OMIA:000750-9796 : Osteochondrosis in Equus caballus

In other species: dog , pig , chicken , sheep , deer , taurine cattle , raccoon dog , domestic cat

Categories: Skeleton phene (incl. short stature & teeth)

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s)s (MIM numbers): 181440 (trait) , 188700 (trait) , 259200 (trait)

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Cross-species summary: Abnormal growth ossification centers in young, growing animals. Initially a degeneration/ necrosis followed by regeneration or recalcification. Osteochondrosis (OC) lesions that result is bone or cartilage fragments are called osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) - see OMIA000748.

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2022). OMIA:000750-9796: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Van Cauter, R., Serteyn, D., Lejeune, J.P., Rousset, A., Caudron, I. :
Evaluation of the appearance of osteochondrosis lesions by two radiographic examinations in sport horses aged from 12 to 36 months. PLoS One 18:e0286213, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37220101 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0286213.
2022 Drabbe, A., Janssens, S., Blott, S., Ducro, B.J., Fontanel, M., Franҫois, L., Schurink, A., Stinckens, A., Lindgren, G., Van Mol, B., Pille, F., Buys, N., Velie, B.D. :
Genome-wide association analyses of osteochondrosis in Belgian Warmbloods reveal candidate genes associated with chondrocyte development. J Equine Vet Sci 111:103870, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35074400 . DOI: 10.1016/j.jevs.2022.103870.
Hoey, S., Stokes, D., McAllister, H., Puggioni, A., Skelly, C. :
A systematic review evaluating the use of ultrasound in the identification of osteochondrosis in horses. Vet J 282:105825, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35381440 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2022.105825.
2021 Pye, J., Spriet, M., Dow, P., Katzman, S., Murphy, B.G. :
Osteochondral necrosis of the femoral condyles in Thoroughbred foals: eight cases (2008-2018). J Am Vet Med Assoc :1-9, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34968182 . DOI: 10.2460/javma.21.03.0166.
2019 McCoy, A.M., Norton, E.M., Kemper, A.M., Beeson, S.K., Mickelson, J.R., McCue, M.E. :
SNP-based heritability and genetic architecture of tarsal osteochondrosis in North American Standardbred horses. Anim Genet 50:78-81, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30353927 . DOI: 10.1111/age.12738.
2018 Lewczuk, D., Bereznowski, A., Hecold, M., Frąszczak, M., Ruść, A., Korwin-Kossakowska, A., Szyda, J., Kamiński, S. :
Differences between horse selection based on two forms of osteochondrosis in fetlock. J Appl Genet 59:225-230, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29524049 . DOI: 10.1007/s13353-018-0437-6.
Naccache, F., Metzger, J., Distl, O. :
Genetic risk factors for osteochondrosis in various horse breeds. Equine Vet J :, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29498750 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12824.
van Weeren, R. :
Fifty years of osteochondrosis. Equine Vet J :, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29956851 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12821.
Wypchło, M., Korwin-Kossakowska, A., Bereznowski, A., Hecold, M., Lewczuk, D., Wypchło, M., Korwin-Kossakowska, A., Bereznowski, A., Hecold, M., Lewczuk, D. :
Polymorphisms in selected genes and analysis of their relationship with osteochondrosis in Polish sport horse breeds. Anim Genet 49:623-627, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30152531 . DOI: 10.1111/age.12715.
2017 Lauper, M., Gerber, V., Ramseyer, A., Burger, D., Lüth, A., Koch, C., Dolf, G. :
Heritabilities of health traits in Swiss Warmblood horses. Equine Vet J 49:15-18, 2017. Pubmed reference: 26538098 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12537.
Russell, J., Matika, O., Russell, T., Reardon, R.J. :
Heritability and prevalence of selected osteochondrosis lesions in yearling Thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J 49:282-287, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27448988 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12613.
van Grevenhof, E.M., Gezelle Meerburg, A.R.D., van Dierendonck, M.C., van den Belt, A.J.M., van Schaik, B., Meeus, P., Back, W. :
Quantitative and qualitative aspects of standing-up behavior and the prevalence of osteochondrosis in Warmblood foals on different farms: could there be a link? BMC Vet Res 13:324, 2017. Pubmed reference: 29121926 . DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1241-y.
2016 Bani Hassan, E., Mirams, M., Ghasem-Zadeh, A., Mackie, E.J., Whitton, R.C. :
Role of subchondral bone remodelling in collapse of the articular surface of Thoroughbred racehorses with palmar osteochondral disease. Equine Vet J 48:228-33, 2016. Pubmed reference: 25582246 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12415.
Gorissen, B.M., Wolschrijn, C.F., Serra Bragança, F.M., Geerts, A.A., Leenders, W.O., Back, W., van Weeren, P.R. :
The development of locomotor kinetics in the foal and the effect of osteochondrosis. Equine Vet J :, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27859501 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12649.
Martel, G., Couture, C.A., Gilbert, G., Bancelin, S., Richard, H., Moser, T., Kiss, S., Légaré, F., Laverty, S. :
Femoral epiphyseal cartilage matrix changes at predilection sites of equine osteochondrosis: Quantitative MRI, second-harmonic microscopy, and histological findings. J Orthop Res 34:1743-1752, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27734566 . DOI: 10.1002/jor.23176.
McCoy, A.M., Beeson, S.K., Splan, R.K., Lykkjen, S., Ralston, S.L., Mickelson, J.R., McCue, M.E. :
Identification and validation of risk loci for osteochondrosis in standardbreds. BMC Genomics 17:41, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26753841 . DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-2385-z.
