OMIA 000595-9913 : Leukocyte adhesion deficiency, type I in Bos taurus

In other species: dog , domestic cat , water buffalo

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 116920

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 1992

Cross-species summary: Affected animals die because of extreme susceptibility to infections, caused by an inability of white blood cells (leukocytes) to pass from the blood stream into infected tissue. This inability is due to the lack of a membrane glycoprotein called the leukocyte integrin beta-2 subunit or CD18.

Species-specific name: Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency; Haplotype HHB

Species-specific symbol: BLAD; HHB

Mapping: In the course of their large-scale study of BovineSNP50 BeadChip haplotypes that are common but never homozygous, VanRaden et al. (2011) confirmed the mapping of this disorder to BTA1 at 141-146Mb (UMD 3.0 genome assembly).

Molecular basis: By cloning and sequencing a very likely comparative candidate gene (based on the same disorder in humans), Shuster et al. (1992; PNAS) showed that this disorder in Holstein cattle is due to a missense mutation (c.383A>G) in the CD18 gene, now known as ITGB2.

This mutation was confirmed in Daetwyler et al. (2014)'s analysis of whole-genome sequence data from 234 cattle, including key ancestors of the Holstein-Friesian, Fleckvieh and Jersey breeds: the c.383A>G mutation was identified in only four Holstein bulls in this study, each of which had previously been identified as a carrier.

Breed: Holstein.

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
ITGB2 integrin subunit beta 2 Bos taurus 1 NC_037328.1 (144788839..144759539) ITGB2 Homologene, Ensembl, NCBI gene

Variants

By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective.

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Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
Fleckvieh Holstein-Friesian Jersey Leukocyte adhesion deficiency, type I ITGB2 missense UMD3.1 1 g.145114963A>G c.383A>G p.D128G rs445709131 1992 1384046 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool; Breed information kindly provided or confirmed by Matt McClure and Jennifer McClure from "Understanding Genetics and Complete Genetic Disease and Trait Definition (Expanded 2016 Edition)" (https://www.icbf.com/wp/?page_id=2170)

References


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2016 Alyethodi, R.R., Singh, U., Kumar, S., Deb, R., Alex, R., Sharma, S., Sengar, G.S., Prakash, B. :
Development of a fast and economical genotyping protocol for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in cattle. Springerplus 5:1442, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27652018. DOI: 10.1186/s40064-016-3148-7.
Cole, J.B., Null, D.J., VanRaden, P.M. :
Phenotypic and genetic effects of recessive haplotypes on yield, longevity, and fertility. J Dairy Sci 99:7274-88, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27394947. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2015-10777.
2014 Daetwyler, H.D., