OMIA:001789-9903 : Trypanotolerance in Bos (oxen, cattle)

In other species: taurine cattle , indicine cattle (zebu) , African buffalo

Categories: Immune system phene

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: no

Species-specific description: It has long been recognised that N'Dama (Bos taurus) cattle from west Africa are naturally trypanotolerant, in stark contrast to Bos indicus cattle such as the Kenyan Boran (reviewed by Murray et al., 1984).

Mapping: Exploiting the marked difference in trypanotolerance between N'Dama and Boran cattle (see Summary above), Hanotte et al. (2003) created a QTL resource herd by crossing these two breeds, and then conducted a genome scan using 477 microsatellites on 177 F2 plus their parents and grandparents. They reported 19 QTL on 18 autosomes. Interestingly, at five of these QTL, the trypanotolerant allele comes from the susceptible (Boran) breed. Noyes et al. (2011) identified candidate genes under some of these QTL. By genotyping 360 west African cattle with 64 microsatellites located within four of the QTL described by Hanotte et al., 2003), Dayo et al. (2012) identified a candidate gene within the BTA4 QTL.

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Breed: N'dama (Cattle) (VBO_0000315).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. For breeds in which a likely causal variant has been documented, see the variant table below

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2024). OMIA:001789-9903: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Kambal, S., Tijjani, A., Ibrahim, S.A.E., Ahmed, M.A., Mwacharo, J.M., Hanotte, O. :
Candidate signatures of positive selection for environmental adaptation in indigenous African cattle: A review. Anim Genet , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37697736. DOI: 10.1111/age.13353.
2021 Rajavel, A., Schmitt, A.O., Gültas, M. :
Computational identification of master regulators influencing trypanotolerance in cattle. Int J Mol Sci 22, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33429951. DOI: 10.3390/ijms22020562.
2019 Mekonnen, Y.A., Gültas, M., Effa, K., Hanotte, O., Schmitt, A.O. :
Identification of candidate signature genes and key regulators associated with trypanotolerance in the Sheko breed. Front Genet 10:1095, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31803229. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.01095.
Tijjani, A., Utsunomiya, Y.T., Ezekwe, A.G., Nashiru, O., Hanotte, O. :
Genome Sequence Analysis Reveals Selection Signatures in Endangered Trypanotolerant West African Muturu Cattle. Front Genet 10:442, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31231417. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00442.
2016 Álvarez, I., Pérez-Pardal, L., Traoré, A., Fernández, I., Goyache, F. :
African cattle do not carry unique mutations on the exon 9 of the ARHGAP15 gene. Anim Biotechnol 27:9-12, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26515718. DOI: 10.1080/10495398.2015.1053606.
Álvarez, I., Pérez-Pardal, L., Traoré, A., Fernández, I., Goyache, F. :
Lack of haplotype structuring for two candidate genes for trypanotolerance in cattle. J Anim Breed Genet 133:105-14, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26365013. DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12181.
Berthier, D., Brenière, S.F., Bras-Gonçalves, R., Lemesre, J.L., Jamonneau, V., Solano, P., Lejon, V., Thévenon, S., Bucheton, B. :
Tolerance to Trypanosomatids: A Threat, or a Key for Disease Elimination? Trends Parasitol 32:157-68, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26643519. DOI: 10.1016/
2015 Berthier, D., Peylhard, M., Dayo, G.K., Flori, L., Sylla, S., Bolly, S., Sakande, H., Chantal, I., Thevenon, S. :
A comparison of phenotypic traits related to trypanotolerance in five west african cattle breeds highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds. PLoS One 10:e0126498, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25954819. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126498.
Smetko, A., Soudre, A., Silbermayr, K., Müller, S., Brem, G., Hanotte, O., Boettcher, P.J., Stella, A., Mészáros, G., Wurzinger, M., Curik, I., Müller, M., Burgstaller, J., Sölkner, J. :
Trypanosomosis: potential driver of selection in African cattle. Front Genet 6:137, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25964796. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00137.
2012 Dayo, G.K., Gautier, M., Berthier, D., Poivey, J.P., Sidibe, I., Bengaly, Z., Eggen, A., Boichard, D., Thevenon, S. :
Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population. Anim Genet 43:123-32, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22404348. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02227.x.
Orenge, C.O., Munga, L., Kimwele, C.N., Kemp, S., Korol, A., Gibson, J.P., Hanotte, O., Soller, M. :
Trypanotolerance in N'Dama x Boran crosses under natural trypanosome challenge: effect of test-year environment, gender, and breed composition. BMC Genet 13:87, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23075408. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-13-87.
