OMIA:000439-9838 : Hair, long in Camelus dromedarius (Arabian camel)

In other species: dog , domestic cat , ass (donkey) , llama , taurine cattle , goat , sheep , rabbit , golden hamster , domestic guinea pig , domestic yak , alpaca

Categories: Integument (skin) phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 190330 (trait) , 165190 (gene)

Links to relevant human diseases in MONDO:

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal co-dominant

Considered a defect: no

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2021

Cross-species summary: Long hair = angora

Species-specific description: Maraqa et al. (2021): "Camel hair length ranges from short to long (Porter et al. 2016; Alhaddad & Alhajeri 2019 ...). However, moderate hair length is preferred in camel breeding excellence competitions of the Arabian Peninsula ... . ... camel hair is used in various materials including knitting yarns, oriental rags and clothing (Sharma & Pant 2013)." Maraqa et al. (2021) "developed a fast qualitative approach to estimate hair length in camels by photographing a splayed hand pressed onto mid-torso hair during the peak of hair growth" and used a candidate gene approach to identify a missense variant that is associated with hair length.

Molecular basis: Maraqa et al. (2021) used a candidate gene approach to identify a c.779C>T, p.(P260L) mutation in the FGF5 gene that is associated with hair-length variation. The authors sequenced the FGF5 gene in 28 animals from several breeds of dromedaries (Mejaheem, Shaele, Sofor, Waddah and Omani) and validated the association of the identified c.779C>T variant with hair length in additional camels (n = 113, including 5 trios). Animals with short hair were homozygous for the C allele, animals with intermediate hair were heterozygous and animals with long hair were homozygous for the T allele.

Prevalence: Maraqa et al. (2021): "The allele frequencies were 0.525 and 0.149 for (C) and (T) respectively."

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
FGF5 fibroblast growth factor 5 Camelus dromedarius 1 NC_087436.1 (77012309..77031910) FGF5 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
1343 Long hair FGF5 missense Naturally occurring variant CamDro3 2 g.76625546C>T c.779C>T p.(P260L) cDNA and protein positions based on transcript ENSCDRT00005003721.1 2021 34432312

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2021). OMIA:000439-9838: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2021 Maraqa, T., Alhajeri, B.H., Alhaddad, H. :
FGF5 missense mutation is associated with dromedary hair length variation. Anim Genet 52:848-856, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34432312. DOI: 10.1111/age.13132.
2019 Alhaddad, H., Alhajeri, B.H. :
Cdrom archive: A gateway to study camel phenotypes. Front Genet 10:48, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30804986. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00048.
2016 Porter, V., Alderson, L., Hall, S.J.G., Sponenberg, D.P. :
Mason’s World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding. CABI , 2016.
2013 Sharma, A., Pant, S. :
Studies on camel hair-Merino wool blended knitted fabrics. Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research 38:317-319, 2013.

Edit History

  • Created by Imke Tammen2 on 27 Aug 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 27 Aug 2021