OMIA:000519-9615 : Hypoadrenocorticism in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: domestic cat , horse , goat

Categories: Endocrine / exocrine gland phene (incl mammary gland)

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 240200 (trait) , 240300 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Cross-species summary: Hypoadrenocorticism, or Addison’s disease, results from insufficient secretion of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids) from the adrenal glands. In primary hypoadrenocorticism the disease is due to changes to the adrenal cortex, while secondary hypoadrenocorticism refers to deficiency of ACTH, produced in the pituitary gland. The disease can be further classified as typical (glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency) with typical electrolyte changes or atypical (only glucocorticoid deficiency with no typical electrolyte changes). The atypical cases often progress to become typical.

Mapping: Gershony et al. (2020) "aimed to identify genomic regions of association for canine AD in Bearded Collies" and reported a "genome-wide association analysis to identify a genome-wide significant region of association with canine AD (CFA18). Peaks of suggestive association were also noted on chromosomes 11, 16 and 29."

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:000519-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 [No authors listed] :
Erratum for "Urinary cortisol-creatinine ratio in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism". J Vet Intern Med 37:1287, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37083135. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16731.
Bugbee, A., Rucinsky, R., Cazabon, S., Kvitko-White, H., Lathan, P., Nichelason, A., Rudolph, L. :
2023 AAHA selected endocrinopathies of dogs and cats guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 59:113-135, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37167252. DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-7368.
Chalifoux, N.V., Burgess, H.J., Feng, C.X., Kong, L.R., Snead, E.C.R. :
Canine hypoadrenocorticism: Insights into the Addisonian crisis. Can Vet J 64:457-464, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37138712.
Hall, H., Williams, T., Florey, J., Moreno, M.P., Black, V., Thompson, D., Skelly, B. :
Prevalence of hypercalcemia in primary hypoadrenocorticism in dogs: Multicenter, retrospective study. J Vet Intern Med 37:1685-1693, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37382221. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16786.
Riggs, A.H., Rhinehart, J., Cooper, E.S. :
Possible development and resolution of dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype secondary to atypical hypoadrenocorticism in a dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 33:606-612, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37577957. DOI: 10.1111/vec.13321.
Tardo, A.M., Del Baldo, F., Leal, R.O., Galiazzo, G., Pietra, M., Gaspardo, A., Fracassi, F. :
Prevalence of eunatremic, eukalemic hypoadrenocorticism in dogs with signs of chronic gastrointestinal disease and risk of misdiagnosis after previous glucocorticoid administration. J Vet Intern Med 38:93-101, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38053513. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16921.
Torres, B.B.J., Ottoboni, A.R., Ribeiro, L.S., Lima, A.G.S., Carvalho, V.H.A., Bastos, S.M.S. :
Episodic generalized involuntary muscle contractions and weakness in a 2-year-old castrated male Chihuahua. J Am Vet Med Assoc 261:1231-1233, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37085144. DOI: 10.2460/javma.23.03.0143.
2022 Del Baldo, F., Gerou Ferriani, M., Bertazzolo, W., Luciani, M., Tardo, A.M., Fracassi, F. :
Urinary cortisol-creatinine ratio in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 36:482-487, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35150029. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16358.
Guzmán Ramos, P.J., Bennaim, M., Shiel, R.E., Mooney, C.T. :
Diagnosis of canine spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Canine Med Genet 9:6, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35505424. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-022-00119-4.
Imbery, C.A., Dieterle, F., Ottka, C., Weber, C., Schlotterbeck, G., Müller, E., Lohi, H., Giger, U. :
Metabolomic abnormalities in serum from untreated and treated dogs with hyper- and hypoadrenocorticism. Metabolites 12:339, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35448526. DOI: 10.3390/metabo12040339.
2021 Dropkin, C.A., Kruger, J.M., Langlois, D.K. :
Evaluation of urine electrolytes for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. Vet Clin Pathol 50:507-514, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34699620. DOI: 10.1111/vcp.13018.
