63:363-75, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21286706. DOI: 10.1007/s00251-010-0509-1.
2010 Benfield, C.T., Lyall, J.W., Tiley, L.S. :
The cytoplasmic location of chicken mx is not the determining factor for its lack of antiviral activity. PLoS One 5:e12151, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20808435. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012151.
O'Neill, A.M., Livant, E.J., Ewald, S.J. :
Interferon alpha-induced inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures differing in Mx genotype. Avian Dis 54:802-6, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20608522.
Sironi, L., Ramelli, P., Williams, J.L., Mariani, P. :
PCR-RFLP genotyping protocol for chicken Mx gene G/A polymorphism associated with the S631N mutation. Genet Mol Res 9:1104-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20568055. DOI: 10.4238/vol9-2gmr811.
2008 Benfield, C.T., Lyall, J.W., Kochs, G., Tiley, L.S. :
Asparagine 631 variants of the chicken Mx protein do not inhibit influenza virus replication in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts or in vitro surrogate assays. J Virol 82:7533-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18508886. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00185-08.
Sironi, L., Williams, JL., Moreno-Martin, AM., Ramelli, P., Stella, A., Jianlin, H., Weigend, S., Lombardi, G., Cordioli, P., Mariani, P. :
Susceptibility of different chicken lines to H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and the role of Mx gene polymorphism coding amino acid position 631. Virology 380:152-6, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18723201. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2008.07.022.
2007 Li, XY., Qu, LJ., Hou, ZC., Yao, JF., Xu, GY., Yang, N. :
Genomic structure and diversity of the chicken Mx gene. Poult Sci 86:786-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17369555.
2006 Li, XY., Qu, LJ., Yao, JF., Yang, N. :
Skewed allele frequencies of an Mx gene mutation with potential resistance to avian influenza virus in different chicken populations. Poult Sci 85:1327-9, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16830876.
Seyama, T., Ko, JH., Ohe, M., Sasaoka, N., Okada, A., Gomi, H., Yoneda, A., Ueda, J., Nishibori, M., Okamoto, S., Maeda, Y., Watanabe, T. :
Population research of genetic polymorphism at amino acid position 631 in chicken Mx protein with differential antiviral activity. Biochem Genet 44:437-48, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16955367. DOI: 10.1007/s10528-006-9040-3.
2002 Ko, J.H., Jin, H.K., Asano, A., Takada, A., Ninomiya, A., Kida, H., Hokiyama, H., Ohara, M., Tsuzuki, M., Nishibori, M., Mizutani, M., Watanabe, T. :
Polymorphisms and the differential antiviral activity of the chicken Mx gene. Genome Res 12:595-601, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11932243. DOI: 10.1101/gr.210702.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 12 Nov 2010
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 10 Oct 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 09 Dec 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 21 Sep 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 16 Apr 2020
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 15 May 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 16 Oct 2023