OMIA:000344-9615 : Epilepsy in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: chicken , white-tufted-ear marmoset , domestic cat , horse , pig , taurine cattle , rabbit , golden hamster , Mongolian gerbil , prairie vole

Categories: Behaviour / neurological phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 104130 (trait) , 117100 (trait) , 121200 (trait) , 121201 (trait) , 125370 (trait) , 132090 (trait) , 132100 (trait) , 132300 (trait) , 159600 (trait) , 182610 (trait) , 203600 (trait) , 208700 (trait) , 220300 (trait) , 226750 (trait) , 226800 (trait) , 226810 (trait) , 226850 (trait) , 254770 (trait) , 254780 (trait) , 254800 (trait) , 266270 (trait) , 267740 (trait) , 270805 (trait) , 301900 (trait) , 310370 (trait) , 545000 (trait) , 600131 (trait) , 600143 (trait) , 600512 (trait) , 600513 (trait) , 600669 (trait) , 601068 (trait) , 245570 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Key variant is published: no

Inheritance: Viitmaa et al. (2013) estimated the heritability of idiopathic epliepsy in Finnish Spitz dogs to be 22%.

Mapping: By conducting a GWAS on 40 affected and 40 control Belgian Shepherd dogs, each genotyped with the Affymetrix 50K SNP chip, Seppälä et al. (2012) mapped a form of idiopathic epilepsy in the Belgian Shepherd breed to a 1.1.Mb region on chromosome CFA37. Deschain et al. (2021): "The dog breed Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen has a relatively high prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy compared to other dog breeds and previous studies have suggested a genetic cause of the disease in this breed. Based on these observations, a genome-wide association study was performed ... . Suggestive associations at CFA13, CFA24 and CFA35 were identified ...."

Markers: Investigation of the CFA37 candidate region identified by Seppälä et al. (2012) implicated the genes KLF7 and ADAM23, with a haplotype within the latter gene conferring a seven-fold risk. Muñana et al. (2012) reported : "ABCB1 genotype is associated with seizure outcome in Collies with epilepsy. This cannot be attributed to differences in PGP function, but might be because of intrinsic variations in seizure severity among phenotypes." By expanding the study of Seppälä et al. (2012) with additional Belgian Shepherd dogs and dogs from three other breeds, Koskinen et al. (2015) provided evidence "that ADAM23 is a low penetrance risk gene for canine epilepsy". Belanger et al. (2020) investigated idiopathic epilepsy in the Belgian Shepherd and reported: "Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed a significant association between IE and CFA 14 (p < 1.03 E− 08) and a suggestive association on CFA 37 (p < 2.91 E− 06) in a region in linkage disequilibrium with ADAM23. Logistic regression identified a 2-loci model that demonstrated interaction between the two chromosomal regions that when combined predicted IE risk with high sensitivity." Karlskov-Mortensen (2020) reanalysed the data published by Seppälä et al. (2012) but was "not able to confirm the association between canine chromosome 14 and idiopathic epilepsy" in the population of Belgian Shephard dogs studied by Seppälä et al. (2012). Belanger et al. (2022): "Additional IE [idiopathic epilepsy] cases and control dogs were genotyped for the risk haplotypes to validate these previous findings. In the new cohort, the interaction between the two regions significantly elevated IE risk. ... Whole genome sequence analysis revealed that a 3-base pair predicted disruptive insertion in the RAPGEF5 gene, which is adjacent to the CFA14 risk haplotype. ... Although this risk variant does not fully predict the likelihood of a BS developing IE, the association with a variant in a candidate gene may provide insight into the genetic control of canine IE." Beckers et al. (2023) investigated idiopathic epilepsy (IE) in the Dutch partridge dog (DPD). "A genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 16 cases and 43 controls was performed, followed by sequencing of the coding sequence and splice site regions of a candidate gene within the associated region. Subsequent whole-exome sequencing (WES) of one family (including one IE-affected dog, both parents, and an IE-free sibling) was performed. ... Sequencing of the GRIK2 candidate gene revealed no variants of interest. No WES variants were located within the associated GWAS region. However, a variant in CCDC85A (chromosome 10; XM_038680630.1: c.689C > T) was discovered, and dogs homozygous for the variant (T/T) had an increased risk of developing IE (OR: 6.0; 95% CI: 1.6-22.6). ... Further research is necessary before the risk locus or CCDC85A variant can be used for breeding decisions."

Breeds: Belgian Shepherd Dog (Dog) (VBO_0200144), Border Collie (Dog) (VBO_0200193), Collie (Dog) (VBO_0200375), Drentsche Patrijshond (Dog) (VBO_0200453), Finnish Spitz (Dog) (VBO_0200526), Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen (Dog) (VBO_0201009).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:000344-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Al Kafaji, T., Tocco, F., Okonji, S., Gallucci, A. :
Clinical features and outcome of 10 dogs with suspected idiopathic vestibular epilepsy. J Vet Intern Med , 2024. Pubmed reference: 38514172. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.17046.
García-Gracia, M., Moreno-Martinez, L., Hernaiz, A., Usón, S., Moral, J., Sanz-Rubio, D., Zaragoza, P., Palacio, J., Rosado, B., Osta, R., García-Belenguer, S., Martín Burriel, I. :
Analysis of plasma-derived exosomal microRNAs as potential biomarkers for canine idiopathic epilepsy. Animals (Basel) 14:252, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38254420. DOI: 10.3390/ani14020252.