Mitropoulou, A., Häuser, M.K., Lehmann, H., Hazuchova, K. :
Comparison of Hydrocortisone Continuous Rate Infusion and Prednisolone or Dexamethasone Administration for Treatment of Acute Hypoadrenocortical (Addisonian) Crisis in Dogs. Front Vet Sci 8:818515, 2021. Pubmed reference: 35146018. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.818515.
2020 Boag, A.M., Short, A., Kennedy, L.J., Syme, H., Graham, P.A., Catchpole, B. :
Polymorphisms in the CTLA4 promoter sequence are associated with canine hypoadrenocorticism. Canine Med Genet 7:2, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32835228. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-020-0081-4.
Gershony, L.C., Belanger, J.M., Hytönen, M.K., Lohi, H., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Correction to: Genetic characterization of Addison's disease in Bearded Collies. BMC Genomics 21:898, 2020. Pubmed reference: 33380317. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-020-07328-w.
Gershony, L.C., Belanger, J.M., Hytönen, M.K., Lohi, H., Famula, T.R., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Genetic characterization of Addison's disease in Bearded Collies. BMC Genomics 21:833, 2020. Pubmed reference: 33243158. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-020-07243-0.
2019 Gershony, L.C., Belanger, J.M., Short, A.D., Le, M., Hytönen, M.K., Lohi, H., Famula, T.R., Kennedy, L.J., Oberbauer, A.M. :
DLA class II risk haplotypes for autoimmune diseases in the bearded collie offer insight to autoimmunity signatures across dog breeds. Canine Genet Epidemiol 6:2, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30783534. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-019-0070-7.
Treeful, A.E., Rendahl, A.K., Friedenberg, S.G., Treeful, A.E., Rendahl, A.K., Friedenberg, S.G. :
DLA class II haplotypes show sex-specific associations with primary hypoadrenocorticism in Standard Poodle dogs. Immunogenetics 71:373-382, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30968193. DOI: 10.1007/s00251-019-01113-0.
2018 Lathan, P., Thompson, A.L. :
Management of hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) in dogs. Vet Med (Auckl) 9:1-10, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30050862. DOI: 10.2147/VMRR.S125617.
2017 Friedenberg, S.G., Lunn, K.F., Meurs, K.M. :
Evaluation of the genetic basis of primary hypoadrenocorticism in Standard Poodles using SNP array genotyping and whole-genome sequencing. Mamm Genome 28:56-65, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27864587. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-016-9671-6.
Wakayama, J.A., Furrow, E., Merkel, L.K., Armstrong, P.J. :
A retrospective study of dogs with atypical hypoadrenocorticism: a diagnostic cut-off or continuum? J Small Anim Pract 58:365-371, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28247992. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12649.
2016 Gold, A.J., Langlois, D.K., Refsal, K.R. :
Evaluation of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentrations for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 30:1798-1805, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27714859. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.14589.
2015 Hanson, J.M., Tengvall, K., Bonnett, B.N., Hedhammar, Å. :
Naturally occurring adrenocortical insufficiency--An epidemiological study based on a Swedish-insured dog population of 525,028 Dogs. J Vet Intern Med 30:76-84, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26683136. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.13815.
Pedersen, N.C., Brucker, L., Tessier, N.G., Liu, H., Penedo, M.C., Hughes, S., Oberbauer, A., Sacks, B. :
The effect of genetic bottlenecks and inbreeding on the incidence of two major autoimmune diseases in standard poodles, sebaceous adenitis and Addison's disease. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:14, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401342. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0026-5.
2014 Boag, A.M., Catchpole, B. :
A review of the genetics of hypoadrenocorticism. Top Companion Anim Med 29:96-101, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25813849. DOI: 10.1053/j.tcam.2015.01.001.
Short, A.D., Catchpole, B., Boag, A.M., Kennedy, L.J., Massey, J., Rothwell, S., Henthorn, P.S., Littman, M.P., Husebye, E., Ollier, B. :
Putative candidate genes for canine hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) in multiple dog breeds. Vet Rec 175:430, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25124887. DOI: 10.1136/vr.102160.