Mendoza, L., Lejeune, J.P., Caudron, I., Detilleux, J., Sandersen, C., Deliège, B., Serteyn, D. :
Impact of feeding and housing on the development of osteochondrosis in foals-A longitudinal study. Prev Vet Med 127:10-4, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27094134 . DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.03.003.
Sevane, N., Dunner, S., Boado, A., Cañon, J. :
Candidate gene analysis of osteochondrosis in Spanish Purebred horses. Anim Genet :, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27422688 . DOI: 10.1111/age.12453.
Wong, D.M., Gilmour, L., Alcott, C., Yaeger, M., Wiechert, S. :
What Is Your Diagnosis? Osteochondrotic lesions. J Am Vet Med Assoc 248:55-7, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26684090 . DOI: 10.2460/javma.248.1.55.
2014 Carmalt, J.L., Borg, H., Näslund, H., Waldner, C. :
Racing performance of Swedish Standardbred trotting horses with proximal palmar/plantar first phalangeal (Birkeland) fragments compared to fragment free controls. Vet J :, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25163613 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.07.017.
Desjardin, C., Vaiman, A., Mata, X., Legendre, R., Laubier, J., Kennedy, S.P., Laloe, D., Barrey, E., Jacques, C., Cribiu, E.P., Schibler, L. :
Next-generation sequencing identifies equine cartilage and subchondral bone miRNAs and suggests their involvement in osteochondrosis physiopathology. BMC Genomics 15:798, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25227120 . DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-798.
Hilla, D., Distl, O. :
Heritabilities and genetic correlations between fetlock, hock and stifle osteochondrosis and fetlock osteochondral fragments in Hanoverian Warmblood horses. J Anim Breed Genet 131:71-81, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24236645 . DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12062.
Ley, C.J., Ekman, S., Hansson, K., Björnsdóttir, S., Boyde, A. :
Osteochondral lesions in distal tarsal joints of Icelandic horses reveal strong associations between hyaline and calcified cartilage abnormalities. Eur Cell Mater 27:213-36; discussion 234-6, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24668595 .
2013 Cuddeford, D., Handel, I., Thrusfield, M. :
Osteochondrosis in foals. Vet Rec 172:455-6, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23625248 . DOI: 10.1136/vr.f2578.
Denoix, J.M., Jacquet, S., Lepeule, J., Crevier-Denoix, N., Valette, J.P., Robert, C. :
Radiographic findings of juvenile osteochondral conditions detected in 392 foals using a field radiographic protocol. Vet J 197:44-51, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23643868 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.040.
Denoix, J.M., Jeffcott, L.B., McIlwraith, C.W., van Weeren, P.R. :
A review of terminology for equine juvenile osteochondral conditions (JOCC) based on anatomical and functional considerations. Vet J 197:29-35, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683533 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.038.
Distl, O. :
The genetics of equine osteochondrosis. Vet J 197:13-8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23809989 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.036.
Fontaine, P., Blond, L., Alexander, K., Beauchamp, G., Richard, H., Laverty, S. :
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the study of joint development in the equine pelvic limb. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23688440 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.049.
Jackson, M.A., Vizard, A.L., Anderson, G.A., Mattoon, J.S., Lavelle, R.B., Smithenson, B.T., Lester, N.V., Clarke, A.F., Whitton, R.C. :
An assessment of intra- and inter-observer agreement of reporting orthopaedic findings on pre-sale radiographs of Thoroughbred yearlings. Equine Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23889034 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12150.
Jacquet, S., Robert, C., Valette, J.P., Denoix, J.M. :
Evolution of radiological findings detected in the limbs of 321 young horses between the ages of 6 and 18months. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23660154 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.042.
Jeffcott, L. :
Juvenile osteochondral conditions in the horse: A Special Issue. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23664073 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.034.
Laverty, S., Girard, C. :
Pathogenesis of epiphyseal osteochondrosis. Vet J 197:3-12, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23647656 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.035.
Lepeule, J., Robert, C., Bareille, N., Valette, J.P., Jacquet, S., Seegers, H., Denoix, J.M. :
A reliable severity scoring system for radiographic findings in the limbs of young horses. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23672814 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.041.
Lepeule, J., Bareille, N., Robert, C., Valette, J.P., Jacquet, S., Blanchard, G., Denoix, J.M., Seegers, H. :
Association of growth, feeding practices and exercise conditions with the severity of the osteoarticular status of limbs in French foals. Vet J 197:65-71, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23664071 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.043.
Lykkjen, S., Olsen, H.F., Dolvik, N.I., Grøndahl, A.M., Røed, K.H., Klemetsdal, G. :
Heritability estimates of tarsocrural osteochondrosis and palmar/plantar first phalanx osteochondral fragments in Standardbred trotters. Equine Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23448227 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12058.
Lykkjen, S., Dolvik, N.I., McCue, M.E., Rendahl, A.K., Mickelson, J.R., Røed, K.H. :
Equine developmental orthopaedic diseases - a genome-wide association study of first phalanx plantar osteochondral fragments in Standardbred trotters. Anim Genet :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23742657 . DOI: 10.1111/age.12064.
McCoy, A.M., Toth, F., Dolvik, N.I., Ekman, S., Ellermann, J., Olstad, K., Ytrehus, B., Carlson, C.S. :
Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease. Osteoarthritis Cartilage :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23954774 . DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.08.011.
McIlwraith, C.W. :
Surgical versus conservative management of osteochondrosis. Vet J 197:19-28, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23746868 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.037.
