OMIA:000536-9615 : Hypothyroidism, congenital in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: rock pigeon , chicken , lesser panda , domestic cat , horse , goat , sheep

Categories: Endocrine / exocrine gland phene (incl mammary gland)

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 274500 (trait) , 606765 (gene)

Links to relevant human diseases in MONDO:

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2003

Cross-species summary: Deficiency of thyroid gland activity. Also known as Goiterous congenital hypothyroidism; Congenital hypothyroidism; Thyroid dyshormonogenesis. This disorder can be caused by mutations in different genes, and forms of the disease exist that are not inherited.

Species-specific name: Congenital hypothyroidism with goiter

Species-specific symbol: CHG

Species-specific description: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an endocrine disorder characterized by inadequate T4 levels early in life concurrent with signs of hypothyroidism. Disease can be primary (failure to make T4), which is due to abnormal thyroid development or function. Primary hypothyroidism often presents with goiter but can be due to thyroid dysgenesis. CH can be secondary (failure to make bioactive TSH), which is caused by abnormal pituitary development or function. CH can also be tertiary (failure to make TRH) due to abnormal hypothalamic function. Signs of CH with goiter include growth retardation (dwarfism), epiphyseal dysplasia in the vertebrae and limbs, and delay in maturation changes such as dental eruption, opening of eyes and ear canals, and growth of guard hairs. Other signs include thickened subcutis, lethargy, unresponsiveness, and failure to suckle. The disorder is lethal unless diagnosed and treated early. Goiter, extremely low T4, and increased TSH are signs in Toy Fox Terriers, Rat Terriers, Tenterfield Terriers, and Spanish Water Dogs. In dogs likely causal variants have been described in at least two genes (TPO - described in this entry, and SLC5A5 - see 'OMIA002174-9615 Hypothyroidism, congenital dyshormonogenic, with goiter). Non-genetic forms of the condition are possible and may represent some of the case studies for which references are listed in this entry. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive for TPO-related congenital hypothyroidism in dogs. Causative mutations in 3 terrier breeds and the Spanish water dog are all in the gene that codes for thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the enzyme responsible for irreversible binding of iodide to thyroglobulin. This process is known as organification of iodide, and it is a necessary step of thyroid hormone synthesis. If thyroid peroxidase activity is not present, the animal is unable to make T4 and presents with primary hypothyroidism. Goiter develops as thyroid cells undergo hypertrophy and hyperplasia due to unrelenting TSH stimulation. DNA-based tests are available to detect the TPO mutation in all 4 breeds. Breeding of carrier animals to each other is not recommended. If a carrier animal is bred to a homozygous normal animal, testing the offspring is advised. Edited by John C. Fyfe, D.V.M., Ph.D. (edited by IT 22/5/2022)

Inheritance: The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.

Mapping: CFA17

Molecular basis: By cloning and sequencing a very likely candidate gene (based on knowledge that the disorder is due to deficiency of thyroid peroxidase), Fyfe et al. (2003) reported that the causative mutation in Toy Fox Terriers is a C to T transition that creates an early stop codon in the gene coding for thyroid peroxidase (c.331C>T; p. Arg111Ter). Pettigrew et al. (2007) discovered the same causal mutation in Rat Terriers. Tenterfield Terriers have a C to T missense mutation (c.1777C>T) predicting a tryptophan substitution for a highly conserved arginine residue (p.R593W)(Dodgson et al., 2012). Fyfe et al. (2013) identified a novel form of TPO mutation in two half-sib Spanish Water Dogs: "A single guanosine insertion was observed in the first exon of the affected-dog TPO cDNA at a site not previously thought to be within the coding sequence. The insertion allele segregated with the deduced disease allele in the SWD breed and was not observed in unrelated dogs of various breeds. Comparison of the insertion site (an 8-nt poly-G tract) with the orthologous sequences of other mammalian reference genomes revealed that the octa-G tract obliterated the intron 1 splice acceptor site and the exon 2 translation initiation codon found at that position in other species. An in-frame ATG in strong Kozak consensus context was observed in the normal dog sequence 12 codons 5' of the usual mammalian start site, suggesting that dogs have lost the noncoding exon 1 demonstrated in human and mouse. A survey of TPO sequences in other carnivore species indicates that the poly-G tract necessitating an alternative translation initiation site is a canid-specific feature." Major et al. (2015) reported a likely causal mutation in the TPO gene in a French Bulldog as a "T>C transition in the +2 position of the intron 12 splice donor site (CFA17:801,598; TPO c.2242 + 2T>C)".