Van Lanen, K., Sande, A. :
Canine hypoadrenocorticism: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Top Companion Anim Med 29:88-95, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25813848. DOI: 10.1053/j.tcam.2014.10.001.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Massey, J., Boag, A., Short, A.D., Scholey, R.A., Henthorn, P.S., Littman, M.P., Husebye, E., Catchpole, B., Pedersen, N., Mellersh, C.S., Ollier, W.E., Kennedy, L.J. :
MHC class II association study in eight breeds of dog with hypoadrenocorticism. Immunogenetics 65:291-7, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23358933. DOI: 10.1007/s00251-013-0680-2.
Short, A.D., Boag, A., Catchpole, B., Kennedy, L.J., Massey, J., Rothwell, S., Husebye, E., Ollier, B. :
A candidate gene analysis of canine hypoadrenocorticism in 3 dog breeds. J Hered 104:807-20, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23997205. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/est051.
2010 Hughes, AM., Jokinen, P., Bannasch, DL., Lohi, H., Oberbauer, AM. :
Association of a dog leukocyte antigen class II haplotype with hypoadrenocorticism in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers. Tissue Antigens 75:684-90, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20136772. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2010.01440.x.
Klein, SC., Peterson, ME. :
Canine hypoadrenocorticism: Part I. Can Vet J 51:63-9, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20357943.
Klein, SC., Peterson, ME. :
Canine hypoadrenocorticism: part II. Can Vet J 51:179-84, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20436864.
2009 Gow, AG., Gow, DJ., Bell, R., Simpson, JW., Chandler, ML., Evans, H., Berry, JL., Herrtage, ME., Mellanby, RJ. :
Calcium metabolism in eight dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. J Small Anim Pract 50:426-30, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19689671. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00757.x.
Hughes, AM., Bannasch, DL., Kellett, K., Oberbauer, AM. :
Examination of candidate genes for hypoadrenocorticism in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers. Vet J 187:212-6, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19931476. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.10.012.
2008 Adamantos, S., Boag, A. :
Total and ionised calcium concentrations in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. Vet Rec 163:25-6, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18603632.
Lathan, P., Moore, GE., Zambon, S., Scott-Moncrieff, JC. :
Use of a low-dose ACTH stimulation test for diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 22:1070-3, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18537878. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0118.x.
2007 Greco, DS. :
Hypoadrenocorticism in small animals. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 22:32-5, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17542195. DOI: 10.1053/j.ctsap.2007.02.005.
Hughes, AM., Nelson, RW., Famula, TR., Bannasch, DL. :
Clinical features and heritability of hypoadrenocorticism in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers: 25 cases (1994-2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:407-12, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17669043. DOI: 10.2460/javma.231.3.407.
2006 Chase, K., Sargan, D., Miller, K., Ostrander, EA., Lark, KG. :
Understanding the genetics of autoimmune disease: two loci that regulate late onset Addison's disease in Portuguese Water Dogs. Int J Immunogenet 33:179-84, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16712648. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-313X.2006.00593.x.
Oberbauer, AM., Bell, JS., Belanger, JM., Famula, TR. :
Genetic evaluation of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog. BMC Vet Res 2:15, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16670022. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-15.
2005 Jarrett, RH., Norman, EJ., Squires, RA. :
Liquorice and canine Addison's disease. N Z Vet J 53:214, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16012593. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2005.36508.
Rockwell, J., Monroe, WE., Tromblee, TC. :
Spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism in a dog after a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 19:299-300, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15822572.
2003 Famula, T.R., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Heritability and complex segregation analysis of hypoadrenocorticism in the standard poodle Journal of Small Animal Practice 44:8-12, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12570345.
2002 Oberbauer, A.M., Benemann, K.S., Belanger, J.M., Wagner, D.R., Ward, J.H., Famula, T.R. :
Inheritance of hypoadrenocorticism in Bearded Collies American Journal of Veterinary Research 63:643-647, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12013462.
2000 Greco, D.S. :
Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs and cats Veterinary Medicine 95:468-+, 2000.
