OMIA 000119-9685 : Blood group system AB in Felis catus

In other species: wild cat , lion , jaguar , leopard , tiger , puma , Eurasian lynx , snow leopard , cheetah , ocelot , little spotted cat , jungle cat , sand cat , black-footed cat , margay , bobcat , rusty-spotted cat , fishing cat , caracal , serval , Colocolo , Pallas's cat , African golden cat , Clouded leopard , Asiatic golden cat , Spanish lynx , jaguarundi

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 603209 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2007

Cross-species summary: Each blood group system consists of a set of blood types, each of which corresponds to a particular antigen (usually a glycoprotein) on the surface of red blood cells. The different types within a system are the result of the action of different alleles at a locus that usually encodes an enzyme that catalyses the creation of the feature of the glycoprotein unique to that type, e.g. the presence of a particular sugar at the end of a short chain of sugars.

Species-specific description: As summarised by Kehl et al. (2019): "The feline AB blood group system is composed of type A, B and C (also called AB). It is of great clinical importance, as blood incompatibilities can result in acute hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolysis of the newborn [neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI)] due to presence of naturally occurring anti-A alloantibodies (Auer & Bell 1981; Auer et al. 1982; Giger et al. 1991; Giger 2014). The enzyme cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH; EC1.14.18.2) converts sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc; type B antigen) to N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc; type A antigen)."

History: As noted by Bighignoli et al. (2007), "CMAH represents the first blood group gene identified outside of non-human primates and humans".

Inheritance: As summarised by Kehl et al. (2019): "The CMAH locus is proposed to have three alleles with several haplotypes in the allelic series of A>a^c>b (Giger et al. 1991; Griot-Wenk & Giger 1995). Thus, genotypes A/A, A/b and A/a^c can be observed in type A cats, b/b in type B and a^c/a^c and a^c/b in type C cats."

Molecular basis: Bighignoli et al. (2007) reported haplotypes within the CMAH gene that correspond with the A and b alleles of this blood group system. The haplotypes are characterised by six mutations: "2 SNPs upstream of the start, an indel in the exon 1 5' UTR and three missense mutations in the coding region".

Gandolfi et al. (2016): "A novel variant [in CMAH], c.364C>T, was identified that is highly associated with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats and, to a lesser degree, with type AB in random bred cats"

Two new variants (c.179G>T and c.187A>G) were reported by Omi et al. (2016).

Uno et al. (2021) "describe the detection of an incompatible cross-match case (subject K) in the feline AB blood group system, and another cat (subject R) with discordant results from the card agglutination (CARD) method and alloantibody agglutination test for blood typing. We here describe our results from serological and genetic investigations to characterize blood samples from these two cats. We then characterized the low-frequency haplotypes carried according to six mutations and a novel haplotype with a new SNP in the feline CMAH genes of these cats."

Prevalence: Gavazza et al. (2021) performed a systematic review of "27 articles on the prevalence of cat blood groups .... . For each scientific study, we obtained the prevalence of the blood group divided into A, B, AB, and Mik. The means of the prevalence rates for each blood group showed that group A was high in all cats, 86% in Asian breeds, 84% in American breeds, 76%in European breeds, and 72% in breeds from Oceania), while group B prevalence was higher in European and Oceanian breeds (respectively, 21% and 27%) compared with Asian and American breeds (8% and 8%, respectively). The means of the prevalence rate of group AB was lower in all cats (6% in Asian breeds, 8% in American breeds, 3% in European breeds, and 1% in the breed from Oceania)."

Genetic testing: Kehl et al. (2018) proposed a revised variant panel for the genotypic determination of blood group phenotype (A, B, or C (=AB)). The panel comprises four variants: c.179G>T, c.268T>A, c.364C>T, and c.1322delT, which, as shown in Table 1 of Kehl et al. (2019) enable the determination of all relevant genotypes and hence phenotypes across a wide range of breeds. These variants are labelled "2019 TYPING PANEL" in the variant table below.