Kinsey, N., Belanger, J.M., Mandigers, P.J.J., Leegwater, P.A., Heinonen, T., Hytönen, M.K., Lohi, H., Ostrander, E.A., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Idiopathic epilepsy risk allele trends in Belgian Tervuren: A longitudinal genetic analysis. Genes (Basel) 15:114, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38255002. DOI: 10.3390/genes15010114.
2023 Baka, R.D., Kuleš, J., Beletić, A., Farkaš, V., RešetarMaslov, D., Ljubić, B.B., Rubić, I., Mrljak, V., McLaughlin, M., Eckersall, D., Polizopoulou, Z. :
Quantitative serum proteome analysis using tandem mass tags in dogs with epilepsy. J Proteomics :105034, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37879566. DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2023.105034.
Beckers, E., Bhatti, S.F.M., Van Poucke, M., Polis, I., Farnir, F., Van Nieuwerburgh, F., Mandigers, P., Van Ham, L., Peelman, L., Broeckx, B.J.G. :
Identification of a novel idiopathic epilepsy risk locus and a variant in the CCDC85A gene in the Dutch partridge dog. Animals (Basel) 13:810, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36899667. DOI: 10.3390/ani13050810.
Beckmann, K.M., Wang-Leandro, A., Steffen, F., Richter, H., Dennler, M., Bektas, R., Carrera, I., Haller, S. :
Diffusion tensor-based analysis of white matter in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Front Vet Sci 10:1325521, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38192722. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1325521.
Bongers, J.J., Gutierrez-Quintana, R., Hammond, G., José-López, R. :
Clinical and MRI findings of a suspected cortical malformation presented as a giant cerebral pseudomass in a German Shepherd dog. Clin Case Rep 11:e7057, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36911639. DOI: 10.1002/ccr3.7057.
Cameron, S., Grady, K.M., Kent, S.P., Sousa, M.M. :
Mild to moderate increases in activity are associated with increased seizure incidence in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy receiving anti-epileptic drugs. J Small Anim Pract , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37572005. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.13655.
Charalambous, M., Fischer, A., Potschka, H., Walker, M.C., Raedt, R., Vonck, K., Boon, P., Lohi, H., Löscher, W., Worrell, G., Leeb, T., McEvoy, A., Striano, P., Kluger, G., Galanopoulou, A.S., Volk, H.A., Bhatti, S.F.M. :
Translational veterinary epilepsy: A win-win situation for human and veterinary neurology. Vet J 293:105956, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36791876. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.105956.
Chawner, E., Ukai, M., Sears, W., James, F. :
Frequency of non-generalized tonic clonic seizures in a referral population of dogs. Vet J :105986, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37141933. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.105986.
Hemmeter, L., Bien, C.G., Bien, C.I., Tipold, A., Neßler, J., Bathen-Nöthen, A., Matiasek, K., Dahlhoff, M., Rusbridge, C., Rotter Black, C., Rentmeister, K., Volk, H.A., Fischer, A. :
Investigation of the presence of specific neural antibodies in dogs with epilepsy or dyskinesia using murine and human assays. J Vet Intern Med , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37232512. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16744.
Kostic, D., Nowakowska, M., Freundt Revilla, J., Attig, F., Rohn, K., Gualtieri, F., Baumgärtner, W., Potschka, H., Tipold, A. :
Hippocampal expression of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 in canine epilepsy. Sci Rep 13:3138, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36823232. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-29868-3.
Musteata, M., Ștefănescu, R., Borcea, D.G., Solcan, G. :
Very-low-frequency spike-wave complex partial motor seizure mimicking canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome in a dog. Vet Sci 10, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37505876. DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10070472.
Peek, S.I., Twele, F., Meller, S., Packer, R.M.A., Volk, H.A. :
Epilepsy is more than a simple seizure disorder: Causal relationships between epilepsy and its comorbidities. Vet J :S1090-0233(23)00112-0:106061, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38123062. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.106061.
Peek, S.I., Meller, S., Twele, F., Packer, R.M.A., Volk, H.A. :
Epilepsy is more than a simple seizure disorder: Parallels between human and canine cognitive and behavioural comorbidities. Vet J :S1090-0233(23)00111-9:106060, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38123061. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.106060.
Phochantachinda, S., Chantong, B., Reamtong, O., Chatchaisak, D. :
Protein profiling and assessment of amyloid beta levels in plasma in canine refractory epilepsy. Front Vet Sci 10:1258244, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38192726. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1258244.
Plonek, M., Diaz-Espineira, M.M., Stassen, Q.E.M., Santifort, K.M., Leegwater, P.A.J., Mandigers, P.J.J. :
Corrigendum: Phenotypic characterization of idiopathic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown cause in Irish Setters. Front Vet Sci 10:1145556, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36950536. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1145556.
Potschka, H., Fischer, A., Löscher, W., Volk, H.A. :
Pathophysiology of drug-resistant canine epilepsy. Vet J :105990, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37150317. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.105990.
