OMIA:000374-57662 : Feather colour, extended black in Sula sula (red-footed booby)

In other species: Mallard , Coscoroba swan , black swan , rock pigeon , helmeted guineafowl , chicken , king penguin , Arctic skua , pomarine skua , brown booby , zebra finch , Lesser snow goose , Bananaquit , gyrfalcon , ruff , Chestnut-bellied monarch , Eleonora's falcon

Categories: Pigmentation phene

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s)s (MIM numbers): 266300 (trait) , 155555 (gene)

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2007

Species-specific description: Baião et al. (2007): "The red-footed booby (Sula sula) is considered one of the most polymorphic seabirds, with 3 recognized major adult plumage types: 1) white, 2) white-tailed brown, and 3) brown and several degrees of intermediates."

Molecular basis: Baião et al. (2007): "the white/melanic polymorphism observed in this species is perfectly associated with 2 point substitutions, Val85Met and His207Arg, at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene. . . . All the white morph red-footed boobies sampled (N = 47) were homozygous for the Val85 and the His207 alleles, whereas all the melanic birds (brown, white-tailed brown, and intermediates) sampled (N = 84) were homozygous or heterozygous for the Met85 and Arg207 alleles. . . . Furthermore, the Val85Met point substitution has been previously shown to be associated with melanic phenotypes in the lesser snow goose (Anser c. caerulescens), suggesting parallel evolution of the melanic allele, and hence, melanism, between these 2 distantly related species. We also compared the MC1R locus in red-footed boobies with a nonpolymorphic congener, the Nazca booby (Sula granti), in which all adults are white. We found that Nazca boobies present the same genotype at sites 85 and 207 [namely 85Val and 207His] as white morph red-footed boobies."

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
MC1R Sula sula - no genomic information (-..-) MC1R Ensembl


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Inferred EVA rsID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
1100 White plumage MC1R haplotype Naturally occurring variant p.(M85V) + p.(R207H) 2007 17602182

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2019). OMIA:000374-57662: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2012 Baião, P.C., Parker, P.G. :
Evolution of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) in Boobies and Gannets (Aves, Suliformes). J Hered 103:322-9, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22351934. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esr151.
2007 Baião, P.C., Schreiber, E., Parker, P.G. :
The genetic basis of the plumage polymorphism in red-footed boobies (Sula sula): a melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) analysis. J Hered 98:287-92, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17602182. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esm030.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 24 Jan 2008
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 12 Oct 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 12 Dec 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 22 Mar 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 13 Sep 2019