Clinical features: Signs include growth retardation (dwarfism), epiphyseal dysplasia in the vertebrae and limbs, delayed dental eruption, delayed opening of eyes and ear canals, delayed haircoat maturation, thickened subcutis, lethargy, unresponsiveness, failure to suckle. Goiter, extremely low T4, and increased TSH are signs in Toy Fox Terriers, Rat Terriers, Tenterfield Terriers, and Spanish Water Dogs. Onset of signs is early (less than one week of age) in primary congenital hypothyroidism Clinical signs of iodine toxicosis in fetal and early postnatal life are similar to those of congenital hypothyroidism but the two disorders are distinguished by different thyroid histology.

Pathology: Congenital hypothyroidism caused by a mutation in TPO is a form of dyshormonogenesis. Thyroid peroxidase is the enzyme responsible for irreversible binding of iodide to thyroglobulin, a necessary step of thyroid hormone synthesis. If thyroid peroxidase activity is not present, the animal is unable to make thyroid hormones and will present with primary hypothyroidism (Fyfe et al., 2003). Goiter will develop in a few weeks due to unrelenting TSH secretion.

Prevalence: Most hypothyroidism is not congenital – only 3.6% of hypothyroid dogs are less than one year of age (Bojanic et al., 2011). Rat Terriers are thought to have acquired the mutation fairly recently, as a result of interbreeding with Toy Fox Terriers (Pettigrew et al., 2007).

Control: Breeding of carrier animals to each other is not recommended. If a carrier animal is bred to a homozygous normal animal, testing the offspring is advised.

Genetic testing: DNA-based tests are available to detect the mutations in all 4 breeds.

Breeds: French Bulldog (Dog) (VBO_0201455), Giant Schnauzer (Dog) (VBO_0200604), Rat Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201125), Scottish Deerhound (Dog) (VBO_0201195), Spanish Water Dog (Dog) (VBO_0201280), Tenterfield Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201342), Toy Fox Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201361).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
TPO thyroid peroxidase Canis lupus familiaris 17 NC_051821.1 (830903..866744) TPO Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
425 Spanish Water Dog (Dog) Hypothyroidism TPO insertion, small (<=20) Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 17 g.773950_773951insG c.39_40insG p.(R14Efs*184) NM_001003009.2; NP_001003009.2; the variant expands a stretch of 8 consecutive guanine residues to 9 guanine residues and introduces an early frameshift 2013 23223904
273 Rat Terrier (Dog) Toy Fox Terrier (Dog) Hypothyroidism TPO nonsense (stop-gain) Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 17 g.784624C>T c.331C>T p.(Q111*) 2003 12564727 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool
50 Tenterfield Terrier (Dog) Hypothyroidism TPO missense Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 17 g.799099C>T c.1777C>T p.(R593W) NM_001003009.2 2012 23113744 Genomic coordinates in CanFam3.1 provided by Robert Kuhn
407 French Bulldog (Dog) Hypothyroidism TPO splicing Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 17 g.801598T>C c.2242+2T>C 2015 26478542