Pinchbeck, G.L., Clegg, P.D., Boyde, A., Riggs, C.M. :
Pathological and clinical features associated with palmar/plantar osteochondral disease of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint in Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Vet J 45:587-92, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23418959 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12036.
Praud, A., Dufour, B., Robert, C., Valette, J.P., Denoix, J.M., Crevier-Denoix, N. :
Effects of management practices as risk factors for juvenile osteochondral conditions in 259 French yearlings. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23642463 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.044.
Ricard, A., Perrocheau, M., Couroucé-Malblanc, A., Valette, J.P., Tourtoulou, G., Dufosset, J.M., Robert, C., Chaffaux, S., Denoix, J.M., Guérin, G. :
Genetic parameters of juvenile osteochondral conditions (JOCC) in French Trotters. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23639370 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.045.
Robert, C. :
Further evidence for better prevention of equine osteochondrosis. Vet Rec 172:66-7, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23335686 . DOI: 10.1136/vr.f310.
Robert, C., Valette, J.P., Jacquet, S., Lepeule, J., Denoix, J.M. :
Study design for the investigation of likely aetiological factors of juvenile osteochondral conditions (JOCC) in foals and yearlings. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23642464 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.039.
Robert, C., Valette, J.P., Jacquet, S., Denoix, J.M. :
Influence of juvenile osteochondral conditions on racing performance in Thoroughbreds born in Normandy. Vet J 197:83-9, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23639369 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.046.
Sandersen, C., Vander Heyden, L., Detilleux, J., Lejeune, J.P., Serteyn, D. :
Osteochondrosis in foals. Vet Rec 172:456-7, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23625250 . DOI: 10.1136/vr.f2579.
van Weeren, P.R., Denoix, J.M. :
The Normandy field study on juvenile osteochondral conditions: Conclusions regarding the influence of genetics, environmental conditions and management, and the effect on performance. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23639367 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.047.
van Weeren, P.R., Jeffcott, L.B. :
Problems and pointers in osteochondrosis: Twenty years on. Vet J :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23639371 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.048.
Zabek, T., Golonka, P., Fornal, A., Semik, E. :
IHH gene polymorphism among three horse breeds and its application for association test in horses with osteochondrosis. Hereditas 150:38-43, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23865964 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5223.2013.02282.x.
2012 Baccarin, R.Y., Pereira, M.A., Roncati, N.V., Bergamaschi, R.R., Hagen, S.C. :
Development of osteochondrosis in Lusitano foals: a radiographic study. Can Vet J 53:1079-84, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23543926 .
Beccati, F., Chalmers, H.J., Dante, S., Lotto, E., Pepe, M. :
Diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of radiography and ultrasonography for detecting trochlear ridge osteochondrosis lesions in the equine stifle. Vet Radiol Ultrasound :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23278908 . DOI: 10.1111/vru.12004.
Chiaradia, E., Pepe, M., Tartaglia, M., Scoppetta, F., D'Ambrosio, C., Renzone, G., Avellini, L., Moriconi, F., Gaiti, A., Bertuglia, A., Beccati, F., Scaloni, A. :
Gambling on putative biomarkers of osteoarthritis and osteochondrosis by equine synovial fluid proteomics. J Proteomics :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22361695 . DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2012.02.008.
Corbin, L.J., Blott, S.C., Swinburne, J.E., Sibbons, C., Fox-Clipsham, L.Y., Helwegen, M., Parkin, T.D., Newton, J.R., Bramlage, L.R., McIlwraith, C.W., Bishop, S.C., Woolliams, J.A., Vaudin, M. :
A genome-wide association study of osteochondritis dissecans in the Thoroughbred. Mamm Genome 23:294-303, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22052004 . DOI: 10.1007/s00335-011-9363-1.
Lykkjen, S., Roed, K.H., Dolvik, N.I. :
Osteochondrosis and osteochondral fragments in Standardbred trotters: Prevalence and relationships. Equine Vet J 44:332-338, 2012. Pubmed reference: 21895752 . DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00434.x.
Machado, T.S., Correia da Silva, L.C., Baccarin, R.Y., Michelacci, Y.M. :
Synovial fluid chondroitin sulphate indicates abnormal joint metabolism in asymptomatic osteochondritic horses. Equine Vet J :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22256903 . DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00539.x.
Orr, N., Hill, E.W., Gu, J., Govindarajan, P., Conroy, J., van Grevenhof, E.M., Ducro, B.J., van Arendonk, J.A., Knaap, J.H., van Weeren, P.R., Machugh, D.E., Ennis, S., Brama, P.A. :
Genome-wide association study of osteochondrosis in the tarsocrural joint of Dutch Warmblood horses identifies susceptibility loci on chromosomes 3 and 10. Anim Genet :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23278111 . DOI: 10.1111/age.12016.
Riddick, T.L., Duesterdieck-Zellmer, K., Semevolos, S.A. :
Gene and protein expression of cartilage canal and osteochondral junction chondrocytes and full-thickness cartilage in early equine osteochondrosis. Vet J :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22627046 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.04.023.
Teyssèdre, S., Dupuis, M.C., Guérin, G., Schibler, L., Denoix, J.M., Elsen, J.M., Ricard, A. :
Genome-wide association studies for osteochondrosis in French Trotter horses. J Anim Sci 90:45-53, 2012. Pubmed reference: 21841084 . DOI: 10.2527/jas.2011-4031.
Vander Heyden, L., Lejeune, J.P., Caudron, I., Detilleux, J., Sandersen, C., Chavatte, P., Paris, J., Deliège, B., Serteyn, D. :
Association of breeding conditions with prevalence of osteochondrosis in foals. Vet Rec :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23118049 . DOI: 10.1136/vr.101034.