2011 Noyes, H., Brass, A., Obara, I., Anderson, S., Archibald, A.L., Bradley, D.G., Fisher, P., Freeman, A., Gibson, J., Gicheru, M., Hall, L., Hanotte, O., Hulme, H., McKeever, D., Murray, C., Oh, S.J., Tate, C., Smith, K., Tapio, M., Wambugu, J., Williams, D.J., Agaba, M., Kemp, S.J. :
Genetic and expression analysis of cattle identifies candidate genes in pathways responding to Trypanosoma congolense infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9304-9, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21593421. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1013486108.
Orenge, C., Munga, L., Kimwele, C., Kemp, S., Korol, A., Gibson, J., Hanotte, O., Soller, M. :
Expression of trypanotolerance in N'Dama x Boran crosses under field challenge in relation to N'Dama genome content. BMC Proc 5 Suppl 4:S23, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21645303. DOI: 10.1186/1753-6561-5-S4-S23.
Stein, J., Ayalew, W., Rege, E., Mulatu, W., Lemecha, H., Tadesse, Y., Tekle, T., Philipsson, J. :
Trypanosomosis and phenotypic features of four indigenous cattle breeds in an Ethiopian field study. Vet Parasitol 178:40-7, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21277682. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.12.025.
2009 Dayo, G.K., Thevenon, S., Berthier, D., Moazami-Goudarzi, K., Denis, C., Cuny, G., Eggen, A., Gautier, M. :
Detection of selection signatures within candidate regions underlying trypanotolerance in outbred cattle populations. Mol Ecol 18:1801-13, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19302350. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04141.x.
O'Gorman, G.M., Park, S.D., Hill, E.W., Meade, K.G., Coussens, P.M., Agaba, M., Naessens, J., Kemp, S.J., MacHugh, D.E. :
Transcriptional profiling of cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense highlights gene expression signatures underlying trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility. BMC Genomics 10:207, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19409086. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-207.
2008 Berthier, D., Chantal, I., Thevenon, S., Sakande, H., Maillard, J.C., Bengaly, Z., Piquemal, D., Marti, J., Cuny, G. :
Study of bovine trypanotolerance by whole transcriptome analysis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1149:71-6, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19120177. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1428.062.
Courtin, D., Berthier, D., Thevenon, S., Dayo, G.K., Garcia, A., Bucheton, B. :
Host genetics in African trypanosomiasis. Infect Genet Evol 8:229-38, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18394971. DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2008.02.007.
2005 Hill, E.W., O'Gorman, G.M., Agaba, M., Gibson, J.P., Hanotte, O., Kemp, S.J., Naessens, J., Coussens, P.M., MacHugh, D.E. :
Understanding bovine trypanosomiasis and trypanotolerance: the promise of functional genomics. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 105:247-58, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15808304. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.02.004.
Maichomo, M.W., Ndungú, J.M., Ngare, P.M., Ole-Mapenay, I.M. :
The performance of Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu crossbreeds in a trypanosomosis endemic area of Nguruman, south western Kenya. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:87-93, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15991707.
Maillard, J.C., Berthier, D., Thevenon, S., Piquemal, D., Chantal, I., Marti, J. :
Efficiency and limits of the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) method: discussions based on first results in bovine trypanotolerance. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 108:59-69, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16144719. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.08.005.
2004 Maillard, J.C., Berthier, D., Thevenon, S., Quéré, R., Piquemal, D., Manchon, L., Marti, J. :
Use of the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) method in veterinary research: A concrete application in the study of the bovine trypanotolerance genetic control. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1026:171-82, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15604489. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1307.026.
2003 Berthier, D., Quéré, R., Thevenon, S., Belemsaga, D., Piquemal, D., Marti, J., Maillard, J.C. :
Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in bovine trypanotolerance: preliminary results. Genet Sel Evol 35 Suppl 1:S35-47, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12927079. DOI: 10.1051/gse:2003015.
Hanotte, O., Ronin, Y., Agaba, M., Nilsson, P., Gelhaus, A., Horstmann, R., Sugimoto, Y., Kemp, S., Gibson, J., Korol, A., Soller, M., Teale, A. :
Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling trypanotolerance in a cross of tolerant West African N'Dama and susceptible East African Boran cattle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7443-8, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12805560. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1232392100.
2002 Naessens, J., Teale, A.J., Sileghem, M. :
Identification of mechanisms of natural resistance to African trypanosomiasis in cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 87:187-94, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12072233.
2000 Mattioli, R.C., Pandey, V.S., Murray, M., Fitzpatrick, J.L. :
Immunogenetic influences on tick resistance in African cattle with particular reference to trypanotolerant N'Dama (Bos taurus) and trypanosusceptible Gobra zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Acta Trop 75:263-77, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10838210.
1998 d'Ieteren, G.D., Authié, E., Wissocq, N., Murray, M. :
Trypanotolerance, an option for sustainable livestock production in areas at risk from trypanosomosis. Rev Sci Tech 17:154-75, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9638808.
Kemp, S.J., Teale, A.J. :
Genetic basis of trypanotolerance in cattle and mice. Parasitol Today 14:450-4, 1998. Pubmed reference: 17040846.
Mwangi, E.K., Stevenson, P., Ndung'U, J.M., Stear, M.J., Reid, S.W., Gettinby, G., Murray, M. :
Studies on host resistance to tick infestations among trypanotolerant Bos indicus cattle breeds in east Africa. Ann N Y Acad Sci 849:195-208, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9668465.
1996 Mattioli, R.C., Wilson, R.T. :
Trypanosomes, tsetse and trypanotolerance: coevolution in tropical Africa. Parassitologia 38:531-5, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9257342.
1994 Trail, J.C., Wissocq, N., d'Ieteren, G.D., Kakiese, O., Murray, M. :
Quantitative phenotyping of N'Dama cattle for aspects of trypanotolerance under field tsetse challenge. Vet Parasitol 55:185-95, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7879377. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4017(94)00649-W.
1993 Authie, E., Duvallet, G., Robertson, C., Williams, D.J.L. :
Antibody Responses to a 33 kDA Cysteine Protease of Trypanosoma-congolense - Relationship to Trypanotolerance in Cattle Parasite Immunology 15:465-474, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8233561.
Authie, E., Muteti, D.K., Williams, D.J.L. :
Antibody Responses to Invariant Antigens of Trypanosoma- Congolense in Cattle of Differing Susceptibility to Trypanosomiasis Parasite Immunology 15:101-111, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8446463.
Clausen, P.H., Sidibe, I., Bassinga, A., Richard, X., Bauer, B., Pohlit, H. :
Pathogenesis and Pathology of African Trypanosomiasis in Baoule, N'Dama/Baoule Cross Bred and Zebu Cattle in Burkina- Faso .1. Clinical Performance Under High Natural Tsetse Challenge Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 44:99-107, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8367674.
Codjia, V., Mulatu, W., Majiwa, P.A.O., Leak, S.G.A., Rowlands, G.J., Authie, E., Dieteren, G.D.M., Peregrine, A.S. :
Epidemiology of Bovine Trypanosomiasis in the Ghibe Valley, Southwest Ethiopia .3. Occurrence of Populations of Trypanosoma-Congolense Resistant to Diminazene, Isometamidium and Homidium Acta Tropica 53:151-163, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8098900.
Moloo, S.K., Gettinby, G., Olubayo, R.O., Kabata, J.M., Okumu, I.O. :
A Comparison of African Buffalo, N'Dama and Boran Cattle as Reservoirs of Trypanosoma-Vivax for Different Glossina Species Parasitology 106:277-282, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8098147.
Paling, R.W., Dwinger, R.H. :
Potential of Trypanotolerance as a Contribution to Sustainable Livestock Production in Tsetse Affected Africa Veterinary Quarterly 15:60-67, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8285944.
Sileghem, M.R., Flynn, J.N., Saya, R., Williams, D.J.L. :
Secretion of Co-Stimulatory Cytokines by Monocytes and Macrophages During Infection with Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense in Susceptible and Tolerant Cattle Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 37:123-134, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8236792.
Trail, J.C.M., Dieteren, G.D.M., Murray, M., Ordner, G., Yangari, G., Collardelle, C., Sauveroche, B., Maille, J.C., Viviani, P. :
Measurement of Trypanotolerance Criteria and Their Effect on Reproductive Performance of N'Dama Cattle Veterinary Parasitology 45:241-255, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8447067.
1992 Clausen, P.H., Sidibe, I., Kabore, I., Bauer, B. :
Development of Multiple Drug Resistance of Trypanosoma- Congolense in Zebu Cattle Under High Natural Tsetse Fly Challenge in the Pastoral Zone of Samorogouan, Burkina-Faso Acta Tropica 51:229-236, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1359750.
Dolan, R.B., Stevenson, P.G.W., Alushula, H., Okech, G. :
Failure of Chemoprophylaxis Against Bovine Trypanosomiasis on Galana Ranch in Kenya Acta Tropica 51:113-121, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1354929.