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2022). OMIA:000536-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 González, K.S., Warwick, H., Conradie, M., Alisauskaite, N. :
Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a French bulldog puppy with genetically confirmed congenital hypothyroidism. J Vet Intern Med , 2024. Pubmed reference: 38532265. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.17029.
2023 Bugbee, A., Rucinsky, R., Cazabon, S., Kvitko-White, H., Lathan, P., Nichelason, A., Rudolph, L. :
2023 AAHA selected endocrinopathies of dogs and cats guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 59:113-135, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37167252. DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-7368.
González-Arostegui, L.G., Muñoz-Prieto, A., Rubio, C.P., Cerón, J.J., Bernal, L., Rubić, I., Mrljak, V., González-Sánchez, J.C., Tvarijonaviciute, A. :
Changes of the salivary and serum proteome in canine hypothyroidism. Domest Anim Endocrinol 86:106825, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37980820. DOI: 10.1016/j.domaniend.2023.106825.
2022 Ringstad, N.K., Lingaas, F., Thoresen, S.I. :
Breed distributions for diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in Norwegian dogs. Canine Med Genet 9:9, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35610669. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-022-00121-w.
2020 Hermans, M., Burger, N.C., Kromhout, K., Bhatti, S.F.M., Cornelis, I. :
Clinical and diagnostic findings in a dog and a cat with congenital hypothyroidism. Vet Rec Case Rep 8:e001300, 2020. DOI:
2019 Kopke, M.A., Mukorera, V., Leisewitz, A.L., Ruaux, C.G. :
Chronic lameness associated with congenital hypothyroidism in three dogs. Vet Rec Case Rep 7:e000916., 2019. DOI:
2018 Pisani, R. B. F., de Oliveira, P. C., Bastos, I. P. B., Fernandes, J. I. :
Congenital hypothyroidism in dog: case report. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 39:279–283, 2018. DOI:
2016 Åhlgren, J., Uimari, P. :
Heritability of hypothyroidism in the Finnish Hovawart population. Acta Vet Scand 58:39, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27267591. DOI: 10.1186/s13028-016-0221-8.
2015 Bianchi, M., Dahlgren, S., Massey, J., Dietschi, E., Kierczak, M., Lund-Ziener, M., Sundberg, K., Thoresen, S.I., Kämpe, O., Andersson, G., Ollier, W.E., Hedhammar, Å., Leeb, T., Lindblad-Toh, K., Kennedy, L.J., Lingaas, F., Rosengren Pielberg, G. :
A Multi-Breed Genome-Wide Association Analysis for Canine Hypothyroidism Identifies a Shared Major Risk Locus on CFA12. PLoS One 10:e0134720, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26261983. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134720.
Major, S., Pettigrew, R.W., Fyfe, J.C. :
Molecular Genetic Characterization of Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis in a French Bulldog. J Vet Intern Med 29:1534-40, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26478542. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.13651.
Mazaki-Tovi, M., Abood, S.K., Kol, A., Farkas, A., Schenck, P.A. :
Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in canine hypothyroidism. Vet J 203:253-5, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25555336. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.12.007.
Miller, J., Popiel, J., Chełmońska-Soyta, A. :
Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Canine Hypothyroidism. J Comp Pathol , 2015. Pubmed reference: 25958183. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2015.03.003.
Oberbauer, A.M., Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R. :
Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401337. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0021-x.
Voorbij, A.M., Leegwater, P.A., Buijtels, J.J., Daminet, S., Kooistra, H.S. :
Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. J Vet Intern Med 30:85-91, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26696394. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.13818.
Ziener, M.L., Dahlgren, S., Thoresen, S.I., Lingaas, F. :
Genetics and epidemiology of hypothyroidism and symmetrical onychomadesis in the Gordon setter and the English setter. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:12, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401340. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0025-6.
2014 Johnstone, T., Terzo, E., Mooney, C.T. :
