OMIA:001071-9685 : Wilson disease in Felis catus (domestic cat)

In other species: dog , pig , taurine cattle , sheep

Categories: Liver/biliary system phene

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s)s (MIM numbers): 277900 (trait) , 606882 (gene)

Links to MONDO diseases:

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2019

Cross-species summary: A disorder of copper metabolism, due to a deficiency of ceruloplasmin, which forms a complex with copper. The excess copper is deposited in the brain (causing mental retardation) or the liver (causing jaundice and cirrhosis).

Molecular basis: Noting the similarity of the clinical signs of a single "crossbred" cat (described in Clinical features section) to Wilson disease in humans, Asada et al. (2019) sequenced comparative functional genes in the affected cat and identified the variant c.3890C>G (p. T1297R) of the ATP7B gene as being likely causal. The authors reported that "the patient and its littermate had a single‐nucleotide variation (SNV, p. T1297R) that impaired the function of the ATP7B gene product; the gene that is mutated in patients with Wilson's disease (WD). Hepatic copper accumulation was believed to be associated with the SNV of the ATP7B gene, and the patient had a genetic disorder of copper metabolism equivalent to WD in humans." Asada et al. identified a second likely causal variant ATP7B in 2020: "Upon sequence analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from the five cats with HCA [hepatic copper accumulation] ... p.T1297R and p.P550L were predicted to have high functional effects. The latter was common in two cats (cases 2 and 4). All SNVs identified herein were homozygous. The region containing p.T1297R was within the copper-transporting P-type ATPase domain and that containing p.P550L was within the copper-binding domain." Recchia et al. (2023) investigated a 2-year-old domestic longhair cat with a primary copper hepatopathy (PCH): "Sanger sequencing of the cat’s ATP7B gene, which encodes a copper-transporting protein, revealed a novel, ‘likely pathogenic’, single nucleotide variation (c.3670t/a [p.Trp1224Arg]), for which the cat is heterozygous. ... The cat is ... the first reported with PCH and a ‘likely pathogenic’ heterozygous ATP7B genotype, which suggests that normal ATP7B alleles could be recessive to or incompletely/co- dominant with deleterious ATP7B alleles in cats, as has been reported in other species."

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Clinical features: Asada et al. (2019): "A 9‐month‐old intact crossbred female cat was presented with jaundice, intermittent anorexia and lethargy, increased hepatic enzyme activities, and hyperammonemia. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomographic examinations determined that the liver had a rounded and irregular margin, and histopathological examination identified excessive accumulation of copper hepatocytes in the liver. Concentrations of both blood and urine copper were higher than in healthy cats."

Prevalence: In a survey of 54 cats for whom "intraoperative liver tissue specimens" were available, Asada et al. (2020) reported 4 with "hepatic copper accumulation (HCA)", three of which had "single-nucleotide variations in ATP7B".

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
ATP7B ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide Felis catus A1 NC_058368.1 (19504571..19582654) ATP7B Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Inferred EVA rsID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
1347 Wilson disease ATP7B missense Naturally occurring variant A1 p.(P550L) 2020 31687873
1590 Domestic Longhair Wilson disease ATP7B missense Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 A1 g.19609511T>A c.3670T>A p.(W1224R) XM_023251165.1; XP_023106933.1; variant heterozygous in a single affected cat 2023 37427085
1136 Wilson disease ATP7B missense Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 A1 g.19611002C>G c.3890C>G p.(T1297R) XM_023251176.1; XM_023251176.1 2019 30561139 Genomic position in Felis_catus_9.0 provided by Leslie Lyons and Reuben Buckley.

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001071-9685: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Recchia, B.K., Stokol, T., Goto-Koshino, Y., Ohno, K., Miner, K.D. :
Diagnosis, management and genetic analysis of a cat with primary copper hepatopathy. JFMS Open Rep 9:20551169231177275, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37427085. DOI: 10.1177/20551169231177275.
2020 Asada, H., Chambers, J.K., Kojima, M., Goto-Koshino, Y., Nakagawa, T., Yokoyama, N., Tsuboi, M., Uchida, K., Tsujimoto, H., Ohno, K. :
Variations in ATP7B in cats with primary copper-associated hepatopathy. J Feline Med Surg 22:753-759, 2020. Pubmed reference: 31687873. DOI: 10.1177/1098612X19884763.
2019 Asada, H., Kojima, M., Nagahara, T., Goto-Koshino, Y., Chambers, J.K., Nakagawa, T., Yokoyama, N., Uchida, K., Tsujimoto, H., Ohno, K. :
Hepatic copper accumulation in a young cat with familial variations in the ATP7B gene. J Vet Intern Med 33:874-878, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30561139. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.15399.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 10 Dec 2019
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 10 Dec 2019
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 02 Oct 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Sep 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 22 Jul 2023