Dwinger, R.H., Clifford, D.J., Agyemang, K., Gettinby, G., Grieve, A.S., Kora, S., Bojang, M.A. :
Comparative studies on N'Dama and zebu cattle following repeated infections with Trypanosoma congolense. Res Vet Sci 52:292-8, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1620961.
Kaufmann, J., Dwinger, R.H., Hallebeek, A., Vandijk, B., Pfister, K. :
The Interaction of Trypanosoma congolense and Haemonchus contortus Infections in Trypanotolerant N'Dama Cattle Veterinary Parasitology 43:157-170, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1413448.
1991 Paling, R.W., Moloo, S.K., Scott, J.R., Gettinby, G., Mcodimba, F.A., Murray, M. :
Susceptibility of N'Dama and Boran Cattle to Sequential Challenges with Tsetse-Transmitted Clones of Trypanosoma- Congolense Parasite Immunology 13:427-445, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1923567.
Paling, R.W., Moloo, S.K., Scott, J.R., Mcodimba, F.A., Loganhenfrey, L.L., Murray, M., Williams, D.J.L. :
Susceptibility of N'Dama and Boran Cattle to Tsetse- Transmitted Primary and Rechallenge Infections with a Homologous Serodeme of Trypanosoma-Congolense Parasite Immunology 13:413-425, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1923566.
Trail, J.C.M., Dieteren, G.D.M., Maille, J.C., Yangari, G. :
Genetic Aspects of Control of Anaemia Development in Trypanotolerant N'Dama Cattle Acta Tropica 48:285-291, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1674402.
1990 Dwinger, R.H., Rawlings, P., Jeannin, P., Grieve, A.S. :
Experimental Infection of Ndama Cattle with Trypanosomes Using Glossina-Palpalis-Gambiensis Caught in the Wild Tropical Animal Health and Production 22:37-43, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2321260.
Esievo, K.A.N., Jaye, A., Andrews, J.N., Ukoha, A.I., Alafiatayo, R.A., Eduvie, L.O., Saror, D.I., Njoku, C.O. :
Electrophoresis of Bovine Erythrocyte Sialic Acids - Existence of Additional Band in Trypanotolerant Ndama Cattle Journal of Comparative Pathology 102:357-361, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2365850.
Grootenhuis, J.G., Dwinger, R.H., Dolan, R.B., Moloo, S.K., Murray, M. :
Susceptibility of African Buffalo and Boran Cattle to Trypanosoma-Congolense Transmitted by Glossina-Morsitans- Centralis Veterinary Parasitology 35:219-231, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2343539.
Moloo, S.K., Kutuza, S.B. :
Expression of Resistance to Isometamidium and Diminazene in Trypanosoma-Congolense in Boran Cattle Infected by Glossina- Morsitans-Centralis Acta Tropica 47:79-89, 1990. Pubmed reference: 1969704.
Murray, M., Trail, J.C., D'Ieteren, G.D. :
Trypanotolerance in cattle and prospects for the control of trypanosomiasis by selective breeding. Rev Sci Tech 9:369-86, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2132686.
Trail, J.C.M., Dieteren, G.D.M., Feron, A., Kakiese, O., Mulungo, M., Pelo, M. :
Effect of Trypanosome Infection, Control of Parasitaemia and Control of Anaemia Development on Productivity of N'Dama Cattle Acta Tropica 48:37-45, 1990. Pubmed reference: 1980802.
Trail, J.C.M., Dieteren, G.D.M., Colardelle, C., Maille, J.C., Ordner, G., Sauveroche, B., Yangari, G. :
Evaluation of a Field Test for Trypanotolerance in Young N'Dama Cattle Acta Tropica 48:47-57, 1990. Pubmed reference: 1980803.
1989 Trail, J.C., D'Ieteren, G.D., Teale, A.J. :
Trypanotolerance and the value of conserving livestock genetic resources. Genome 31:805-12, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2534387.
1987 Dolan, R.B. :
Genetics and trypanotolerance. Parasitol Today 3:137-43, 1987. Pubmed reference: 15462937.
1986 Akol, G.W., Authie, E., Pinder, M., Moloo, S.K., Roelants, G.E., Murray, M. :
Susceptibility and immune responses of zebu and taurine cattle of West Africa to infection with Trypanosoma congolense transmitted by Glossina morsitans centralis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 11:361-73, 1986. Pubmed reference: 3716196.
1985 Njogu, A.R., Dolan, R.B., Wilson, A.J., Sayer, P.D. :
Trypanotolerance in East African Orma Boran cattle. Vet Rec 117:632-6, 1985. Pubmed reference: 4090214.
1984 Murray, M., Trail, J.C., Davis, C.E., Black, S.J. :
Genetic resistance to African Trypanosomiasis. J Infect Dis 149:311-9, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6371153.
1981 Murray, M., Clifford, D.J., Gettinby, G., Snow, W.F., McIntyre, W.I. :
Susceptibility to African trypanosomiasis of N'Dama and Zebu cattle in an area of Glossina morsitans submorsitans challenge. Vet Rec 109:503-10, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7340084.
1977 Toure, S.M. :
[Trypanotolerance. Review of knowledge]. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 30:157-74, 1977. Pubmed reference: 337422.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 23 Apr 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 23 Apr 2013
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 28 Aug 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 28 Feb 2024