Hypothyroidism associated with acromegaly and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in a Samoyed. Aust Vet J 92:437-42, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25290378. DOI: 10.1111/avj.12237.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Fyfe, J.C., Lynch, M., Olsen, J., Louёr, E. :
A thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mutation in dogs reveals a canid-specific gene structure. Mamm Genome 24:127-33, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23223904. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-012-9442-y.
2012 Dodgson, S.E., Day, R., Fyfe, J.C. :
Congenital hypothyroidism with goiter in Tenterfield terriers. J Vet Intern Med 26:1350-7, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23113744. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.01015.x.
2011 Bojanic, K., Acke, E., Jones, B. :
Congenital hypothyroidism of dogs and cats: A review. N Z Vet J 59:115-22, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21541884. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.2011.567964.
2007 Ferguson, DC. :
Testing for hypothyroidism in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 37:647-69, v, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17619004. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2007.05.015.
Graham, PA., Refsal, KR., Nachreiner, RF. :
Etiopathologic findings of canine hypothyroidism. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 37:617-31, v, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17619002. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2007.05.002.
Pettigrew, R., Fyfe, J.C., Gregory, B.L., Lipsitz, D., Delahunta, A., Summers, B.A., Shelton, G.D. :
CNS hypomyelination in Rat Terrier dogs with congenital goiter and a mutation in the thyroid peroxidase gene. Vet Pathol 44:50-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17197623. DOI: 10.1354/vp.44-1-50.
2006 Kennedy, LJ., Huson, HJ., Leonard, J., Angles, JM., Fox, LE., Wojciechowski, JW., Yuncker, C., Happ, GM. :
Association of hypothyroid disease in Doberman Pinscher dogs with a rare major histocompatibility complex DLA class II haplotype. Tissue Antigens 67:53-6, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16451201. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00518.x.
2005 Bruchim, Y., Kushnir, A., Shamir, MH. :
L-thyroxine responsive cricopharyngeal achalasia associated with hypothyroidism in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 46:553-4, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16300118.
2003 Beaver, B.V., Haug, L.I. :
Canine behaviors associated with hypothyroidism Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 39:431-4, 2003. Pubmed reference: 14518649.
Boretti, F.S., Breyer-Haube, I., Kaspers, B., Reusch, C.E. :
[Clinical, hematological, biochemical and endocrinological aspects of 32 dogs with hypothyroidism] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 145:149-56, 158-9, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12741092.
Fyfe, J.C., Kampschmidt, K., Dang, V., Poteet, B.A., He, Q., Lowrie, C., Graham, P.A., Fetro, V.M. :
Congenital hypothyroidism with goiter in toy fox terriers Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17:50-7, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12564727.
Hess, R.S., Kass, P.H., Van, Winkle, T.J. :
Association between diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism or hyperadrenocorticism, and atherosclerosis in dogs Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17:489-94, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12892299.
2002 Anon. :
Plasma T4 and TSH levels as important parameters for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 127:488-489, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12219595.
Krishnamurthi, M., Rajan, T.S.S. :
Hypothyroidism in dogs Indian Veterinary Journal 79:166-167, 2002.
McKeown, HM. :
Hypothyroidism in a boxer dog. Can Vet J 43:553-5, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12125189.
Nachreiner, R.M.F., Refsal, K.R., Graham, P.A., Bowman, M.M. :
Prevalence of serum thyroid hormone autoantibodies in dogs with clinical signs of hypothyroidism Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220:466-471, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11860240.
Reusch, C.E., Nett, C.S., Refsal, K.R. :
Autoantibodies against thyroid hormones: a case report about a dog with hypothyroidism and increased concentrations of T4 and T3 Kleintierpraxis 47:595-+, 2002.
Reusch, C.E., Gerber, B., Boretti, F.S. :
Serum fructosamine concentrations in dogs with hypothyroidism Veterinary Research Communications 26:531-536, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12416867.
