OMIA:000393-89462 : Tetragametic chimerism (including Freemartin) in Bubalus bubalis

In other species: taurine cattle , deer , pig , sheep , bighorn sheep , dog , horse

Categories: Reproductive system phene

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Cross-species summary: Tetragametic chimerism is a rare, sex chromosome disorder of sex development characterized by the two different haploid sets of maternal and paternal chromosomes and variable phenotype - from normal male or female genitalia, to different degrees of ambiguous genitalia, and often infertility. Also, in the cases of monochorionic dizygotic twins, it can be confined to blood of both twins. [ Orphanet : 199310 ] Freemartin or free-martin is an infertile female animal which is the twin of a male animal whose anti-Müllerian hormones affected its development in utero. Genetically the animals are chimeric (microchimerism, XX/XY leukocyte chimerism) - some stem cells from the male twin are received during in utero development via vascular connections between placentas. The condition is mostly reported in ruminants due to their multicotyledonary placenta type. Phene was renamed to 'Tetragametic chimerism' [16/11/2022]

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2005). OMIA:000393-89462: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2005 Iannuzzi, L., Di Meo, GP., Perucatti, A., Ciotola, F., Incarnato, D., Di Palo, R., Peretti, V., Campanile, G., Zicarelli, L. :
Freemartinism in river buffalo: clinical and cytogenetic observations. Cytogenet Genome Res 108:355-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15627757 . DOI: 10.1159/000081531.
1995 Prakash, B., Balain, D.S., Lathwal, S.S. :
Sex chromosome abnormalities associated with reproductive disorders in buffaloes Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 65:277-281, 1995.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005