Schmidt, T., Meller, S., Meyerhoff, N., Twele, F., Zanghi, B., Volk, H.A. :
A six-month prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover, dietary trial design to investigate the potential of psychobiotics on seizure semiology and comorbidities in canine epilepsy: study protocol. BMC Vet Res 19:57, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36864510. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-023-03609-0.
von Rüden, E.L., Potschka, H., Tipold, A., Stein, V.M. :
The role of neuroinflammation in canine epilepsy. Vet J :106014, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37393038. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.106014.
2022 Belanger, J.M., Heinonen, T., Famula, T.R., Mandigers, P.J.J., Leegwater, P.A., Hytönen, M.K., Lohi, H., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Validation of a chromosome 14 risk haplotype for idiopathic epilepsy in the Belgian Shepherd Dog found to be associated with an insertion in the RAPGEF5 gene. Genes (Basel) 13:1124, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35885906. DOI: 10.3390/genes13071124.
Hamers, M.F.N., Plonek, M., Bhatti, S.F.M., Bergknut, N., Diaz Espineira, M.M., Santifort, K.M., Mandigers, P.J.J. :
Quality of life in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and their owners with an emphasis on breed-A pilot study. Front Vet Sci 9:1107315, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36713869. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2022.1107315.
Löscher, W. :
Dogs as a natural animal model of epilepsy. Front Vet Sci 9:928009, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35812852. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2022.928009.
Plonek, M., Diaz-Espineira, M.M., Stassen, Q.E.M., Santifort, K.M., Leegwater, P.A.J., Mandigers, P.J.J. :
Phenotypic characterization of idiopathic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown cause in Irish Setters. Front Vet Sci 9:1066094, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36578438. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2022.1066094.
Potschka, H., Bhatti, S.F.M., Tipold, A., McGrath, S. :
Cannabidiol in canine epilepsy. Vet J :105913, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36209995. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2022.105913.
2021 Deschain, T., Fabricius, J., Berendt, M., Fredholm, M., Karlskov-Mortensen, P. :
The first genome-wide association study concerning idiopathic epilepsy in Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen. Anim Genet 52:762-6, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34383319. DOI: 10.1111/age.13128.
Van Buren, S.L., Oberbauer, A.M., Minor, K.M., Belanger, J.M., Furrow, E. :
Association analysis of dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) variants with risk for seizures and aggression in Border Collies. Anim Genet 52:573-4, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34081804. DOI: 10.1111/age.13097.
2020 Belanger, J.M., Famula, T.R., Gershony, L.C., Palij, M.K., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Genome-wide association analysis of idiopathic epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd. Canine Genet Epidemiol 7:12, 2020. DOI:
Karlskov-Mortensen, P. :
Risk loci for idiopathic epilepsy in Belgian Shepherd dogs. Anim Genet , 2020. Pubmed reference: 33259081. DOI: 10.1111/age.13030.
2019 Van Meervenne, S., Volk, H.A., Verhoeven, P.S., Van Ham, L., O'Neill, D.G. :
Associations between neutering and idiopathic epilepsy in Labrador retrievers and Border collies under primary veterinary care in the UK. Vet J 252:105354, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31554590. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2019.105354.
Wang, S., Meng, X., Wang, Y., Liu, Y., Xia, J. :
HPO-Shuffle: an associated gene prioritization strategy and its application in drug repurposing for the treatment of canine epilepsy. Biosci Rep 39, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31427480. DOI: 10.1042/BSR20191247.
2018 Hartmann, A., von Klopmann, C., Lautenschläger, I.E., Scholz, V.B., Schmidt, M.J. :
Quantitative analysis of brain perfusion parameters in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy by use of magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Vet Res 79:433-442, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29583046. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.79.4.433.
2017 Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T.P., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders. Canine Genet Epidemiol 4:6, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28560045. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-017-0044-6.
2016 Hasegawa, D. :
Diagnostic techniques to detect the epileptogenic zone: Pathophysiological and presurgical analysis of epilepsy in dogs and cats. Vet J , 2016. Pubmed reference: 27052436. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2016.03.005.
Hayward, J.J., Castelhano, M.G., Oliveira, K.C., Corey, E., Balkman, C., Baxter, T.L., Casal, M.L., Center, S.A., Fang, M., Garrison, S.J., Kalla, S.E., Korniliev, P., Kotlikoff, M.I., Moise, N.S., Shannon, L.M., Simpson, K.W., Sutter, N.B., Todhunter, R.J., Boyko, A.R. :
Complex disease and phenotype mapping in the domestic dog. Nat Commun 7:10460, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26795439. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10460.
Kirkham, E. :
Study on epilepsy in the Italian spinone. Vet Rec 178:146, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26851106. DOI: 10.1136/vr.i689.
Packer, R.M., Shihab, N.K., Torres, B.B., Volk, H.A. :
Risk factors for cluster seizures in canine idiopathic epilepsy. Res Vet Sci 105:136-8, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27033922. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.02.005.
Packer, R.M., Law, T.H., Davies, E., Zanghi, B., Pan, Y., Volk, H.A. :
Effects of a ketogenic diet on ADHD-like behavior in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 55:62-8, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26773515. DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.11.014.
Packer, R.M., Lucas, R., Volk, H.A. :
Owner perception of focal seizures in canine epilepsy. Vet Rec , 2016. Pubmed reference: 27856943. DOI: 10.1136/vr.104099.