Verwilghen, D.R., Janssens, S., Busoni, V., Pille, F., Johnston, C., Serteyn, D. :
Do developmental orthopaedic disorders influence future jumping performances in Warmblood stallions? Equine Vet J :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23346996 . DOI: 10.1111/evj.12027.
Weaver, M.P., Wilant, L. :
Owner survey of tarsocrural effusion (bog spavin) in Clydesdale horses. Vet Rec :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22262698 . DOI: 10.1136/vr.100225.
2011 de Grauw, J.C., Donabédian, M., van de Lest, C.H., Perona, G., Robert, C., Lepage, O., Martin-Rosset, W., van Weeren, P.R. :
Assessment of synovial fluid biomarkers in healthy foals and in foals with tarsocrural osteochondrosis. Vet J 190:390-5, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21216637 . DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.12.001.
Furniss, C., Carstens, A., van den Berg, S.S. :
Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 82:194-204, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22616432 .
Jönsson, L., Dalin, G., Egenvall, A., Näsholm, A., Roepstorff, L., Philipsson, J. :
Equine hospital data as a source for study of prevalence and heritability of osteochondrosis and palmar/plantar osseous fragments of Swedish Warmblood horses. Equine Vet J 43:695-700, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21615779 . DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00354.x.
Olstad, K., Ytrehus, B., Ekman, S., Carlson, C.S., Dolvik, N.I. :
Early lesions of articular osteochondrosis in the distal femur of foals. Vet Pathol 48:1165-75, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21321104 . DOI: 10.1177/0300985811398250.
Sparks, H.D., Nixon, A.J., Fortier, L.A., Mohammed, H.O. :
Arthroscopic reattachment of osteochondritis dissecans cartilage flaps of the femoropatellar joint: long-term results. Equine Vet J 43:650-9, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21649712 . DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00362.x.
Verwilghen, D.R., Martens, A., Busschers, E., Franck, T., Deberg, M., Henrotin, Y., Vanderheyden, L., Serteyn, D. :
Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO(2) and myeloperoxidase concentrations in the synovial fluid of equine tarsocrural joints affected with osteochondrosis. Vet Res Commun 35:401-8, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21681550 . DOI: 10.1007/s11259-011-9487-5.
Verwilghen, D.R., Enzerink, E., Martens, A., Franck, T., Balligand, M., Henrotin, Y., Detilleux, J., Serteyn, D. :
Relationship between arthroscopic joint evaluation and the levels of Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO(2), and myeloperoxidase in the blood and synovial fluid of horses affected with osteochondrosis of the tarsocrural joint. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 19:1323-9, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21884810 . DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2011.08.002.
Voute, L.C., Henson, F.M., Platt, D., Jeffcott, L.B. :
Osteochondrosis lesions of the lateral trochlear ridge of the distal femur in four ponies. Vet Rec 168:265, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21498177 . DOI: 10.1136/vr.c6677.
2010 Austbo, L., Roed, KH., Dolvik, NI., Skretting, G. :
Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with osteochondrosis in standardbred horses using RNA arbitrarily primed PCR. Anim Biotechnol 21:135-9, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20379890 . DOI: 10.1080/10495391003608316.
Barrey, E. :
Review: Genetics and genomics in equine exercise physiology: an overview of the new applications of molecular biology as positive and negative markers of performance and health. Equine Vet J Suppl 38:561-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21059061 . DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00299.x.
Dierks, C., Komm, K., Lampe, V., Distl, O. :
Fine mapping of a quantitative trait locus for osteochondrosis on horse chromosome 2. Anim Genet 41 Suppl 2:87-90, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21070281 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02113.x.
Lykkjen, S., Dolvik, NI., McCue, ME., Rendahl, AK., Mickelson, JR., Roed, KH. :
Genome-wide association analysis of osteochondrosis of the tibiotarsal joint in Norwegian Standardbred trotters. Anim Genet 41 Suppl 2:111-20, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21070284 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02117.x.
Preston, SA., Zimmel, DN., Chmielewski, TL., Trumble, TN., Brown, MP., Boneau, JC., Hernandez, JA. :
Prevalence of various presale radiographic findings and association of findings with sales price in Thoroughbred yearlings sold in Kentucky. J Am Vet Med Assoc 236:440-5, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20151870 . DOI: 10.2460/javma.236.4.440.
Serteyn, D., Piquemal, D., Vanderheyden, L., Lejeune, JP., Verwilghen, D., Sandersen, C. :
Gene expression profiling from leukocytes of horses affected by osteochondrosis. J Orthop Res :, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20108324 . DOI: 10.1002/jor.21089.
2009 Cohen, JM., Richardson, DW., McKnight, AL., Ross, MW., Boston, RC. :
Long-term outcome in 44 horses with stifle lameness after arthroscopic exploration and debridement. Vet Surg 38:543-51, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19538678 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2009.00524.x.
Ekman, S., Carlson, CS., van Weeren, PR. :
Workshop report. Third International Workshop on Equine Osteochondrosis, Stockhom, 29-30th May 2008. Equine Vet J 41:504-7, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19642413 .
Lampe, V., Dierks, C., Distl, O. :
Refinement of a quantitative trait locus on equine chromosome 5 responsible for fetlock osteochondrosis in Hanoverian warmblood horses. Anim Genet 40:553-555, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19392821 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01865.x.