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
CMAH cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase Felis catus B2 NC_058372.1 (4553778..4697966) CMAH Homologene, Ensembl, NCBI gene

Variants

By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Inferred EVA rsID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
430 Blood group system AB CMAH regulatory Naturally occurring variant B2 "an indel in the exon 1 5' UTR" 2007 17553163
431 Blood group system AB CMAH regulatory Naturally occurring variant B2 "2 SNPs upstream of the start" 2007 17553163
619 Blood group system AB CMAH regulatory Naturally occurring variant B2 an indel in the exon 1 5' UTR 2007 17553163
801 Blood group system AB CMAH missense Naturally occurring variant B2 c.187A>G p.(I63V) 2016 27755584
1413 Blood group system AB CMAH missense Naturally occurring variant B2 c.773G>A p.(R258Q) 2021 34589535
1062 2019 TYPING PANEL CMAH deletion, small (<=20) Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_6.2 B2 c.1322delT p.(L441*) 2018 30235335
118 Blood group system AB CMAH missense Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 B2 g.4935348G>A c.232G>A p.(V78M) XM_011282052.3:c.232G>A; initially reported as Felis_catus_6.2: B2:4587414G>A; c.139G>A; p.(V47M) 2007 17553163 The genomic location on Felis_catus_9.0 and transcript information is based on Rodney et al. 2021 (PMID: 33785770):
800 2019 TYPING PANEL CMAH missense Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 B2 g.4935385G>T c.269G>T p.(G90V) XM_011282052.3:c.269G>T; Initially reported as c.179G>T; p.(G60V) 2016 27755584 The genomic location on Felis_catus_9.0 and transcript information is based on Rodney et al. 2021 (PMID: 33785770)
119 2019 TYPING PANEL CMAH missense Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 B2 g.4938728T>A c.358T>A p.(Y120N) XM_011282052.3:c.358T>A - The original (2007) designation was c.265T>A. A revised designation of c.268T>A; p.(Y89N) was reported by Kehl et al. (2019), Felis_catus_6.2: g.4590792T>A. 2007 17553163 The genomic location on Felis_catus_9.0 and transcript information is based on Rodney et al. 2021 (PMID: 33785770)
799 2019 TYPING PANEL CMAH missense Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 B2 g.4947519C>T c.454C>T p.(P152S) XM_011282052.3:c.454C>T; initially reported as c.364C>T; p.(P122S) 2016 27171395 The genomic location on Felis_catus_9.0 and transcript information is based on Rodney et al. 2021 (PMID: 33785770)
120 Blood group system AB CMAH missense Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 B2 g.4985762G>A c.1693G>A p.(D565N) XM_011282052.3:c.1693G>A; Felis_catus_6.2: g.4637820G>A; c.1600G>A; p.(D534N) 2007 17553163 The genomic location on Felis_catus_9.0 and transcript information is based on Rodney et al. 2021 (PMID: 33785770)