Mansfield, C.S. :
Glucocorticoid deficiency (atypical hypoadrenocorticism) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in a German Shepherd Dog Australian Veterinary Practitioner 30:2-5, 2000.
1999 Hoerauf, A., Reusch, C. :
Ultrasonographic evaluation of the adrenal glands in six dogs with hypoadrenocorticism Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 35:214-218, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10333259.
1998 Kelch, W.J., Smith, C.A., Lynn, R.C., New, J.C. :
Canine hypoadrenocorticism (Addisons-disease) Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 20:921 ff., 1998.
Syme, H.M., Scottmoncrieff, J.C. :
Chronic hypoglycaemia in a hunting dog due to secondary hypoadrenocorticism Journal of Small Animal Practice 39:348-351, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9693421.
Vollmar, A., Hoppen, H.O., Ueberschar, S. :
Secondary hypoadrenocorticism in a 4 month old Irish Wolfhound [German] Kleintierpraxis 43:453 ff., 1998.
1997 Burton, S., Delay, J., Holmes, A., Somerville, C., Eye, J., Shaw, D., Wack, O., Hanna, P. :
Hypoadrenocorticism in young related Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 38:231-234, 1997.
Hirt, R., Kleiter, M. :
Hypoadrenocorticism - a diagnostic challenge [German] Kleintierpraxis 42:779 ff., 1997.
Kintzer, P.P., Peterson, M.E. :
Treatment and long-term follow-up of 205 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 11:43-49, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9127289.
Kintzer, P.P., Peterson, M.E. :
Primary and secondary hypoadrenocorticism Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 27:349 ff., 1997.
Koch, J., Jensen, A.L., Wenck, A., Iversen, L., Lykkegaard, K. :
Duplex doppler measurements of renal blood flow in a dog with addisons disease Journal of Small Animal Practice 38:124-126, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9097245.
1996 Lifton, S.J., King, L.G., Zerbe, C.A. :
Glucocorticoid deficient hypoadrenocorticism in dogs - 18 cases (1986-1995) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209:2076-2081, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8960190.
Melian, C., Peterson, M.E. :
Diagnosis and treatment of naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism in 42 dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 37:268-275, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8805097.
Peterson, M.E., Kintzer, P.P., Kass, P.H. :
Pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism - 225 cases (1979-1993) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208:85-91, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8682712.
Sadek, D., Schaer, M. :
Atypical addisons disease in the dog - a retrospective survey of 14 cases Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 32:159-163, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8680923.
1995 Dixon, R. :
The most common causes of hyperkalaemia in the dog are hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease), acute renal failure, and urethral obstruction Journal of Small Animal Practice 36:49, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7723288.
Langlaisburgess, L., Lumsden, J.H., Mackin, A. :
Concurrent hypoadrenocorticism and hypoalbuminemia in dogs Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 31:307-311, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7552662.
1994 Boujon, C.E., Bornandjaunin, V., Scharer, V., Rossi, G.L., Bestetti, G.E. :
Pituitary gland changes in canine hypoadrenocorticism: A functional and immunocytochemical study Journal of Comparative Pathology 111:287-295, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7836570.
Kemppainen, R.J., Clark, T.P., Peterson, M.E. :
Preservative effect of aprotinin on canine plasma immunoreactive adrenocorticotropin concentrations Domestic Animal Endocrinology 11:355-362, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7530181.
Kintzer, P.P., Peterson, M.E. :
Diagnosis and Management of Primary Spontaneous Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease) in Dogs Seminars in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery - Small Animal 9:148-152, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7938935.
Vanzyl, M., Hyman, W.B. :
Desoxycorticosterone pivalate in the management of canine primary hypoadrenocorticism. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association - Tydskrif Van Die Suid - Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging 65:125-129, 1994.
1993 Pascoe, K. :
Treatment of Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202:1192-1193, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8496071.
1991 Volz, R. :
Primary Adrenocortical Insufficiency in the Dog, Addisons Disease - A Case Report Praktische Tierarzt 72:565-568, 1991.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 01 Dec 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 03 Nov 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 23 Apr 2023