Uriarte, A., Maestro Saiz, I. :
Canine versus human epilepsy: are we up to date? J Small Anim Pract 57:115-21, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26931499. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12437.
2015 Heske, L., Körberg, I.B., Nødtvedt, A., Jäderlund, K.H. :
Clinical characteristics of epilepsy of unknown origin in the Rottweiler breed. Acta Vet Scand 57:75, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26546467. DOI: 10.1186/s13028-015-0168-1.
Koskinen, L.L., Seppälä, E.H., Belanger, J.M., Arumilli, M., Hakosalo, O., Jokinen, P., Nevalainen, E.M., Viitmaa, R., Jokinen, T.S., Oberbauer, A.M., Lohi, H. :
Identification of a common risk haplotype for canine idiopathic epilepsy in the ADAM23 gene. BMC Genomics 16:465, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26084559. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1651-9.
Oberbauer, A.M., Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R. :
Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401337. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0021-x.
Packer, R.M., Nye, G., Porter, S.E., Volk, H.A. :
Assessment into the usage of levetiracetam in a canine epilepsy clinic. BMC Vet Res 11:25, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25889090. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-015-0340-x.
Rusbridge, C., Long, S., Jovanovik, J., Milne, M., Berendt, M., Bhatti, S.F., De Risio, L., Farqhuar, R.G., Fischer, A., Matiasek, K., Muñana, K., Patterson, E.E., Pakozdy, A., Penderis, J., Platt, S., Podell, M., Potschka, H., Stein, V.M., Tipold, A., Volk, H.A. :
International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol. BMC Vet Res 11:194, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26319136. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-015-0466-x.
2014 Charalambous, M., Brodbelt, D., Volk, H.A. :
Treatment in canine epilepsy - a systematic review. BMC Vet Res 10:257, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25338624. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-014-0257-9.
Gindiciosi, B., Palus, V., Eminaga, S., Villiers, E., Bruto Cherubini, G. :
Serum bromide concentrations following loading dose in epileptic dogs. J Small Anim Pract , 2014. Pubmed reference: 24433448. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12173.
Heske, L., Berendt, M., Jäderlund, K.H., Egenvall, A., Nødtvedt, A. :
Validation of the diagnosis canine epilepsy in a Swedish animal insurance database against practice records. Prev Vet Med 114:145-50, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24680294. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.03.003.
Heske, L., Nødtvedt, A., Jäderlund, K.H., Berendt, M., Egenvall, A. :
A cohort study of epilepsy among 665,000 insured dogs: incidence, mortality and survival after diagnosis. Vet J 202:471-6, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25457266. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.09.023.
Howbert, J.J., Patterson, E.E., Stead, S.M., Brinkmann, B., Vasoli, V., Crepeau, D., Vite, C.H., Sturges, B., Ruedebusch, V., Mavoori, J., Leyde, K., Sheffield, W.D., Litt, B., Worrell, G.A. :
Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy. PLoS One 9:e81920, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24416133. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081920.
Viitmaa, R., Haaparanta-Solin, M., Snellman, M., Cizinauskas, S., Orro, T., Kuusela, E., Johansson, J., Viljanen, T., Jokinen, T.S., Bergamasco, L., Metsähonkala, L. :
Cerebral glucose utilization measured with high resolution positron emission tomography in epileptic Finnish Spitz dogs and healthy dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound , 2014. Pubmed reference: 24547764. DOI: 10.1111/vru.12147.
Wessmann, A., Volk, H.A., Parkin, T., Ortega, M., Anderson, T.J. :
Evaluation of quality of life in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. J Vet Intern Med 28:510-4, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24612035. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.12328.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Chai, O., Sommer, A., Zimmerman, G., Soreq, H., Friedman, A., Bdolah-Abram, T., Aroch, I., Shamir, M.H. :
Acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with seizures. Vet J , 2013. Pubmed reference: 23988333. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.06.027.
Coles, L.D., Patterson, E.E., Sheffield, W.D., Mavoori, J., Higgins, J., Michael, B., Leyde, K., Cloyd, J.C., Litt, B., Vite, C., Worrell, G.A. :
Feasibility study of a caregiver seizure alert system in canine epilepsy. Epilepsy Res , 2013. Pubmed reference: 23962794. DOI: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.06.007.
Creevy, K.E., Gagnepain, J.F., Platt, S.R., Edwards, G.L., Kent, M. :
Comparison of concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy with and without seizure-related magnetic resonance imaging hyperintense areas in the limbic system. Am J Vet Res 74:1118-25, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23879850. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.74.8.1118.
Ekenstedt, K.J., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Inherited epilepsy in dogs. Top Companion Anim Med 28:51-8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24070682. DOI: 10.1053/j.tcam.2013.07.001.
Gesell, F.K., Zoerner, A.A., Brauer, C., Engeli, S., Tsikas, D., Tipold, A. :
Alterations of endocannabinoids in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with epileptic seizure disorder. BMC Vet Res 9:262, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24370333. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-262.
Harcourt-Brown, T. :
Canine epilepsy: integrating research in practice. Vet Rec 172:336-7, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23539654. DOI: 10.1136/vr.f1979.
Jeffery, N.D. :
Canine epilepsy: In search of a fitting end. Vet J , 2013. Pubmed reference: 24440441. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.11.017.