References


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2021 Binvel, M., Arsenault, J., Depré, B., Blais, M.C. :
Identification of 5 novel feline erythrocyte antigens based on the presence of naturally occurring alloantibodies. J Vet Intern Med 35:234-244, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33336860. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16010.
Gavazza, A., Rossi, G., Antognoni, M.T., Cerquetella, M., Miglio, A., Mangiaterra, S. :
Feline blood groups: A systematic review of phylogenetic and geographical origin. Animals (Basel) 11:3339, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34944117. DOI: 10.3390/ani11123339.
Rodney, A.R., Buckley, R.M., Fulton, R.S., Fronick, C., Richmond, T., Helps, C.R., Pantke, P., Trent, D.J., Vernau, K.M., Munday, J.S., Lewin, A.C., Middleton, R., Lyons, L.A., Warren, W.C. :
A domestic cat whole exome sequencing resource for trait discovery. Sci Rep 11:7159, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33785770. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-86200-7.
Silvestre-Ferreira, A., Pastor, J. :
Wild felids blood group system. Animals (Basel) 11:3533, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34944308. DOI: 10.3390/ani11123533.
Taylor, S., Spada, E., Callan, M.B., Korman, R., Leister, E., Steagall, P., Lobetti, R., Seth, M., Tasker, S. :
2021 ISFM consensus guidelines on the collection and administration of blood and blood products in cats. J Feline Med Surg 23:410-432, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33896248. DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211007071.
Uno, Y., Yaguchi, M., Kobayashi, T., Onozawa, E., Ochiai, K., Yoshida, K., Nakamura, C., Udagawa, C., Omi, T. :
Phenotypic and genetic characterization for incompatible cross-match cases in the feline AB blood group system. Front Vet Sci 8:720445, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34589535. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.720445.
2020 Koenig, A., Maglaras, C.H., Giger, U. :
Acute hemolytic reaction due to A-B mismatched transfusion in a cat with transient AB blood type. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 30:325-330, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32141165. DOI: 10.1111/vec.12937.
McDermott, F.M., Maloney, S., McMillan, C., Snead, E. :
The prevalence of blood groups in domestic cats in the Saskatoon and Calgary areas of Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada. Front Vet Sci 7:160, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32373632. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00160.
Spada, E., Perego, R., Baggiani, L., Proverbio, D. :
Comparison of conventional tube and gel-based agglutination tests for AB system blood typing in cat. Front Vet Sci 7:312, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32656250. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00312.
Spada, E., Perego, R., Baggiani, L., Salatino, E., Priolo, V., Mangano, C., Pennisi, M.G., Proverbio, D. :
Prevalence of blood types and alloantibodies of the AB blood group system in non-pedigree cats from Northern (Lombardy) and Southern (Sicily) Italy. Animals (Basel) 10:1129, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32635140. DOI: 10.3390/ani10071129.
Tommaso, M.D., Miglio, A., Crisi, P.E., Boari, A., Rocconi, F., Antognoni, M.T., Luciani, A. :
Frequency of blood types A, B and AB in a population of non-pedigree domestic cats from central Italy. Animals (Basel) 10:1937, 2020. Pubmed reference: 33096858. DOI: 10.3390/ani10101937.
2019 Kehl, A., Mueller, E., Giger, U., Kehl, A., Mueller, E., Giger, U. :
CMAH genotyping survey for blood types A, B and C (AB) in purpose-bred cats. Anim Genet 50:303-306, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30854707. DOI: 10.1111/age.12778.
Kehl, A., Truchet, L., Langbein-Detsch, I., Müller, E., Giger, U. :
Neuigkeiten zur praktischen ABC-Blutgruppen-Bestimmung bei Katzen [Updates on practical ABC blood compatibility testing in cats.] Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 47:425-438, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31814091. DOI: 10.1055/a-1035-9649.
Nectoux, A., Guidetti, M., Barthélemy, A., Pouzot-Nevoret, C., Hoareau, G.L., Goy-Thollot, I. :
Assessment of risks of feline mismatched transfusion and neonatal isoerythrolysis in the Lyon (France) area. JFMS Open Rep 5:2055116919863175, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31384478. DOI: 10.1177/2055116919863175.
Zaremba, R., Brooks, A., Thomovsky, E. :
Transfusion medicine: An update on antigens, antibodies and serologic testing in dogs and cats. Top Companion Anim Med 34:36-46, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30808496. DOI: 10.1053/j.tcam.2018.12.005.
2018 Gandolfi, B., Grahn, R.A., Gustafson, N.A., Proverbio, D., Spada, E., Adhikari, B., Cheng, J., Andrews, G., Lyons, L.A., Helps, C.R. :
Correction: A novel variant in CMAH is associated with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats. PLoS One 13:e0194471, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29534111. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194471.
Kehl, A., Heimberger, K., Langbein-Detsch, I., Boehmer, S., Raj, K., Mueller, E., Giger, U. :
Molecular characterization of blood type A, B, and C (AB) in domestic cats and a CMAH genotyping scheme. PLoS One 13:e0204287, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30235335. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204287.
2017 Thengchaisri, N., Sinthusingha, C., Arthitwong, S., Sattasathuchana, P. :
Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion. J Vet Med Sci 79:1081-1085, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28450662. DOI: 10.1292/jvms.16-0630.
Vieira, S.M., Ferreira, R.R.F., de Matos, A.J., Cardoso, I.M., Graça, R.M.C., Soares, A.R., Blasi-Brugué, C., Sánchez, I.M., Gopegui, R.R. :
Distribution of feline AB blood types: a review of frequencies and its implications in the Iberian Peninsula. JFMS Open Rep 3:2055116917727693, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28975035. DOI: 10.1177/2055116917727693.
