OMIA:001360-9031 : Trimethylaminuria (fishy taint) in Gallus gallus (chicken)

In other species: Mallard , taurine cattle , Japanese quail

Categories: Homeostasis / metabolism phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 602079 (trait) , 136132 (gene)

Links to relevant human diseases in MONDO:

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2005

Species-specific name: Fishy taint of eggs

Mapping: By genotyping pools (n=20) of tainting and non-tainting members within each of five half-sib families segregating this trait, with 119 microsatellite markers covering 25 linkage groups, Honkatukia et al. (2005) conducted a genome scan for this trait. After genotyping the four most-likely linkage groups with additional microsatellites, these authors had narrowed the field down to just one linkage group, corresponding to chromosome GGA8. Then, utilising an intronic SNP between exons 5 and 7 of the obvious (comparative) candidate gene, namely FMO3, and the same markers as used previously to map the trait, Honkatukia et al. (2005) showed that this gene "maps 5 cM (Kosambi, sex-averaged) distal to the end (MCW275) of our microsatellite linkage map of GGA8". They then showed that there is zero recombination between the trait and FMO3.

Molecular basis: By sequencing the highly-likely comparative and positional candidate gene (FMO3), Honkatukia et al. (2005) showed that this disorder is due to a 1034A>T base substitution in the FMO3 gene, leading to a T329S amino-acid substitution.

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
FMO3 flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 Gallus gallus 8 NC_052539.1 (4818686..4811564) FMO3 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
860 Beijing You, China (Chicken) Commercial strain- layer- ISA Brown (Chicken) Commercial strain- layer- Lohmann Brown (Chicken) Marans (Chicken) Rhode Island Red (Chicken) TETRA strain, United States of America (Chicken) Transylvanian Naked Neck (Chicken) Trimethylaminuria (fishy taint) FMO3 missense Naturally occurring variant 8 c.1034A>T p.(T329S) 2005 15916878

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2017). OMIA:001360-9031: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2021 Song, J., Huang, M., Shi, X., Li, X., Chen, X., He, Z., Li, J., Xu, G., Zheng, J. :
T329S mutation in the FMO3 gene alleviates lipid metabolic diseases in chickens in the late laying period. Animals (Basel) 12:48, 2021. Pubmed reference: 35011153. DOI: 10.3390/ani12010048.
2013 Chu, Q., Zhang, J., Zhu, S., Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Geng, A., Liu, H. :
The detection and elimination of flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 gene T329S mutation in the Beijing You chicken. Poult Sci 92:3109-12, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24235218. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2013-03285.
Wang, J., Wu, S.G., Zhang, H.J., Yue, H.Y., Xu, L., Ji, F., Xu, L., Qi, G.H. :
Trimethylamine deposition in the egg yolk from laying hens with different FMO3 genotypes. Poult Sci 92:746-52, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23436525. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02313.
2012 Wang, J., Yue, H.Y., Xia, Z.Q., Wu, S.G., Zhang, H.J., Ji, F., Xu, L., Qi, G.H. :
Effect of dietary choline supplementation under different flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 genotypes on trimethylamine metabolism in laying hens. Poult Sci 91:2221-8, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22912456. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-02074.
2009 Ward, A.K., Classen, H.L., Buchanan, F.C. :
Fishy-egg tainting is recessively inherited when brown-shelled layers are fed canola meal. Poult Sci 88:714-21, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19276413. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00430.
2005 Honkatukia, M., Reese, K., Preisinger, R., Tuiskula-Haavisto, M., Weigend, S., Roito, J., Mäki-Tanila, A., Vilkki, J. :
Fishy taint in chicken eggs is associated with a substitution within a conserved motif of the FMO3 gene. Genomics 86:225-32, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15916878. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2005.04.005.
1984 Butler, E.J., Pearson, A.W., Greenwood, N.M. :
Trimethylamine taint in eggs: the occurrence of the causative metabolic defect in commercial hybrids and pure breeds in relation to shell colour. J Sci Food Agric 35:272-8, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6708469. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740350305.
1983 Pearson, A.W., Butler, E.J. :
Effects of selective breeding and age on the ability of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) to oxidize trimethylamine. Comp Biochem Physiol C Comp Pharmacol Toxicol 76:67-74, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6139259. DOI: 10.1016/0742-8413(83)90045-2.
1981 Fenwick, G.R., Curl, C.L., Pearson, A.W., Butler, E.J. :
Production of egg taint by fish meal. Vet Rec 109:292, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7336535. DOI: 10.1136/vr.109.13.292.
1980 Pearson, A.W., Greenwood, N.M., Butler, E.J., Fenwick, G.R. :
Low glucosinolate rapeseed meals and egg taint. Vet Rec 106:560, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7434530. DOI: 10.1136/vr.106.26.560.
Pearson, A.W., Butler, E.J., Fenwick, G.R. :
Rapeseed meal and egg taint: the role of sinapine. J Sci Food Agric 31:898-904, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7464065. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740310906.
1979 Griffiths, N.M., Land, D.G., Hobson-Frohock, A. :
Trimethylamine and egg taint. Br Poult Sci 20:555-8, 1979. Pubmed reference: 543971. DOI: 10.1080/00071667908416620.
Pearson, A.W., Butler, E.J., Curtis, R.F., Fenwick, G.R., Hobson-Frohock, A., Land, D.G. :
Rapeseed meal and egg taint: Demonstration of the metabolic defect in male and female chicks. Vet Rec 104:318-9, 1979. Pubmed reference: 552695. DOI: 10.1136/vr.104.14.318.
1978 Pearson, A.W., Butler, E.J., Curtis, R.F., Fenwick, G.R., Hobson-Frohock, A., Land, D.G., Hall, S.A. :
Effects of rapeseed meal on laying hens (Gallus domesticus) in relation to fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome and egg taint. Res Vet Sci 25:307-13, 1978. Pubmed reference: 749083.
1976 Bolton, W., Carter, T.C., Morley Jones, R. :
The hen's egg: genetics of taints in eggs from hens fed on rapeseed meal. British Poultry Science 17:313-320, 1976.
1973 Hobson-Frohock, A., Land, D.G., Griffiths, N.M., Curtis, R.F. :
Letter: Egg taints: association with trimethylamine. Nature 243:304-5, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4743217. DOI: 10.1038/243304a0.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 12 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 01 Sep 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 11 Oct 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 09 Dec 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 03 Dec 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 05 Dec 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 11 Dec 2017