2001 Earl, J. :
Hypothyroidism in a dog Veterinary Record 148:352, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11316303.
Kemppainen, R.J., Behrend, E.N. :
Diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism - Perspectives from a testing laboratory Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 31:951-+, 2001.
Panciera, D.L. :
Conditions associated with canine hypothyroidism Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice 31:935-+, 2001.
1999 Corcoran, B.M., Dukes-McEwan, J., Rhind, S., French, A. :
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Staffordshire bull terrier with hypothyroidism Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:185-188, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10340250.
Dixon, R.M., Mooney, C.T. :
Evaluation of serum free thyroxine and thyrotropin concentrations in the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:72-78, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10088086.
Panciera, D.L. :
Is it possible to diagnose canine hypothyroidism? Journal of Small Animal Practice 40:152-157, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10340243.
Plotnick, A.N. :
Megaesophagus and hypothyroidism in an English Springer Spaniel and response to thyroxine supplementation Canine Practice 24:14-17, 1999.
1998 Bruner, J.M., Scottmoncrieff, C.R., Williams, D.A. :
Effect of time of sample collection on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in euthyroid and hypothyroid dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212:1572 ff., 1998.
Greco, D.S., Rosychuk, R.A.W., Ogilvie, G.K., Harpold, L.M., Vanliew, C.H. :
The effect of levothyroxine treatment on resting energy expenditure of hypothyroid dogs Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12:7-10, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9503354.
Hess, R.S., Ward, C.R. :
Diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, and hypothyroidism in a dog Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 34:204-207, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9590447.
Kemppainen, R.J., Behrend, E.N. :
Advances in diagnostic testing for canine hypothyroidism Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 20:673 ff., 1998.
Pearson, P.D., Mcginn, O. :
Suspected hypothyroidism in Siberian Huskies Veterinary Record 142:616, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9682425.
Scottmoncrieff, J.C.R., Nelson, R.W., Bruner, J.M., Williams, D.A. :
Comparison of serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone in healthy dogs, hypothyroid dogs, and euthyroid dogs with concurrent disease Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212:387 ff., 1998.
1997 Anon. :
Canine hypothyroidism project receives funding Journal of Small Animal Practice 38:535, 1997.
Cain, J., Panciera, D., Ferguson, D., Refsal, K., Frank, L., Scottmoncrieff, C. :
Question and answer session - treatment Canine Practice 22:61-62, 1997.
Christopher, M.M. :
Hyperlipidemia and other clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with canine hypothyroidism Canine Practice 22:37-38, 1997.
Coates, J.R. :
Neurologic manifestations of hypothyroidism Canine Practice 22:27-28, 1997.
Davidson, A.P. :
Hypothyroidism - establishing the diagnosis in private practice Canine Practice 22:8-9, 1997.
Dodds, J., Greco, D., Ferguson, D., Nachreiner, R., Nelson, R., Ramsey, L., Scottmoncrieff, C., Peterson, M., Cain, J., Feldman, E., Adler, S., Green, R., Duesberg, C., Nichols, R. :
Question and answer session - diagnostic testing Canine Practice 22:52-56, 1997.
Dodds, W.J. :
Autoimmune thyroiditis and polyglandular autoimmunity of purebred dogs Canine Practice 22:18-19, 1997.
Ferguson, D.C. :
Euthyroid sick syndrome Canine Practice 22:49-51, 1997.
Greco, D.S. :
Congenital canine hypothyroidism Canine Practice 22:23-24, 1997.
Greene, R.T. :
Thyroid testing - the full circle Canine Practice 22:10-11, 1997.
Hoppen, H.O., Lohmann, P., Schlote, S., Gunzelapel, A.R., Mullerkonig, A., Grunau, B., Hammerling, R., Leidinger, K., Morisse, B., Nolte, I. :
Specific measurement of canine tsh for diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the dog [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:13-17, 1997.
Johnson, C.A., Nachreiner, R.F., Mullaney, T.P., Olivier, N.B. :
Reproductive manifestations of hypothyroidism Canine Practice 22:29-30, 1997.
Kienle, R.D. :
The effects of hypothyroidism on the cardiovascular system Canine Practice 22:33-34, 1997.
Kintzer, P.P. :
Tsh and trh stimulation testing Canine Practice 22:47-48, 1997.