2016 Cattin, R.P. :
Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats. N Z Vet J 64:154-7, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26539731. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2015.1112313.
Gandolfi, B., Grahn, R.A., Gustafson, N.A., Proverbio, D., Spada, E., Adhikari, B., Cheng, J., Andrews, G., Lyons, L.A., Helps, C.R. :
A novel variant in CMAH is associated with blood type AB in Ragdoll cats. PLoS One 11:e0154973, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27171395. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154973.
Omi, T., Nakazawa, S., Udagawa, C., Tada, N., Ochiai, K., Chong, Y.H., Kato, Y., Mitsui, H., Gin, A., Oda, H., Azakami, D., Tamura, K., Sako, T., Inagaki, T., Sakamoto, A., Tsutsui, T., Bonkobara, M., Tsuchida, S., Ikemoto, S. :
Molecular characterization of the cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene associated with the feline AB blood group system. PLoS One 11:e0165000, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27755584. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165000.
2015 Spada, E., Proverbio, D., Baggiani, L., Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G., Perego, R., Ferro, E. :
Evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for feline AB system blood typing. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 26:137-41, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26264678. DOI: 10.1111/vec.12360.
2014 Axnér, E. :
A questionnaire on survival of kittens depending on the blood groups of the parents. J Feline Med Surg 16:781-7, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24423812. DOI: 10.1177/1098612X13518937.
Fosset, F.T., Blais, M.C. :
Prevalence of feline blood groups in the Montreal area of Quebec, Canada. Can Vet J 55:1225-8, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24381340.
Giger, U. :
Blood typing and crossmatching to ensure blood compatibility Current Veterinary Therapy, Missouri: St. Louis (ed. by Bonagura JD and Twedt DC) :, 2014.
Hourani, L., Weingart, C., Kohn, B. :
Evaluation of a novel feline AB blood typing device. J Feline Med Surg 16:826-31, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24518253. DOI: 10.1177/1098612X14522052.
Spada, E., Miglio, A., Proverbio, D., Antognoni, M.T., Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G., Ferro, E., Mangili, V. :
Signalment and blood types in cats being evaluated as blood donors at two italian university blood banks. Vet Med Int 2014:704836, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24757577. DOI: 10.1155/2014/704836.
Tasker, S., Barker, E.N., Day, M.J., Helps, C.R. :
Feline blood genotyping versus phenotyping, and detection of non-AB blood type incompatibilities in UK cats. J Small Anim Pract 55:185-9, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24697343. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12180.
2013 Proverbio, D., Spada, E., Perego, R., Della Pepa, A., Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G., Baggiani, L. :
Assessment of blood types of Ragdoll cats for transfusion purposes. Vet Clin Pathol 42:157-62, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23654225. DOI: 10.1111/vcp.12048.
2011 Juvet, F., Brennan, S., Mooney, C.T. :
Assessment of feline blood for transfusion purposes in the Dublin area of Ireland. Vet Rec 168:352, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21498236. DOI: 10.1136/vr.c6879.
Marques, C., Ferreira, M., Gomes, J.F., Leitão, N., Costa, M., Serra, P., Correia, J.H., Pomba, C.F. :
Frequency of blood type A, B, and AB in 515 domestic shorthair cats from the Lisbon area. Vet Clin Pathol 40:185-7, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21434957. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00303.x.
Seth, M., Jackson, KV., Giger, U. :
Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system. Am J Vet Res 72:203-9, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21281194. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.72.2.203.
Zheng, L., Zhong, Y., Shi, Z., Giger, U. :
Frequencies of blood types A, B, and AB in non-pedigree domestic cats in Beijing. Vet Clin Pathol 40:513-517, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22092346. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00371.x.
2009 Barrs, VR., Giger, U., Wilson, B., Chan, CT., Lingard, AE., Tran, L., Seng, A., Canfield, PJ., Beatty, JA. :
Erythrocytic pyruvate kinase deficiency and AB blood types in Australian Abyssinian and Somali cats. Aust Vet J 87:39-44, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19178476. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2008.00381.x.
2008 Medeiros, M.A., Soares, A.M., Alviano, D.S., Ejzemberg, R., da Silva, M.H., Almosny, N.R. :
Frequencies of feline blood types in the Rio de Janeiro area of Brazil. Vet Clin Pathol 37:272-6, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18761518. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2008.00051.x.
2007 Bighignoli, B., Niini, T., Grahn, RA., Pedersen, NC., Millon, LV., Polli, M., Longeri, M., Lyons, LA. :
Cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) mutations associated with the domestic cat AB blood group. BMC Genet 8:27, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17553163. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-8-27.
Forcada, Y., Guitian, J., Gibson, G. :
Frequencies of feline blood types at a referral hospital in the south east of England. J Small Anim Pract 48:570-3, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17608664. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2007.00325.x.
Weinstein, N.M., Blais, M.C., Harris, K., Oakley, D.A., Aronson, L.R., Giger, U. :
A newly recognized blood group in domestic shorthair cats: the Mik red cell antigen. J Vet Intern Med 21:287-92, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17427390. DOI: 10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[287:anrbgi]2.0.co;2.
2006 Arikan, S., Gurkan, M., Ozaytekin, E., Dodurka, T., Giger, U. :