Jokinen, T.S., Haaparanta-Solin, M., Viitmaa, R., Grönroos, T.J., Johansson, J., Bergamasco, L., Snellman, M., Metsähonkala, L. :
FDG-PET in healthy and epileptic Lagotto Romagnolo dogs and changes in brain glucose uptake with age. Vet Radiol Ultrasound , 2013. Pubmed reference: 24354474. DOI: 10.1111/vru.12129.
Kearsley-Fleet, L., O'Neill, D.G., Volk, H.A., Church, D.B., Brodbelt, D.C. :
Prevalence and risk factors for canine epilepsy of unknown origin in the UK. Vet Rec , 2013. Pubmed reference: 23300065. DOI: 10.1136/vr.101133.
Klang, A., Leschnik, M., Schmidt, P., Pakozdy, A. :
Bilateral Hippocampal Malformation and Concurrent Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis in a Dog with Refractory Epilepsy. J Comp Pathol , 2013. Pubmed reference: 24461687. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.11.212.
Löscher, W., Hoffmann, K., Twele, F., Potschka, H., Töllner, K. :
The novel antiepileptic drug imepitoin compares favourably to other GABA-mimetic drugs in a seizure threshold model in mice and dogs. Pharmacol Res , 2013. Pubmed reference: 24056205. DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2013.09.003.
Pivetta, M., De Risio, L., Newton, R., Dennis, R. :
Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Vet Radiol Ultrasound , 2013. Pubmed reference: 23782324. DOI: 10.1111/vru.12063.
Potschka, H., Fischer, A., von Rüden, E.L., Hülsmeyer, V., Baumgärtner, W. :
Canine epilepsy as a translational model? Epilepsia 54:571-9, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23506100. DOI: 10.1111/epi.12138.
Preston, S.M., Shihab, N., Volk, H.A. :
Public perception of epilepsy in dogs is more favorable than in humans. Epilepsy Behav 27:243-6, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23466251. DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.01.019.
Sakurai, M., Morita, T., Takeuchi, T., Shimada, A. :
Relationship of angiogenesis and microglial activation to seizure-induced neuronal death in the cerebral cortex of Shetland Sheepdogs with familial epilepsy. Am J Vet Res 74:763-70, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23627390. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.74.5.763.
Schwartz, M., Muñana, K.R., Nettifee-Osborne, J. :
Assessment of the prevalence and clinical features of cryptogenic epilepsy in dogs: 45 cases (2003-2011). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:651-7, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23402412. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.5.651.
Scorza, C.A., Calderazzo, L., Cavalheiro, E.A., Cysneiros, R.M., Scorza, F.A. :
Sudden unexpected death in dogs with epilepsy: Risks versus benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for man's best friend. Epilepsy Behav , 2013. Pubmed reference: 23619429. DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.02.021.
Viitmaa, R., Cizinauskas, S., Orro, T., Niilo-Rämä, M., Gordin, E., Lohi, H., Seppälä, E.H., Bragge, H., Snellman, M. :
Phenotype, inheritance characteristics, and risk factors for idiopathic epilepsy in Finnish Spitz dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 243:1001-9, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24050567. DOI: 10.2460/javma.243.7.1001.
Volk, H.A., Davies, E. :
Trial of a novel diet for epilepsy in dogs. Vet Rec 172:319-20, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23525817. DOI: 10.1136/vr.f1869.
2012 Akos, P., Thalhammer, J.G., Leschnik, M., Halász, P. :
Electroencephalographic examination of epileptic dogs under propofol restraint. Acta Vet Hung 60:309-24, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22903076. DOI: 10.1556/AVet.2012.026.
Arrol, L., Penderis, J., Garosi, L., Cripps, P., Gutierrez-Quintana, R., Gonçalves, R. :
Aetiology and long-term outcome of juvenile epilepsy in 136 dogs. Vet Rec 170:335, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22266685. DOI: 10.1136/vr.100316.
Borschensky, C.M., Woolley, J.S., Kipar, A., Herden, C. :
Neurogenesis in a young dog with epileptic seizures. Vet Pathol 49:766-70, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22194355. DOI: 10.1177/0300985811429308.
Ekenstedt, K.J., Patterson, E.E., Mickelson, J.R. :
Canine epilepsy genetics. Mamm Genome 23:28-39, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22037590. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-011-9362-2.
Gulløv, C.H., Toft, N., Berendt, M. :
A Longitudinal Study of Survival in Belgian Shepherds with Genetic Epilepsy. J Vet Intern Med , 2012. Pubmed reference: 22882455. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00977.x.
Monteiro, R., Adams, V., Keys, D., Platt, S.R. :
Canine idiopathic epilepsy: prevalence, risk factors and outcome associated with cluster seizures and status epilepticus. J Small Anim Pract 53:526-30, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22835069. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2012.01251.x.
Muñana, K.R., Nettifee-Osborne, J.A., Bergman, R.L., Mealey, K.L. :
Association between ABCB1 genotype and seizure outcome in Collies with epilepsy. J Vet Intern Med 26:1358-64, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22998209. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.01006.x.
Potschka, H. :
Animal models of drug-resistant epilepsy. Epileptic Disord 14:226-34, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22947487. DOI: 10.1684/epd.2012.0532.
