OMIA:001986-9823 : Severe combined immunodeficiency disease, autosomal, T cell-negative, B cell-negative, NK cell-positive, with sensitivity to ionizing radiation in Sus scrofa (pig)
Categories: Immune system phene
Links to MONDO diseases: No links.
Mendelian trait/disorder: yes
Mode of inheritance: Autosomal recessive
Considered a defect: yes
Key variant known: yes
Year key variant first reported: 2015
Cross-species summary: This form of T−B−NK+ SCID is known as Radiation-Sensitive-SCID or RS-SCID
History: This naturally occurring form of SCID was first reported by Basel et al. (2012) and Ozuna et al. (2013, having occurred in a selection line of Yorkshire pigs (Cai et al., 2008).
Inheritance: Waide et al. (2015) presented evidence indicative of autosomal recessive inheritance.
Mapping: By conducting a GWAS on "six carrier parents, 20 SCID affected piglets, 50 unaffected littermates of the SCID piglets, and 96 ancestors of these animals", each genotyped with more than 60,000 SNPs via the Illumina porcine SNP60 chip, Waide et al. (2015) mapped this disorder to a 5.6Mb region of chromosome SSC10.
Molecular basis: Noting that the candidate region on SSC10 includes the Artemis gene (DCLRE1C), which encodes a DNA repair enzyme, mutations in which cause the same disorder in humans and mice, Waide et al. (2015) sequenced the cDNA and some intronic regions of this positional candidate gene, revealing "a splice donor site mutation in intron 8 (g.51578763 G→A)" (which leads to the deletion of exon 8, and, consequently, "a protein missing 47 aa of the predicted full-length 712-aa Artemis protein"), and "a G→A nonsense point mutation at g.51584489 that changes the tryptophan amino acid codon at position 267 to a stop codon". Waide et al. (2015) provided strong evidence that homozygosity for either mutation or compound heterozygosity for both mutations causes this disorder.
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing
Clinical features: As summarised by Waide et al. (2015), "Necropsy of four piglets that died abnormally early in a viral challenge study showed that they lacked functional adaptive immune systems [Ozuna et al., 2013]. In subsequent work, we [Basel et al., 2012] demonstrated that these immunodeficient pigs failed to reject human cancer cells, and Ewen et al. (2014) reported minimal circulating B and T cells but normal amounts of NK cells in a preliminary analysis of these SCID pigs."
Yorkshire (Pig) (VBO_0001212).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. For breeds in which a likely causal variant has been documented, see the variant table below
|Symbol||Description||Species||Chr||Location||OMIA gene details page||Other Links|
|DCLRE1C||DNA cross-link repair 1C||Sus scrofa||10||NC_010452.4 (46820016..46863848)||DCLRE1C||Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene|
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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.
Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.
|OMIA Variant ID||Breed(s)||Variant Phenotype||Gene||Allele||Type of Variant||Source of Genetic Variant||Reference Sequence||Chr.||g. or m.||c. or n.||p.||Verbal Description||EVA ID||Inferred EVA rsID||Year Published||PubMed ID(s)||Acknowledgements|
|784||Severe combined immunodeficiency disease, autosomal, T cell-negative, B cell-negative, NK cell-positive, with sensitivity to ionizing radiation||DCLRE1C||splicing||Naturally occurring variant||Sscrofa11.1||10||g.46845535G>A||2015||26320255|
|785||Severe combined immunodeficiency disease, autosomal, T cell-negative, B cell-negative, NK cell-positive, with sensitivity to ionizing radiation||DCLRE1C||nonsense (stop-gain)||Naturally occurring variant||Sscrofa11.1||10||g.46851262G>A||p.(Trp267*)||2015||26320255|
Cite this entry
Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
|2021||Li, Y., Adur, M.K., Wang, W., Schultz, R.B., Hale, B., Wierson, W., Charley, S.E., McGrail, M., Essner, J., Tuggle, C.K., Ross, J.W. :|
|Effect of ARTEMIS (DCLRE1C) deficiency and microinjection timing on editing efficiency during somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro fertilization using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Theriogenology 170:107-116, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34004455. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2021.04.003.|
|2020||Boettcher, A.N., Cino-Ozuna, A.G., Solanki, Y., Wiarda, J.E., Putz, E., Owens, J.L., Crane, S.A., Ahrens, A.P., Loving, C.L., Cunnick, J.E., Rowland, R.R.R., Charley, S.E., Dekkers, J.C.M., Tuggle, C.K. :|
|CD3ε<sup>+</sup> Cells in Pigs With Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Due to Defects in <i>ARTEMIS</i>. Front Immunol 11:510, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32296428. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00510.|