Frequencies of blood type A, B and AB in non-pedigree domestic cats in Turkey. J Small Anim Pract 47:10-3, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16417604. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00005.x.
2005 Gurkan, M., Arikan, S., Ozaytekin, E., Dodurka, T. :
Titres of alloantibodies against A and B blood types in non-pedigree domestic cats in Turkey: assessing the transfusion reaction risk. J Feline Med Surg 7:301-5, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15914059. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfms.2005.03.003.
Malik, R., Griffin, DL., White, JD., Rozmanec, M., Tisdall, PL., Foster, SF., Bell, K., Nicholas, FW. :
The prevalence of feline A/B blood types in the Sydney region. Aust Vet J 83:38-44, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15971816.
Stieger, K., Palos, H., Giger, U. :
Comparison of various blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system. Am J Vet Res 66:1393-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16173483.
2004 Arikan, S., Akkan, H.A. :
Titres of naturally occurring alloantibodies against feline blood group antigens in Turkish Van cats. J Small Anim Pract 45:289-92, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15206473. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2004.tb00237.x.
Hohenhaus, A.E. :
Importance of blood groups and blood group antibodies in companion animals. Transfus Med Rev 18:117-26, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15067591.
Silvestre-Ferreira, AC., Pastor, J., Almeida, O., Montoya, A. :
Frequencies of feline blood types in northern Portugal. Vet Clin Pathol 33:240-3, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15570562.
2003 Arikan, S., Duru, S.Y., Gurkan, M., Agaoglu, Z.T., Giger, U. :
Blood type A and B frequencies in Turkish Van and Angora cats in Turkey Journal of Veterinary Medicine - Series A 50:303-6, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12887623.
2002 Knottenbelt, C.M. :
The feline AB blood group system and its importance in transfusion medicine Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 4:69-76, 2002.
2001 Bagdi, N., Magdus, M., Leidinger, E., Leidinger, J., Vörös, K. :
Frequencies of feline blood types in Hungary. Acta Vet Hung 49:369-75, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11942116. DOI: 10.1556/004.49.2001.4.1.
Mylonakis, M.E., Koutinas, A.F., Saridomichelakis, M., Leontidis, L., Papadogiannakis, M., Plevraki, K. :
Determination of the prevalence of blood types in the non-pedigree feline population in Greece. Vet Rec 149:213-4, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11548962. DOI: 10.1136/vr.149.7.213.
1999 Knottenbelt, C.M., Addie, D.D., Day, M.J., Mackin, A.J. :
Determination of the prevalence of feline blood types in the UK Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:115-118, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10200921.
1997 Giger, U., Casal, M.L. :
Feline colostrum--friend or foe: maternal antibodies in queens and kittens. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 51:313-6, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9404300.
1996 Griot-Wenk, M.E., Callan, M.B., Casal, M.L., Chisholmchait, A., Spitalnik, S.L., Patterson, D.F., Giger, U. :
Blood type AB in the feline AB blood group system. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57:1438-1442, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8896680.
1995 Griot-Wenk, M.E., Giger, U. :
Feline transfusion medicine. Blood types and their clinical importance. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 25:1305-22, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8619268. DOI: 10.1016/s0195-5616(95)50156-1.
1994 Jensen, A.L., Olesen, A.B., Arnbjerg, J. :
Distribution of feline blood types detected in the Copenhagen area of Denmark. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 35:121-124, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7942376.
1993 Bucheler, J., Giger, U. :
Alloantibodies against A and B blood types in cats. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 38:283-295, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8291206.
Giger, U., Bucheler, J., Callan, M.B., Casal, M., Griot-Wenk, M. :
Feline neonatal isoerythrolysis and transfusion reactions. Kleintierpraxis 38:715, 1993.
Griot-Wenk, M., Pahlsson, P., Chisholmchait, A., Spitalnik, P.F., Spitalnik, S.L., Giger, U. :
Biochemical characterization of the feline AB blood group system. Animal Genetics 24:401-407, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8273913.
Leidinger, J., Leidinger, E., Giger, U. :
Distribution and importance of feline blood type-A and type-B in Austria. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 80:10-14, 1993.
1992 Andrews, G.A., Chavey, P.S., Smith, J.E., Rich, L. :
N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid define feline blood group-A and group-B antigens. Blood 79:2485-2491, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1571562.
1991 Giger, U., Bucheler, J. :
Transfusion of Type-A and Type-B Blood to Cats Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198:411-418, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2010334.
Giger, U., Bucheler, J., Patterson, D.F. :
Frequency and Inheritance of A and B Blood Types in Feline Breeds of the United-States Journal of Heredity 82:15-20, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1997588.
Giger, U., Griotwenk, M., Bucheler, J., Smith, S., Diserens, D., Hale, A., Patterson, D. :
Geographical variation of the feline blood type frequencies in the United-States. Feline Practice 19:21-27, 1991.
1990 Giger, U., Akol, K.G. :
Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction in an Abyssinian cat with blood type-B. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 4:315-316, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2074556.
1989 Giger, U., Kilrain, C.G., Filippich, L.J., Bell, K. :
Frequencies of feline blood groups in the United-States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 195:1230-1232, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2584120.
1983 Auer, L., Bell, K. :
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