Lampe, V., Dierks, C., Komm, K., Distl, O. :
Identification of a new quantitative trait locus on equine chromosome 18 responsible for osteochondrosis in Hanoverian warmblood horses. J Anim Sci 87:3477-81, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19684265 . DOI: 10.2527/jas.2009-1946.
Lepeule, J., Bareille, N., Robert, C., Ezanno, P., Valette, JP., Jacquet, S., Blanchard, G., Denoix, JM., Seegers, H. :
Association of growth, feeding practices and exercise conditions with the prevalence of Developmental Orthopaedic Disease in limbs of French foals at weaning. Prev Vet Med 89:167-77, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19329202 . DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.02.018.
Mirams, M., Tatarczuch, L., Ahmed, YA., Pagel, CN., Jeffcott, LB., Davies, HM., Mackie, EJ. :
Altered gene expression in early osteochondrosis lesions. J Orthop Res 27:452-7, 2009. Pubmed reference: 18932239 . DOI: 10.1002/jor.20761.
Relave, F., Meulyzer, M., Alexander, K., Beauchamp, G., Marcoux, M. :
Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography to detect osteochondrosis lesions in the tarsocrural joint: a prospective study. Equine Vet J 41:34-40, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19301579 .
van Grevenhof, EM., Schurink, A., Ducro, BJ., van Weeren, PR., van Tartwijk, JM., Bijma, P., van Arendonk, JA. :
Genetic variables of various manifestations of osteochondrosis and their correlations between and within joints in Dutch warmblood horses. J Anim Sci 87:1906-12, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19213707 . DOI: 10.2527/jas.2008-1199.
van Grevenhof, EM., Ducro, BJ., van Weeren, PR., van Tartwijk, JM., Van den Belt, AJ., Bijma, P. :
Prevalence of various radiographic manifestations of osteochondrosis and their correlations between and within joints in Dutch warmblood horses. Equine Vet J 41:11-6, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19301576 .
Verwilghen, D., Serteyn, D., Pille, F., Bolen, G., Saunders, J., Grulke, S., Busoni, V. :
Prevalence of radiographic findings in candidate sires (2001-2008 Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 78:419-428, 2009.
Verwilghen, D., Busoni, V., Gangl, M., Franck, T., Lejeune, J.P., Vanderheyden, L., Detilleux, J., Grulke, S., Deberg, M., Henrotin, Y., Serteyn, D. :
Relationship between biochemical markers and radiographic scores in the evaluation of the osteoarticular status of Warmblood stallions. Res Vet Sci 87:319-28, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19298987 . DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2009.02.002.
Verwilghen, D.R., Vanderheyden, L., Franck, T., Busoni, V., Enzerink, E., Gangl, M., Lejeune, J.P., van Galen, G., Grulke, S., Serteyn, D. :
Variations of plasmatic concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in post-pubescent horses affected with developmental osteochondral lesions. Vet Res Commun 33:701-9, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19319655 . DOI: 10.1007/s11259-009-9219-2.
Wittwer, C., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
The candidate gene XIRP2 at a quantitative gene locus on equine chromosome 18 associated with osteochondrosis in fetlock and hock joints of South German Coldblood horses. J Hered 100:481-6, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19304740 . DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esp006.
2008 Donabédian, M., van Weeren, P.R., Perona, G., Fleurance, G., Robert, C., Léger, S., Bergero, D., Lepage, O., Martin-Rosset, W. :
Early changes in biomarkers of skeletal metabolism and their association to the occurrence of osteochondrosis (OC) in the horse. Equine Vet J 40:253-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18267892 . DOI: 10.2746/042516408X273657.
Garvican, ER., Vaughan-Thomas, A., Redmond, C., Clegg, PD. :
Chondrocytes harvested from osteochondritis dissecans cartilage are able to undergo limited in vitro chondrogenesis despite having perturbations of cell phenotype in vivo. J Orthop Res 26:1133-40, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18327793 . DOI: 10.1002/jor.20602.
Garvican, ER., Vaughan-Thomas, A., Redmond, C., Clegg, PD. :
MT3-MMP (MMP-16) is downregulated by in vitro cytokine stimulation of cartilage, but unaltered in naturally occurring equine osteoarthritis and osteochondrosis. Connect Tissue Res 49:62-7, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18382891 . DOI: 10.1080/03008200801913338.
Jenner, F., Ross, MW., Martin, BB., Richardson, DW. :
Scapulohumeral osteochondrosis. A retrospective study of 32 horses. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 21:406-12, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19011703 .
Lecocq, M., Girard, CA., Fogarty, U., Beauchamp, G., Richard, H., Laverty, S. :
Cartilage matrix changes in the developing epiphysis: early events on the pathway to equine osteochondrosis? Equine Vet J 40:442-54, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18487100 . DOI: 10.2746/042516408X297453.
Oliver, LJ., Baird, DK., Baird, AN., Moore, GE. :
Prevalence and distribution of radiographically evident lesions on repository films in the hock and stifle joints of yearling Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 56:202-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18836499 . DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2008.36834.
Olstad, K., Cnudde, V., Masschaele, B., Thomassen, R., Dolvik, NI. :
Micro-computed tomography of early lesions of osteochondrosis in the tarsus of foals. Bone 43:574-83, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18579463 . DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.04.024.
Olstad, K., Ytrehus, B., Ekman, S., Carlson, CS., Dolvik, NI. :
Epiphyseal cartilage canal blood supply to the distal femur of foals. Equine Vet J 40:433-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18487109 . DOI: 10.2746/042516408X300269.
