OMIA:000748-9615 : Osteochondritis dissecans in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: horse , snow leopard

Categories: Skeleton phene (incl. short stature & teeth)

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Cross-species summary: "A joint disorder caused by blood deprivation in the subchondral bone causing the subchondral bone to die in a process called avascular necrosis. The bone is then reabsorbed by the body, leaving the articular cartilage it supported prone to damage. The result is fragmentation (dissection) of both cartilage and bone, and the free movement of these osteochondral fragments within the joint space, causing pain and further damage" [HPO:0010886] Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is sometimes called osteochondrosis dissecans and is a more severe form of Osteochondrosis (OC) - see OMIA000750.

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Clinical features: Clinical features of OCD include lameness, lameness worsened during exercise, stiffness and pain in affected joints, decreased activity levels, loss of muscle mass in affected limbs, and possible crepitus (Everts et al., 2000; van der Peijl et al. 2012; Biezyński et al., 2012; Wall et al., 2014; Murphy et al., 2019; Vezzoni and Benjamino, 2021). [IT thanks DVM student Ashley Turi, who provided the basis of this contribution in April 2022]

Pathology: Pathological features of OCD that can be diagnosed via X-ray include bone loss, fragmented and calcified cartilage (joint mice), ossified cartilage flaps, widening of the articular space, visible osteophytes, and possible osteoarthritis (van der Peijl et al. 2012; Biezyński et al., 2012; Wall et al., 2014; Vezzoni and Benjamino, 2021). [IT thanks DVM student Ashley Turi, who provided the basis of this contribution in April 2022]

Breeds: Australian Cattle Dog (Dog) (VBO_0200088), Bernese Mountain Dog (Dog) (VBO_0200161), Border Collie (Dog) (VBO_0200193), Bull Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0200255), Cocker Spaniel (Dog) (VBO_0200372), Dogue de Bordeaux (Dog) (VBO_0200450), German Shorthaired Pointer (Dog) (VBO_0200583), Golden Retriever (Dog) (VBO_0200610), Great Dane (Dog) (VBO_0200623), Great Pyrenees (Dog) (VBO_0200629), Irish Setter (Dog) (VBO_0200702), Irish Wolfhound (Dog) (VBO_0200706), Kuvasz (Dog) (VBO_0200793), Labrador Retriever (Dog) (VBO_0200800), Newfoundland (Dog) (VBO_0200938), Old English Sheepdog (Dog) (VBO_0200969), Rottweiler (Dog) (VBO_0201143), Saint Bernard (Dog) (VBO_0201160), Tibetan Mastiff (Dog) (VBO_0201351), Vizsla (Dog) (VBO_0201389).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. For breeds in which a likely causal variant has been documented, see the variant table below