Seppälä, E.H., Koskinen, L.L., Gulløv, C.H., Jokinen, P., Karlskov-Mortensen, P., Bergamasco, L., Baranowska Körberg, I., Cizinauskas, S., Oberbauer, A.M., Berendt, M., Fredholm, M., Lohi, H. :
Identification of a novel idiopathic epilepsy locus in Belgian Shepherd dogs. PLoS One 7:e33549, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22457775. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033549.
Stalin, K. :
Investigating epilepsy in dogs. Vet Rec 170:333-4, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22467822. DOI: 10.1136/vr.e2340.
2011 Alves, L., Hülsmeyer, V., Jaggy, A., Fischer, A., Leeb, T., Drögemüller, M. :
Polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene in phenobarbital responsive and resistant idiopathic epileptic Border Collies. J Vet Intern Med 25:484-9, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21488961. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0718.x.
Brauer, C., Kästner, S.B., Rohn, K., Schenk, H.C., Tünsmeyer, J., Tipold, A. :
Electroencephalographic recordings in dogs suffering from idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy: Diagnostic value of interictal short time EEG protocols supplemented by two activation techniques. Vet J , 2011. Pubmed reference: 22099183. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.10.006.
Browand-Stainback, L., Levesque, D., McBee, M. :
Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 47:324-8, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21852516. DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5591.
Ekenstedt, K.J., Patterson, E.E., Minor, K.M., Mickelson, J.R. :
Candidate genes for idiopathic epilepsy in four dog breeds. BMC Genet 12:38, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21518446. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-12-38.
Gulløv, C.H., Toft, N., Baadsager, M.M., Berendt, M. :
Epilepsy in the Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen: prevalence, semiology, and clinical phenotype. J Vet Intern Med 25:1372-8, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22092630. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00791.x.
Leppik, I.E., Patterson, E.N., Coles, L.D., Craft, E.M., Cloyd, J.C. :
Canine status epilepticus: A translational platform for human therapeutic trials. Epilepsia :31-4, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21967357. DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03231.x.
Matthews, H., Granger, N., Wood, J., Skelly, B. :
Effects of essential fatty acid supplementation in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy: A clinical trial. Vet J , 2011. Pubmed reference: 21641244.
Seppälä, E.H., Jokinen, T.S., Fukata, M., Fukata, Y., Webster, M.T., Karlsson, E.K., Kilpinen, S.K., Steffen, F., Dietschi, E., Leeb, T., Eklund, R., Zhao, X., Rilstone, J.J., Lindblad-Toh, K., Minassian, B.A., Lohi, H. :
LGI2 truncation causes a remitting focal epilepsy in dogs. PLoS Genet 7:e1002194, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21829378. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002194.
Short, A.D., Dunne, A., Lohi, H., Boulton, S., Carter, S.D., Timofte, D., Ollier, W.E. :
Characteristics of epileptic episodes in UK dog breeds: an epidemiological approach. Vet Rec 169:48, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21709047. DOI: 10.1136/vr.d1901.
Weissl, J., Hülsmeyer, V., Brauer, C., Tipold, A., Koskinen, L.L., Kyöstilä, K., Lohi, H., Sauter-Louis, C., Wolf, M., Fischer, A. :
Disease progression and treatment response of idiopathic epilepsy in Australian Shepherd dogs. J Vet Intern Med 26:116-25, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22182230. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00853.x.
2010 Hülsmeyer, V., Zimmermann, R., Brauer, C., Sauter-Louis, C., Fischer, A. :
Epilepsy in Border Collies: clinical manifestation, outcome, and mode of inheritance. J Vet Intern Med 24:171-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20391637.
Oberbauer, AM., Belanger, JM., Grossman, DI., Regan, KR., Famula, TR. :
Genome-wide linkage scan for loci associated with epilepsy in Belgian shepherd dogs. BMC Genet 11:35, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20441595. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-11-35.
Thomas, WB. :
Idiopathic epilepsy in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 40:161-79, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19942062. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2009.09.004.
2009 Berendt, M., Gulløv, C.H., Fredholm, M. :
Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd: evidence for simple Mendelian inheritance. J Small Anim Pract 50:655-61, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19954442. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00849.x.
Scorza, FA., Cavalheiro, EA., Arida, RM., Terra, VC., Scorza, CA., Ribeiro, MO., Cysneiros, RM. :
Positive impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in a dog with drug-resistant epilepsy: a case study. Epilepsy Behav 15:527-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19541544. DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.05.013.
Zimmermann, R., Hülsmeyer, V.I., Sauter-Louis, C., Fischer, A. :
Status epilepticus and epileptic seizures in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 23:970-6, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19737178. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0368.x.
2008 Berendt, M., Gulløv, C.H., Christensen, S.L., Gudmundsdottir, H., Gredal, H., Fredholm, M., Alban, L. :
Prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd variants Groenendael and Tervueren born in Denmark 1995-2004. Acta Vet Scand 50:51, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19102738. DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-51.
2007 Licht, BG., Lin, S., Luo, Y., Hyson, LL., Licht, MH., Harper, KM., Sullivan, SA., Fernandez, SA., Johnston, EV. :
Clinical characteristics and mode of inheritance of familial focal seizures in Standard Poodles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:1520-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18020993. DOI: 10.2460/javma.231.10.1520.