Olstad, K., Ytrehus, B., Ekman, S., Carlson, CS., Dolvik, NI. :
Epiphyseal cartilage canal blood supply to the tarsus of foals and relationship to osteochondrosis. Equine Vet J 40:30-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18083657 . DOI: 10.2746/042516407X239836.
Wittwer, C., Dierks, C., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
Associations between Candidate Gene Markers at a Quantitative Trait Locus on Equine Chromosome 4 Responsible for Osteochondrosis Dissecans in Fetlock Joints of South German Coldblood Horses. J Hered 99:125-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18227080 . DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esm106.
2007 Ahmed, YA., Tatarczuch, L., Pagel, CN., Davies, HM., Mirams, M., Mackie, EJ. :
Hypertrophy and physiological death of equine chondrocytes in vitro. Equine Vet J 39:546-52, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18065314 . DOI: 10.2746/042516407X223699.
Dierks, C., Löhring, K., Lampe, V., Wittwer, C., Drögemüller, C., Distl, O. :
Genome-wide search for markers associated with osteochondrosis in Hanoverian warmblood horses. Mamm Genome 18:739-47, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17906894 . DOI: 10.1007/s00335-007-9058-9.
Firshman, AM., Valberg, SJ. :
Factors affecting clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity in horses. Equine Vet J 39:567-75, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18065318 . DOI: 10.2746/042516407X238512.
Mele, M., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Gaillard, C., Jallon, L., Burger, D. :
[Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old horses of the Freiberger breed]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:151-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17461390 .
Mele, M., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Gaillard, C., Jallon, L., Burger, D. :
Erhebung der Prävalenz von Erbkrankheiten bei dreijährigen Pferden der Freiberger-Rasse. [Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old franches-montagnes horses] Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:151-159, 2007.
Olstad, K., Ytrehus, B., Ekman, S., Carlson, CS., Dolvik, NI. :
Early lesions of osteochondrosis in the distal tibia of foals. J Orthop Res 25:1094-105, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17415757 . DOI: 10.1002/jor.20375.
Strand, E., Braathen, LC., Hellsten, MC., Huse-Olsen, L., Bjornsdottir, S. :
Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse. Acta Vet Scand 49:19, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17640333 . DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-49-19.
Studer, S., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Brehm, W., Gaillard, C., Lüth, A., Burger, D. :
[Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old Swiss Warmblood horses]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:161-71, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17461391 .
Studer, S., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Brehm, W., Gaillard, C., Lüth, A., Burger, D. :
Erhebung der Prävalenz von Erbkrankheiten bei dreijährigen Schweizer Warmblutpferden [Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old Swiss Warmblood horses] Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:161-171, 2007.
Vervuert, I., Winkelsett, S., Christmann, L., Bruns, E., Hoppen, HO., Distl, O., Hertsch, B., Coenen, M. :
Evaluation of the influences of exercise, birth date, and osteochondrosis on plasma bone marker concentrations in Hanoverian Warmblood foals. Am J Vet Res 68:1319-23, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18052735 . DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.68.12.1319.
Vijarnsorn, M., Riley, CB., Ryan, DA., Rose, PL., Shaw, RA. :
Identification of infrared absorption spectral characteristics of synovial fluid of horses with osteochondrosis of the tarsocrural joint. Am J Vet Res 68:517-23, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17472451 . DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.68.5.517.
Wittwer, C., Hamann, H., Rosenberger, E., Distl, O. :
Genetic parameters for the prevalence of osteochondrosis in the limb joints of South German Coldblood horses. J Anim Breed Genet 124:302-7, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17868083 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2007.00670.x.
Wittwer, C., Löhring, K., Drögemüller, C., Hamann, H., Rosenberger, E., Distl, O. :
Mapping quantitative trait loci for osteochondrosis in fetlock and hock joints and palmar/plantar osseus fragments in fetlock joints of South German Coldblood horses. Anim Genet 38:350-7, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17559552 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01610.x.
Ytrehus, B., Carlson, CS., Ekman, S. :
Etiology and pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Vet Pathol 44:429-48, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17606505 . DOI: 10.1354/vp.44-4-429.
2006 Boneker, C., Kuiper, H., Drögemüller, C., Chowdhary, B.P., Distl, O. :
Molecular characterization of the equine collagen, type IX, alpha 2 (COL9A2) gene on horse chromosome 2p16-->p15. Cytogenet Genome Res 115:107-14, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17065790 . DOI: 10.1159/000095229.
Dierks, C., Mömke, S., Drögemüller, C., Leeb, T., Chowdhary, B.P., Distl, O. :
A high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map of equine chromosome 4q12-q22. Anim Genet 37:513-7, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16978184 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2006.01510.x.
Robert, C., Valette, JP., Denoix, JM. :
Correlation between routine radiographic findings and early racing career in French trotters. Equine Vet J Suppl :473-8, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17402469 .
Wittwer, C., Hamann, H., Rosenberger, E., Distl, O. :
Prevalence of osteochondrosis in the limb joints of South German Coldblood horses. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 53:531-9, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17105575 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.2006.00881.x.
2005 Semevolos, SA., Strassheim, ML., Haupt, JL., Nixon, AJ. :
Expression patterns of hedgehog signaling peptides in naturally acquired equine osteochondrosis. J Orthop Res 23:1152-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16140195 . DOI: 10.1016/j.orthres.2005.01.024.
Stock, KF., Hamann, H., Distl, O. :
Estimation of genetic parameters for the prevalence of osseous fragments in limb joints of Hanoverian Warmblood horses. J Anim Breed Genet 122:271-80, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16060495 .