Lieb, A.S., Grooters, A.M., Tyler, J.W., Partington, B.P., Pechman, R.D. :
Tetraparesis due to vertebral physeal fracture in an adult dog with congenital hypothyroidism Journal of Small Animal Practice 38:364-367, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9282344.
Nachreiner, R.F., Refsal, K.R. :
The Michigan State University thyroid function profile Canine Practice 22:45-46, 1997.
Nelson, R. :
International symposium on canine hypothyroidism - August 3 and 4, 1996 - University of California, Davis - Davis, California - preface Canine Practice 22:4, 1997.
Nelson, R., Rosychuck, R., Scottmoncrieff, C., Ferguson, D., Panciera, D., Johnson, C., Dodds, J., Thacker, E., Henderson, K., Refsal, K., Wolfsheimer, K., Kienle, R., Peterson, M., Greco, D., Frank, L. :
Clinical manifestations Canine Practice 22:35-36, 1997.
Nelson, R.W. :
Use of baseline thyroid hormone concentrations for diagnosing canine hypothyroidism Canine Practice 22:39-40, 1997.
Neumann, S. :
Hypothyroidism as a possible cause of lameness in two dogs [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:1040 ff., 1997.
Panciera, D.L. :
Treatment of hypothyroidism - consequences and complications Canine Practice 22:57-58, 1997.
Panciera, D.L. :
Does abnormal hemostasis occur in canine hypothyroidism Canine Practice 22:31-32, 1997.
Peterson, M.E., Melian, C., Nichols, R. :
Measurement of serum total thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyrotropin concentrations for diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211:1396 ff., 1997.
Ramsey, I., Herrtage, M. :
Distinguishing normal, sick, and hypothyroid dogs using total thyroxine and thyrotropin concentrations Canine Practice 22:43-44, 1997.
Ramsey, I.K., Evans, H., Herrtage, M.E. :
Thyroid-stimulating hormone and total thyroxine concentrations in euthyroid, sick euthyroid and hypothyroid dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 38:540-545, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9444634.
Refsal, K.R., Nachreiner, R.F. :
Thyroid hormone autoantibodies in the dog - their association with serum concentrations of iodothyronines and thyrotropin and distribution by age, sex, and breed of dog Canine Practice 22:16-17, 1997.
Refsal, K.R., Nachreiner, R.F. :
Laboratory monitoring of thyroid supplementation Canine Practice 22:59-60, 1997.
Rosychuk, R.A.W. :
Dermatologic manifestations of canine hypothyroidism and the usefulness of dermatohistopathology in establishing a diagnosis Canine Practice 22:25-26, 1997.
Scottmoncrieff, J.C. :
Serum canine thyrotropin concentrations in experimental and spontaneous canine hypothyroidism Canine Practice 22:41-42, 1997.
Sparkes, C. :
Canine hypothyroidism - a breeders perspective Canine Practice 22:7, 1997.
Thacker, E.L. :
Etiology of adult-onset canine autoimmune hypothyroidism Canine Practice 22:12-13, 1997.
Thorpevargas, S., Refsal, K., Dodds, J., Pedersen, N., Young, D., Thacker, E., Ferguson, D., Sparkes, C., Davidson, A., Henderson, K., Segal, P., Scottmoncrieff, C., Frank, L., Johnson, C., Peterson, M., Green, R., Nachreiner, R., Nelson, R., Lynch, D. :
Etiopathogenesis Canine Practice 22:20-22, 1997.
Young, D.W. :
Antibodies to thyroid hormone and thyroglobulin in canine autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis Canine Practice 22:14-15, 1997.
1996 Anon. :
Canine hypothyroidism investigation receives grant Journal of Small Animal Practice 37:614, 1996.
Benjamin, S.A., Stephens, L.C., Hamilton, B.F., Saunders, W.J., Lee, A.C., Angleton, G.M., Mallinckrodt, C.H. :
Associations between lymphocytic thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and thyroid neoplasia in beagles Veterinary Pathology 33:486-494, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8885174.
Dixon, R.M., Mooney, C.T. :
Investigation of canine hypothyroidism Veterinary Record 139:400, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8913019.
Dixon, R.M., Graham, P.A., Mooney, C.T. :
Serum thyrotropin concentrations - a new diagnostic test for canine hypothyroidism Veterinary Record 138:594-595, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8799987.
Hilsenroth, R. :
Hypothyroidism Canine Practice 21:1, 1996.
Kemppainen, R.J., Young, D.W., Behrend, E.N., Clark, T.P., Smiley, S.D. :
Autoantibodies to triiodothyronine and thyroxine in a golden retriever Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 32:195-198, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8731132.
Kraft, W., Ruschig, S. :
Canine thyroid stimulating hormone (c-tsh) as a diagnostic aid in canine hypothyroidism [German] Kleintierpraxis 41:795 ff., 1996.