2006 Casal, ML., Munuve, RM., Janis, MA., Werner, P., Henthorn, PS. :
Epilepsy in Irish Wolfhounds. J Vet Intern Med 20:131-5, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16496932.
Chandler, K. :
Canine epilepsy: what can we learn from human seizure disorders? Vet J 172:207-17, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16154785. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.07.001.
Lass, P., Teodorczyk, J., Krzemiński, M. :
Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in an epileptic boxer dog. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur 9:81, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16791812.
2005 Govendir, M., Perkins, M., Malik, R. :
Improving seizure control in dogs with refractory epilepsy using gabapentin as an adjunctive agent. Aust Vet J 83:602-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16255282.
Patterson, E.E., Armstrong, P.J., O'Brien, D.P., Roberts, M.C., Johnson, G.S., Mickelson, J.R. :
Clinical description and mode of inheritance of idiopathic epilepsy in English springer spaniels. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:54-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15646572. DOI: 10.2460/javma.2005.226.54.
Volk, H., Chandler, K., Cappello, R., Cherubini, GB. :
Molecular basis of canine epilepsies. Vet Rec 157:752, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16326975.
2004 Berendt, M., Gredal, H., Alving, J. :
Characteristics and phenomenology of epileptic partial seizures in dogs: similarities with human seizure semiology. Epilepsy Res 61:167-73, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15451018. DOI: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2004.07.009.
Gaskill, CL., Hoffmann, WE., Cribb, AE. :
Serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme profiles in phenobarbital-treated epileptic dogs. Vet Clin Pathol 33:215-22, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15570558.
van Hagen, MA., Janss, LL., van den Broek, J., Knol, BW. :
The use of a genetic-counselling program by Dutch breeders for four hereditary health problems in boxer dogs. Prev Vet Med 63:39-50, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15099715. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.01.007.
2003 Oberbauer, AM., Grossman, DI., Irion, DN., Schaffer, AL., Eggleston, ML., Famula, TR. :
The genetics of epilepsy in the Belgian tervuren and sheepdog. J Hered 94:57-63, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12692163.
Patterson, E.E., Mickelson, J.R., Da, Y., Roberts, M.C., McVey, A.S., O'Brien, D.P., Johnson, G.S., Armstrong, P.J. :
Clinical characteristics and inheritance of idiopathic epilepsy in Vizslas Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17:319-25, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12774973.
2002 Buckmaster, P.S., Smith, M.O., Buckmaster, C.L., LeCouteur, R.A., Dudek, F.E. :
Absence of temporal lobe epilepsy pathology in dogs with medically intractable epilepsy Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 16:95-99, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11822812.
Dunnett, M., Littleford, A., Lees, P. :
Phenobarbitone concentrations in the hair, saliva and plasma of eight epileptic dogs Veterinary Record 150:718-724, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12081307.
Hasegawa, D., Fujita, M., Nakamura, S., Takahashi, K., Orima, H. :
Electrocorticographic and histological findings in a Shetland sheepdog with intractable epilepsy Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 64:277-279, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11999451.
Morita, T., Shimada, A., Takeuchi, T., Hikasa, Y., Sawada, M., Ohiwa, S., Takahashi, M., Kubo, N., Shibahara, T., Miyata, H., Ohama, E. :
Cliniconeuropathologic findings of familial frontal lobe epilepsy in Shetland sheepdogs Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire 66:35-41, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11858647.
Munana, K.R., Vitek, S.M., Tarver, W.B., Saito, M., Skeen, T.M., Sharp, N.J.H., Olby, N.J., Haglund, M.M. :
Use of vagal nerve stimulation as a treatment for refractory epilepsy in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221:977-983, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12369700.
2000 Anon. :
Effect of timing of blood collection on serum phenobarbital concentrations in dogs with epilepsy (vol 217, pg 200, 2000) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217:508, 2000.
Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Segregation analysis of epilepsy in the Belgian tervueren dog Veterinary Record 147:218-221, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10994924.
Gaskill, C.L., Cribb, A.E. :
Pancreatitis associated with potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy in epileptic dogs Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 41:555-558, 2000.
Thomas, W.B. :
Idiopathic epilepsy in dogs Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 30:183-206, 2000.
1999 Berendt, M., Hogenhaven, H., Flagstad, A., Dam, M. :
Electroencephalography in dogs with epilepsy: similarities between human and canine findings Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 99:276-283, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10348156.
Berendt, M., Gram, L. :
Epilepsy and seizure classification in 63 dogs: A reappraisal of veterinary epilepsy terminology Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 13:14-20, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10052058.
Dowling, P.M. :
Update on therapy of canine epilepsy Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 40:595-598, 1999.
Hall, S.J.G. :
Canine idiopathic epilepsy Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:192, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10340251.
Hilsenroth, R. :
Pharmacological-control of canine epilepsy Canine Practice 24:24, 1999.
Jaggy, A. :
Canine idiopathic epilepsy - Response Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:192, 1999.
Kantrowitz, L.B., Peterson, M.E., Trepanier, L.A., Melian, C., Nichols, R. :
Serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyrotropin concentrations in epileptic dogs treated with anticonvulsants Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214:1804-1808, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10382022.
Kathmann, I., Jaggy, A., Busato, A., Bartschi, M., Gaillard, C. :
Clinical and genetic investigations of idiopathic epilepsy in the Bernese mountain dog Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:319-325, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10444751.