2004 Billinghurst, RC., Brama, PA., van Weeren, PR., Knowlton, MS., McIlwraith, CW. :
Evaluation of serum concentrations of biomarkers of skeletal metabolism and results of radiography as indicators of severity of osteochondrosis in foals. Am J Vet Res 65:143-50, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14974569 .
Semevolos, SA., Nixon, AJ., Strassheim, ML. :
Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 and -2 and a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist in horses with naturally acquired osteochondrosis. Am J Vet Res 65:110-5, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14719712 .
van de Lest, CH., Brama, PA., van El, B., Degroot, J., van Weeren, PR. :
Extracellular matrix changes in early osteochondrotic defects in foals: a key role for collagen? Biochim Biophys Acta 1690:54-62, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15337170 . DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2004.05.002.
2003 Kane, A.J., Park, R.D., McIlwraith, C.W., Rantanen, N.W., Morehead, J.P., Bramlage, L.R. :
Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings. Part 1: Prevalence at the time of the yearling sales. Equine Vet J 35:354-65, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12880003 .
Kane, A.J., McIlwraith, C.W., Park, R.D., Rantanen, N.W., Morehead, J.P., Bramlage, L.R. :
Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings. Part 2: Associations with racing performance. Equine Vet J 35:366-74, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12880004 .
2002 Laverty, S., O'Kouneff, S., Ionescu, M., Reiner, A., Pidoux, I., Webber, C., Rossier, Y., Billinghurst, R.C., Poole, A.R. :
Excessive degradation of type II collagen in articular cartilage in equine osteochondrosis Journal of Orthopaedic Research 20:1282-1289, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12472241 . DOI: 10.1016/S0736-0266(02)00053-0.
Semevolos, S.A., Brower-Toland, B.D., Bent, S.J., Nixon, A.J. :
Parathyroid hormone-related peptide and Indian hedgehog expression patterns in naturally acquired equine osteochondrosis Journal of Orthopaedic Research 20:1290-1297, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12472242 . DOI: 10.1016/S0736-0266(02)00055-4.
2001 Kitamura, H., Okumura, M., Sato, F., Kimoto, K., Kohama, M., Hashimoto, Y., Tagami, M., Iwanaga, T. :
Increased concentrations of protein gene product 9.5 in the synovial fluid from horses with osteoarthritis. Jpn J Vet Res 49:115-23, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11590919 .
Semevolos, S.A., Nixon, A.J., Brower-Toland, B.D. :
Changes in molecular expression of aggrecan and collagen types I, II, and X, insulin-like growth factor-I, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in articular cartilage obtained from horses with naturally acquired osteochondrosis American Journal of Veterinary Research 62:1088-1094, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11453485 .
2000 Hintz, H.F. :
Following the research trail of osteochondrosis Equine Practice 22:8-9, 2000.
Laverty, S., Ionescu, M., Marcoux, M., Boure, L., Doize, B., Poole, A.R. :
Alterations in cartilage type-II procollagen and aggrecan contents in synovial fluid in equine osteochondrosis Journal of Orthopaedic Research 18:399-405, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10937626 . DOI: 10.1002/jor.1100180311.
1999 Valentino, L.W., Lillich, J.D., Gaughan, E.M., Biller, D.R., Raub, R.H. :
Radiographic prevalence of osteochondrosis in yearling feral horses Veterinary & Comparative Orthopaedics & Traumatology 12:151-155, 1999.
van Weeren, PR., Barneveld, A. :
The influence of birth weight, rate of weight gain and final achieved height and sex on the development of osteochondrotic lesions in a population of genetically predisposed Warmblood foals. Equine Vet J Suppl :26-30, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10999657 .
1998 Ekman, S., Carlson, C.S. :
The pathophysiology of osteochondrosis Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 28:17-32, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9463856 .
Hernandez-Vidal, G., Jeffcott, L.B., Davies, M.E. :
Immunolocalization of cathepsin B in equine dyschondroplastic articular cartilage Veterinary Journal 156:193-201, 1998.
Jeffcott, L.B., Henson, F.M.D. :
Studies on growth cartilage in the horse and their application to aetiopathogenesis of dyschondroplasia (osteochondrosis) [Review] Veterinary Journal 156:177-192, 1998.
Whitton, R.C. :
Equine developmental osteochondral lesions: The role of biomechanics Veterinary Journal 156:167-168, 1998.
1997 Edinger, J., Kubberheiss, A. :
Multicentric osteochondrosis with participation of the coxofemoral joint in a horse [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 84:174-176, 1997.
Girard, C., Lepage, O.M., Rossier, Y. :
Multiple vertebral osteochondrosis in a foal Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 9:436-438, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9376440 .
Henson, F.M.D., Davies, M.E., Jeffcott, L.B. :
Equine dyschondroplasia (osteochondrosis) - histological findings and type vi collagen localization Veterinary Journal 154:53-62, 1997.
Lillich, J.D., Bertone, A.L., Malemud, C.J., Weisbrode, S.E., Ruggles, A.J., Stevenson, S. :
Biochemical, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characterization of distal tibial osteochondrosis in horses American Journal of Veterinary Research 58:89-98, 1997. Pubmed reference: 8989503 .
Torre, F. :
Osteochondral chip fractures of the palmar/plantar aspect of the middle phalanx in the horse - 5 cases (1991-1994) Pferdeheilkunde 13:673 ff., 1997.
1996 Jeffcott, L.B. :
Osteochondrosis - an international problem for the horse industry Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 16:32-37, 1996.