Mailles, A., Lugardon, B., Chetboul, V., Siliart, B., Pouchelon, J.L. :
A clinical case of hypothyroidism with cardiovascular complications in a female Schnauzer [French] Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire 172:339-343, 1996.
Nelson, R.W. :
Diagnosis and treatment of canine hypothyroidism Veterinary Quarterly 18:S 29-S 31, 1996.
Paradis, M., Page, N., Lariviere, N., Fontaine, M. :
Serum-free thyroxine concentrations, measured by chemiluminescence assay before and after thyrotropin administration in healthy dogs, hypothyroid dogs, and euthyroid dogs with dermathopathies Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 37:289-294, 1996.
1995 Dodds, W.J. :
Hypothyroidism and von Willebrand factor Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206:594-595, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7744675.
Doliger, S., Delverdier, M., More, J., Longeart, L., Regnier, A., Magnol, J.P. :
Histochemical study of cutaneous mucins in hypothyroid dogs Veterinary Pathology 32:628-634, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8592797.
Grunau, B., Nolte, I., Hoppen, H.O. :
The TRH-test for the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism [German] Kleintierpraxis 40:515 ff., 1995.
Jackson, H.A. :
A case of concurrent sarcoptes scabiei infestation and hypothyroidism in a dog Veterinary Dermatology 6:21-25, 1995.
Panciera, D.L., Johnson, G.S. :
Hypothyroidism and von Willebrand factor - Reply Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206:595-596, 1995.
Thacker, E.L., Davis, J.M., Refsal, K.R., Bull, R.W. :
Isolation of thyroid peroxidase and lack of autoantibodies to the enzyme in dogs with autoimmune thyroid disease American Journal of Veterinary Research 56:34-38, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7695146.
1994 Jaggy, A., Jun, T.G., Tipold, A. :
Neurological Signs Related to Hypothyroidism in the Dog - Review of the Literature and Case Reports Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 136:257-264, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8091179.
Panciera, D.L. :
Hypothyroidism in Dogs - 66 Cases (1987-1992) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204:761-767, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8175472.
Panciera, D.L., Johnson, G.S. :
Plasma von Willebrand factor antigen concentration in dogs with hypothyroidism Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205:1550-1553, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7730121.
1993 Barrie, J., Watson, T.D.G., Stear, M.J., Nash, A.S. :
Plasma Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Concentrations in the Dog - The Effects of Age, Breed, Gender and Endocrine Disease Journal of Small Animal Practice 34:507-512, 1993.
Ford, S.L., Nelson, R.W., Feldman, E.C., Niwa, D. :
Insulin Resistance in 3 Dogs with Hypothyroidism and Diabetes mellitus Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202:1478-1480, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8496104.
Mooney, C.T., Anderson, T.J. :
Congenital Hypothyroidism in a Boxer Dog Journal of Small Animal Practice 34:31-35, 1993.
Sullivan, P., Gompf, R., Schmeitzel, L., Clift, R., Cottrell, M., Mcdonald, T.P. :
Altered platelet indices in dogs with hypothyroidism and cats with hyperthyroidism. American Journal of Veterinary Research 54:2004-2009, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8116929.
1991 Greco, D.S., Feldman, E.C., Peterson, M.E., Turner, J.L., Hodges, C.M., Shipman, L.W. :
Congenital hypothyroid dwarfism in a family of Giant Schnauzers. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 5:57-65, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2061865.
Watson, A.D. :
Congenital hypothyroid dwarfism in a family of giant schnauzers. J Vet Intern Med 5:306-7, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1748985.
1990 Miller, W.H., Buerger, R.G. :
Cutaneous Mucinous Vesiculation in a Dog with Hypothyroidism Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196:757-759, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2307615.
1989 Verschueren, C., Belshaw, B.E. :
Canine Hypothyroidism - Etiology, Incidence, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 133:565-581, 1989.
1988 Robinson, W.F., Shaw, S.E., Stanley, B., Wyburn, R.S. :
Congenital hypothyroidism in Scottish Deerhound puppies. Aust Vet J 65:386-9, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3223852. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1988.tb14279.x.

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