OMIA:001841-9615 : Distichiasis in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: horse , taurine cattle

Categories: Vision / eye phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 126300 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Cross-species summary: Two rows of eyelashes

Species-specific name: Aberrant eyelashes

Inheritance: Peteresen et al. (2015) estimated the heritability of this disorder in English Cocker Spaniels to be "moderate to high, i.e., 0.22 to 0.51" Bellamy et al. (2021) estimated the heritability in Havanese dogs in Norway to be high, varing "between 0.276 (linear model) and 0.720 (Bayesian threshold model)." Joergensen et al. (2022) estimated the heritability in Staffordshire bull terriers: "The pedigree-based heritability was ~ 0.22 (on the underlying scale ~ 0.48), while the genomic-based heritability (on the underlying scale) was ~ 0.47, and ~ 0.37 when excluding close relatives with equal affection status."

Breeds: Elo (Dog) (VBO_0200479), English Cocker Spaniel (Dog) (VBO_0200486), Havanese (Dog) (VBO_0200662), Staffordshire Bull Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201296), Tibetan Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201353).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001841-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Jondeau, C., Gounon, M., Bourguet, A., Chahory, S. :
Epidemiology and clinical significance of canine distichiasis: A retrospective study of 291 cases. Vet Ophthalmol , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37028946. DOI: 10.1111/vop.13091.
Jørgensen, D., Ropstad, E.O., Meuwissen, T., Lingaas, F. :
Genomic analysis and prediction of genomic values for distichiasis in Staffordshire bull terriers. Canine Med Genet 10:9, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37488637. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-023-00132-1.
2022 Joergensen, D., Madsen, P., Ropstad, E.O., Lingaas, F. :
Heritability estimates of distichiasis in Staffordshire bull terriers using pedigrees and genome-wide SNP data. Acta Vet Scand 64:30, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36411452. DOI: 10.1186/s13028-022-00650-1.
2021 Bellamy, K.K.L., Lingaas, F., Madsen, P. :
Heritability of distichiasis in Havanese dogs in Norway. Canine Med Genet 8:11, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34784963. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-021-00110-5.
Genetics Committee of the American College of Veterinary Opthalmologists :
The Blue Book: Ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in purebred dogs. 13th Edition , 2021.
2015 Krecny, M., Tichy, A., Rushton, J., Nell, B. :
A retrospective survey of ocular abnormalities in pugs: 130 cases. J Small Anim Pract 56:96-102, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25370448. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12291.
Petersen, T., Proschowsky, H.F., Hardon, T., Rasch, S.N., Fredholm, M. :
Prevalence and heritability of distichiasis in the English Cocker spaniel. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:11, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401339. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0024-7.
2012 Raymond-Letron, I., Bourges-Abella, N., Rousseau, T., Douet, J.Y., de Geyer, G., Regnier, A. :
Histopathologic features of canine distichiasis. Vet Ophthalmol 15:92-7, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22051077. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2011.00946.x.
2007 Engelhardt, A., Stock, KF., Hamann, H., Brahm, R., Grussendorf, H., Rosenhagen, CU., Distl, O. :
Analysis of systematic and genetic effects on the prevalence of primary cataract, persistent pupillary membrane and distichiasis in the two color variants of English Cocker Spaniels in Germany. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 120:490-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18085160.
Kaufhold, J., Hamann, H., Steinbach, G., Gordon, S., Brahm, R., Grussendorf, H., Rosenhagen, C.U., Distl, O. :
[Analysis of the mode of inheritance for distichiasis in the Elo dog breed using complex segregation analyses]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 120:232-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17555045.
2006 Kaufhold, J., Hamann, H., Steinbach, G., Gordon, S., Brahm, R., Grussendorf, H., Rosenhagen, C.U., Distl, O. :
[Analysis of the prevalence of distichiasis in the dog breed Elo]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 119:233-7, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16729470.
2004 Ketteritzsch, K., Hamann, H., Brahm, R., Grussendorf, H., Rosenhagen, C.U., Distl, O. :
Genetic analysis of presumed inherited eye diseases in Tibetan Terriers. Vet J 168:151-9, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15301763. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2003.08.005.
1997 Grahn, B.H., Wolfer, J. :
Diagnostic ophthalmology. Distichiasis and uveal cysts. Can Vet J 38:391-2, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9187812.
1977 Campbell, L.H., McCree, A.V. :
Conjunctival resection for the surgical management of canine distichiasis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 171:275-7, 1977. Pubmed reference: 893212.
1973 Bedford, P.G. :
Distichiasis and its treatment by the method of partial tarsal plate excision. J Small Anim Pract 14:1-5, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4731359.
Lawson, D.D. :
Canine distichiasis. J Small Anim Pract 14:469-78, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4788820.
1971 Bedford, P.G. :
Eyelashes and adventitious cilia as causes of corneal irritation. J Small Anim Pract 12:11-7, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5103100.
Gelatt, K.N. :
Bilateral corneal dermoids and distichiasis in a dog. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 66:658-9, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5208793.
1970 Bellhorn, R.W. :
Variation of canine distichiasis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 157:342-3, 1970. Pubmed reference: 5465087.
1967 Halliwell, W.H. :
Surgical management of canine distichia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 150:874-9, 1967. Pubmed reference: 6068021.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 11 Apr 2016
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 24 Nov 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 26 Nov 2022
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Jun 2023