Jeffcott, L.B., Henson, F.M.D., Voute, L., Vidal, G.H., Shingleton, W.D., Schofield, P.N., Cawston, T., Davies, M.E., Mackie, E. :
Equine osteochondrosis Veterinary Record 138:480, 1996.
1995 Carlson, C.S., Cullins, L.D., Meuten, D.J. :
Osteochondrosis of the articular epiphyseal cartilage complex in young horses - evidence for a defect in cartilage canal blood supply Veterinary Pathology 32:641-647, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8592799 .
Dalin, G. :
Control of genetically determined diseases and defects in Swedish horse breeding Equine Veterinary Journal 27:411-415, 1995.
Howard, R.D., Mcilwraith, C.W., Trotter, G.W., Powers, B.E., Mcfadden, P.R., Harwood, F.L., Amiel, D. :
Long-Term Fate and Effects of Exercise on Sternal Cartilage Autografts Used for Repair of Large Osteochondral Defects in Horses Pferdeheilkunde 11:68-69, 1995.
1994 Howard, R.D., Mcilwraith, C.W., Trotter, G.W., Powers, B.E., Mcfadden, P.R., Harwood, F.L., Amiel, D. :
Long-term fate and effects of exercise on sternal cartilage autografts used for repair of large osteochondral defects in horses American Journal of Veterinary Research 55:1158-1167, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7978658 .
Jones, W.E. :
Osteochondrosis OCD Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 14:71, 1994.
Vonmatthiessen, P.W. :
Equine Osteochondrosis Review and Update Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 14:72-74, 1994.
1993 Anon. :
Osteochondrosis Investigation Equine Practice 15:40, 1993.
Dabareiner, R.M., Sullins, K.E., White, N.A. :
Progression of Femoropatellar Osteochondrosis in 9 Young Horses - Clinical, Radiographic and Arthroscopic Findings Veterinary Surgery 22:515-523, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8116209 .
Glade, M. :
Equine Osteochondrosis in the 90s Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 13:13-16, 1993.
Grondahl, A.M., Dolvik, N.I. :
Heritability Estimations of Osteochondrosis in the Tibiotarsal Joint and of Bony Fragments in the Palmar Plantar Portion of the Metacarpophalangeal and Metatarsophalangeal Joints of Horses Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203:101-104, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8407439 .
Philipsson, J., Andreasson, E., Sandgren, B., Dalin, G., Carlsten, J. :
Osteochondrosis in the tarsocrural joint and osteochondral fragments in the fetlock joints in Standardbred trotters. II. Heritability Equine Veterinary Journal 16 (Suppl.):38-41, 1993.
1992 Glade, M. :
Equine Osteochondrosis in the 90s Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 12:348, 1992.
Jones, W.E. :
A New Look at Osteochondrosis Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 12:319, 1992.
1991 Jeffcott, L.B. :
Osteochondrosis in the Horse - Searching for the Key to Pathogenesis Equine Veterinary Journal 23:331-338, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1959522 .
1990 Schougaard, H., Ronne, J.F., Phillipson, J. :
A Radiographic Survey of Tibiotarsal Osteochondrosis in a Selected Population of Trotting Horses in Denmark and Its Possible Genetic Significance Equine Veterinary Journal 22:288-289, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2209527 .
1988 Hultgren, B.D., Appell, L.H., Wagner, P.C., Blythe, L.L., Watrous, B.J., Slizeski, M.L., Duffield, D.A., Goldie, P., Clarkson, D., Shell, D. :
Current research topics in Equine Genetics, Part 2 Equine Practice 10:19-22, 1988.
1982 Jeffcott, LB., Kold, SE. :
Stifle lameness in the horse: a survey of 86 referred cases. Equine Vet J 14:31-9, 1982. Pubmed reference: 7084175 .
1979 Stromberg, B. :
A review of the salient features of osteochondrosis in the horse. Equine Vet J 11:211-4, 1979. Pubmed reference: 540628 .
1978 Olsson, SE., Reiland, S. :
The nature of osteochondrosis in animals. Summary and conclusions with comparative aspects on osteochondritis dissecans in man. Acta Radiol Suppl 358:299-306, 1978. Pubmed reference: 233601 .
Rejnö, S., Strömberg, B. :
Osteochondrosis in the horse. II. Pathology. Acta Radiol Suppl 358:153-78, 1978. Pubmed reference: 233595 .
Strömberg, B., Rejnö, S. :
Osteochondrosis in the horse. I. A clinical and radiologic investigation of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee and hock joint. Acta Radiol Suppl 358:139-52, 1978. Pubmed reference: 233593 .
1977 Moore, JN., McIlwraith, CW. :
Osteochondrosis of the equine stifle. Vet Rec 100:133-6, 1977. Pubmed reference: 847872 .
1976 Johansson, H.E., Rejnö, S. :
Light and electron microscopic investigation of equine synovial membrane. A comparison between healthy joints and joints with intraarticular fractures and osteochondrosis dissecans. Acta Vet Scand 17:153-68, 1976. Pubmed reference: 952248 .
1975 Rooney, JR. :
Osteochondrosis in the horse. Mod Vet Pract 56:113-6, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1110665 .
Rooney, JR. :
Osteochondrosis in the horse. Mod Vet Pract 56:41-3, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1110660 .
Schmidt, GR., Dueland, R., Vaughan, JT. :
Osteochondrosis dissecans of the equine shoulder joint. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 70:542-7, 1975. Pubmed reference: 1040425 .
1960 BAKER, RH. :
Osteochondrosis of the tibial tuberosity of the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 137:354-5, 1960. Pubmed reference: 13796032 .

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 21 Jan 2022
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 29 Jan 2022