|Boettcher, A.N., Li, Y., Ahrens, A.P., Kiupel, M., Byrne, K.A., Loving, C.L., Cino-Ozuna, A.G., Wiarda, J.E., Adur, M., Schultz, B., Swanson, J.J., Snella, E.M., Ho, C.S., Charley, S.E., Kiefer, Z.E., Cunnick, J.E., Putz, E.J., Dell'Anna, G., Jens, J., Sathe, S., Goldman, F., Westin, E.R., Dekkers, J.C.M., Ross, J.W., Tuggle, C.K. :|
|Novel Engraftment and T Cell Differentiation of Human Hematopoietic Cells in <i>ART</i> <sup>-/-</sup> <i>IL2RG</i> <sup>-/<i>Y</i></sup> SCID Pigs. Front Immunol 11:100, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32117254. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00100.|
|2019||Boettcher, A.N., Kiupel, M., Adur, M.K., Cocco, E., Santin, A.D., Bellone, S., Charley, S.E., Blanco-Fernandez, B., Risinger, J.I., Ross, J.W., Tuggle, C.K., Shapiro, E.M. :|
|Human Ovarian Cancer Tumor Formation in Severe Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) Pigs. Front Oncol 9:9, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30723704. DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00009.|
|Singer, A.J., Tuggle, C., Ahrens, A., Sauer, M., McClain, S.A., Tredget, E., Rosenberg, L. :|
|Survival of human cadaver skin on severe combined immune deficiency pigs: Proof of concept. Wound Repair Regen 27:426-430, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30843296. DOI: 10.1111/wrr.12715.|
|2018||Boettcher, A.N., Loving, C.L., Cunnick, J.E., Tuggle, C.K. :|
|Development of Severe Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) Pig Models for Translational Cancer Modeling: Future Insights on How Humanized SCID Pigs Can Improve Preclinical Cancer Research. Front Oncol 8:559, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30560086. DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2018.00559.|
|2017||Powell, E.J., Cunnick, J.E., Tuggle, C.K. :|
|SCID pigs: An emerging large animal NK model. J Rare Dis Res Treat 2:1-6, 2017. Pubmed reference: 29152615.|
|Powell, E.J., Graham, J., Ellinwood, N.M., Hostetter, J., Yaeger, M., Ho, C.S., Gault, L., Norlin, V., Snella, E.N., Jens, J., Waide, E.H., Boettcher, A.N., Kerrigan, M., Rowland, R.R.R., Ross, J.W., Dekkers, J.C.M., Tuggle, C.K. :|
|T cell lymphoma and leukemia in severe combined immunodeficiency pigs following bone marrow transplantation: A case report. Front Immunol 8:813, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28747915. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00813.|
|Rajao, D.S., Loving, C.L., Waide, E.H., Gauger, P.C., Dekkers, J.C., Tuggle, C.K., Vincent, A.L. :|
|Pigs with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Are Impaired in Controlling Influenza A Virus Infection. J Innate Immun 9:193-202, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27988511. DOI: 10.1159/000451007.|
|2016||Powell, E.J., Cunnick, J.E., Knetter, S.M., Loving, C.L., Waide, E.H., Dekkers, J.C., Tuggle, C.K. :|
|NK cells are intrinsically functional in pigs with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by spontaneous mutations in the Artemis gene. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 175:1-6, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27269786. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2016.04.008.|
|2015||Waide, E.H., Dekkers, J.C., Ross, J.W., Rowland, R.R., Wyatt, C.R., Ewen, C.L., Evans, A.B., Thekkoot, D.M., Boddicker, N.J., Serão, N.V., Ellinwood, N.M., Tuggle, C.K. :|
|Not All SCID Pigs Are Created Equally: Two Independent Mutations in the Artemis Gene Cause SCID in Pigs. J Immunol 195:3171-9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26320255. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1501132.|
|2014||Ewen, C.L., Cino-Ozuna, A.G., He, H., Kerrigan, M.A., Dekkers, J.C., Tuggle, C.K., Rowland, R.R., Wyatt, C.R. :|
|Analysis of blood leukocytes in a naturally occurring immunodeficiency of pigs shows the defect is localized to B and T cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 162:174-9, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25454085. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.10.003.|
|2013||Ozuna, A.G., Rowland, R.R., Nietfeld, J.C., Kerrigan, M.A., Dekkers, J.C., Wyatt, C.R. :|
|Preliminary findings of a previously unrecognized porcine primary immunodeficiency disorder. Vet Pathol 50:144-6, 2013. Pubmed reference: 22903400. DOI: 10.1177/0300985812457790.|
|2012||Basel, M.T., Balivada, S., Beck, A.P., Kerrigan, M.A., Pyle, M.M., Dekkers, J.C.M., Wyatt, C.R., Rowland, R.R.R., Anderson, D.E., Bossmann, S.H., Troyer, D.L. :|
|Human Xenografts Are Not Rejected in a Naturally Occurring Immunodeficient Porcine Line: A Human Tumor Model in Pigs. Biores Open Access 1:63-68, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23514746. DOI: 10.1089/biores.2012.9902.|
|2008||Cai, W., Casey, D.S., Dekkers, J.C. :|
|Selection response and genetic parameters for residual feed intake in Yorkshire swine. J Anim Sci 86:287-98, 2008. Pubmed reference: 17998435. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2007-0396.|
- Created by Frank Nicholas on 31 Mar 2016
- Changed by Frank Nicholas on 31 Mar 2016
- Changed by Frank Nicholas on 01 Apr 2016