OMIA:000991-9615 : Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: Burton's mouthbrooder , domestic cat , horse , pig , taurine cattle

Categories: Reproductive system phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 300068 (trait) , 313700 (gene)

Links to relevant human diseases in MONDO:

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: X-linked

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Cross-species summary: This is a type of XY difference of sexual development (XY DSD) due to variants in the AR gene. Previously known as Testicular Feminisation Syndrome. This is an abnormality of sexual development in which affected individuals have an XY chromosomal constitution, undescended testes and female secondary sexual characteristics (including female external genitalia). Also, instead of normally developed Mullerian duct derivatives (Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and upper protion of the vagina), they have under-developed Wolffian duct derivatives (epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle). In all species so far investigated, the inheritance is X-linked recessive. In several species, this disorder is known to be due to a deficiency of an androgen receptor encoded by a gene on the X chromosome. The presence of a Y chromosome induces the undifferentiated embryonic gonads to develop as testes, but, in the absence of androgen receptor, the androgens produced by the testes cannot exert any effect. The result is that the embryo follows the "default" path of development, which is female.

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2021). OMIA:000991-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2010 Nowacka-Woszuk, J., Switonski, M. :
Variability of CAG tandem repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene is not related with dog intersexuality. Anim Reprod Sci 117:308-13, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19482445. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2009.05.001.
1993 Peter, A.T., Markwelder, D., Asem, E.K. :
Phenotypic feminization in a genetic male dog caused by nonfunctional androgen receptors. Theriogenology 40:1093-105, 1993. Pubmed reference: 16727391. DOI: 10.1016/0093-691x(93)90377-h.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 22 Aug 2021