Lord, L.K., Podell, M. :
Owner perception of the care of long-term phenobarbital-treated epileptic dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:11-15, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10092036.
Podell, M., Hadjiconstantinou, M. :
Low concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid GABA correlate to a reduced response to phenobarbital therapy in primary canine epilepsy Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 13:89-94, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10225597.
Rambeck, B., May, T.W., Jurgens, U., Schwartz-Porsche, D. :
Concentrations of phenobarbital in epileptic dogs on phenobarbital or primidone therapy [German] Kleintierpraxis 44:345-+, 1999.
Vaughan-Scott, T., Taylor, J.H. :
Drug choice and therapeutic drug monitoring in the management of canine primary epilepsy Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 70:172-176, 1999.
1998 Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Reducing the incidence of epileptic seizures in the Belgian Tervuren through selection Preventive Veterinary Medicine 33:251-259, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9500179.
Gyula, K. :
Idiopathic epilepsy in 125 dogs - a long-term study - clinical and electroencephalic findings - additions - remarks [Hungarian] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 120:270-272, 1998.
Jaggy, A., Bernardini, M. :
Idiopathic epilepsy in 125 dogs - a long-term study - clinical and electroencephalographic findings Journal of Small Animal Practice 39:23-29, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9494931.
Jaggy, A., Bernardini, M. :
Idiopathic epilepsy in 125 dogs - a long-term study - clinical and electroencephalic findings [Hungarian] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 120:268-270, 1998.
Jaggy, A., Faissler, D., Gaillard, C., Srenk, P., Graber, H. :
Genetic aspects of idiopathic epilepsy in labrador retrievers Journal of Small Animal Practice 39:275-280, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9673903.
1997 Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M., Brown, K.N. :
Heritability of epileptic seizures in the Belgian Tervueren Journal of Small Animal Practice 38:349-352, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9282341.
Heynold, Y., Faissler, D., Steffen, F., Jaggy, A. :
Clinical, epidemiological and treatment results of idiopathic epilepsy in 54 Labrador retrievers - a long-term study Journal of Small Animal Practice 38:7-14, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9121134.
Obrien, D.P., Simpson, S.T., Longshore, R.C., Kroll, R.A., Goetze, L. :
Nimodipine for treatment of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210:1298-1301, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9143533.
Podell, M., Hadjiconstantinou, M. :
Cerebrospinal fluid gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate values in dogs with epilepsy American Journal of Veterinary Research 58:451-456, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9140549.
1996 Boothe, D.M., Simpson, G., Foster, T. :
Effects of serum separation tubes on serum benzodiazepine and phenobarbital concentrations in clinically normal and epileptic dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 57:1299-1303, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8874722.
Hall, S.J.G., Wallace, M.E. :
Canine epilepsy - a genetic counselling programme for Keeshonds Veterinary Record 138:358-360, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8737262.
Jaggy, A., Heynold, Y. :
Idiopathic epilepsy in the dog [German] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 138:523-531, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9026909.
Srenk, P., Jaggy, A. :
Interictal electroencephalographic findings in a family of golden retrievers with idiopathic epilepsy Journal of Small Animal Practice 37:317-321, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8840251.
1995 Chauvet, A.E., Feldman, E.C., Kass, P.H. :
Effects of phenobarbital administration on results of serum biochemical analyses and adrenocortical function tests in epileptic dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207:1305 ff., 1995.
Steffen, F., Jaggy, A. :
Seizures in dogs .3. Intracerebral causes, idiopathic epilepsy Praktische Tierarzt 76:304, 1995.
1993 Herkes, G.K., Eadie, M.J., Sharbrough, F., Moyer, T. :
Patterns of seizure occurrence in catamenial epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 15:47-52, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8325277.
Shell, L.G., Dyer, K.R., Parent, J.M., Steinberg, S.H. :
How Do I Treat - Maintenance Anticonvulsant Therapy for Idiopathic Epilepsy in Dogs Progress in Veterinary Neurology 4:143-144, 1993.
1988 Cunningham, J.G., Farnbach, G.C. :
Inheritance and idiopathic canine epilepsy Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 24:421-424, 1988.
1974 Falco, M.J., Barker, J., Wallace, M.E. :
The genetics of epilepsy in the British Alsatian Journal of Small Animal Practice 15:685-692, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4449202.
1971 Bielfelt, S.W., Redman, R.D., McClellon, R.D. :
Sire-sex related differences in rates of epileptiform seizures in a purebred Beagle dog colony American Journal of Veterinary Research 32:2039-2049, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5131425.
Lawler, D.C. :
Epilepsy in dogs New Zealand Veterinary Journal 19:53 only, 1971.
1965 Croft, P.G. :
Fits in dogs: a survey of 260 cases Veterinary Record 77:438-445, 1965. Pubmed reference: 14331408.
1962 Croft, P.G. :
The EEG as an aid to diagnosis of nervous disease in the dog and cat Journal of Small Animal Practice 3:205-213, 1962.
1959 Eberhart, G.W. :
Epilepsy in the dog Proceedings of the Ninth Gaines Veterinary Symposium, Kankakee :18-20, 1959.
1951 Eberhart, G.W. :
Epilepsy in the dog Proceedings of the First Gaines Veterinary Symposium :20, 1951.

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