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2022). OMIA:000748-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2021 Vezzoni, A., Benjamino, K. :
Canine elbow dysplasia: Ununited anconeal process, osteochondritis dissecans, and medial coronoid process disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 51:439-474, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33558015. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2020.12.007.
2019 Murphy, S.C., Egan, P.M., Fitzpatrick, N.M. :
Synthetic osteochondral resurfacing for treatment of large caudocentral osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the humeral head in 24 dogs. Vet Surg 48:858-868, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31115058. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.13233.
2014 Wall, C.R., Cook, C.R., Cook, J.L. :
Diagnostic sensitivity of radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 56:3-11, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24844132. DOI: 10.1111/vru.12179.
2012 Biezyński, J., Skrzypczak, P., Piatek, A., Kościółek, N., Drozdzyńska, M. :
Assessment of treatment of Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of shoulder joint in dogs--the results of two years of experience. Pol J Vet Sci 15:285-90, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22844706.
van der Peijl, G.J., Schaeffer, I.G., Theyse, L.F., Dijkshoorn, N.A., Schwencke, M., Hazewinkel, H.A. :
Osteochondrosis dissecans of the tarsus in Labrador Retrievers: clinical signs, radiological data and force plate gait evaluation after surgical treatment. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 25:126-34, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22366924. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-11-03-0046.
2011 Brunnberg, M.M., Engelke, E., Gielen, I.M., van Bree, H.J., Hoffmann, J.E., Brunnberg, L., Waibl, H.R. :
Cartilage thickness of the trochlea of the talus, with emphasis on sites predisposed to osteochondrosis dissecans, in clinically normal juvenile and adult dogs. Am J Vet Res 72:1318-24, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21962273. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.72.10.1318.
Fitzpatrick, N., Yeadon, R., van Terheijden, C., Smith, T.J. :
Osteochondral autograft transfer for the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the medial femoral condyle in dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 25, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22105206. DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-10-09-0134.
2010 Hartmann, P., Stock, KF., Distl, O. :
[Multivariate genetic analysis of canine hip and elbow dysplasia as well as humeral osteochondrosis in the Bernese mountain dog]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 123:488-95, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21141279.
2006 Samoy, Y., Van Ryssen, B., Gielen, I., Walschot, N., Van Bree, H. :
Review of the literature: elbow incongruity in the dog. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 19:1-8, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16594537.
2000 Everts, R.E., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Rothuizen, J., van, Oost, B.A. :
Bone disorders in the dog: A review of modern genetic strategies to find the underlying causes [Review] Veterinary Quarterly 22:63-70, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10789512.
Horst, C., Brunnberg, L. :
Osteochondrosis dissecans in the dog - Therapeutic results of a retrospective study (1993-1998) considering the age of the patient, the duration of lameness and the pre- and postoperative clinical and radiographically findings [German] Kleintierpraxis 45:573-+, 2000.
Lehmann, K., Nell, B., Hittmair, K. :
The use of arthroscopy in a dog with osteochondrosis dissecans of the medial trochlear ridge of the talus [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 87:322-327, 2000.
Sams, A.E. :
Canine elbow joint arthroscopy: Introduction and description of technique Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 22:135-+, 2000.
1999 Charlton, A., Jann, H., Henry, G. :
What is your diagnosis? Radiographic diagnosis - Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215:191-192, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10416469.
Morgan, J.P., Wind, A., Davidson, A.P. :
Bone dysplasias in the Labrador retriever: A radiographic study Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 35:332-340, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10416779.
1998 Johnston, S.A. :
Osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral head. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 28:33 ff., 1998.
1997 Bertrand, S.G., Lewis, D.D., Madison, J.B., Dehaan, J.H., Stubbs, W.P., Stallings, J.T. :
Arthroscopic examination and treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle of six dogs Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 33:451-455, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9278122.
1996 Weiss, S., Loeffler, K. :
A histological examination about cartilage channels in the epiphyseal cartilage of young dogs and their relationship to the localisations, that are generally affected by osteochondrosis dissecans [German] Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 103:164-169, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8964237.
1995 Beaver, D.P., Hooper, C., Nicoll, R.G., Johnson, K.A. :
Mineralized osteochondritis dissecans cartilage flap mimicking supraspinatus tendon mineralization Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 8:200-202, 1995.
Bouck, G.R., Miller, C.W., Taves, C.L. :
A comparison of surgical and medical treatment of fragmented coronoid process and osteochondritis dissecans of the canine elbow Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 8:177-183, 1995.
Padgett, G.A., Mostosky, U.V., Probst, C.W., Thomas, M.W., Krecke, C.F. :
The inheritance of osteochondritis dissecans and fragmented coronoid process of the elbow joint in Labrador retrievers Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 31:327-330, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7552666.
1994 Montgomery, R.D., Hathcock, J.T., Milton, J.L., Fitch, R.B. :
Osteochondritis dissecans of the canine tarsal joint. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 16:835, 1994.
1993 Fox, S.M., Walker, A.M. :
The diagnostic procedures and therapy for OCD of the hindlimbs. Veterinary Medicine 88:147-153, 1993.
Fox, S.M., Walker, A.M. :
OCD of the humeral head - Its diagnosis and treatment. Veterinary Medicine 88:123, 1993.
Meutstege, F.J., Hazewinkel, H.A.W. :
Therapeutic approaches to osteochondritis dissecans and fragmented coronoid process. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 118:551-553, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8378920.
van Ryssen, B., van Bree, H., Missinne, S. :
Successful arthroscopic treatment of shoulder osteochondrosis in the dog. Journal of Small Animal Practice 34:521-528, 1993. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.1993.tb03529.x.
1991 Renton, C.P. :
Osteochondritis dissecans in Labradors. Veterinary Record 128:192, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2031301.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 02 Jun 2022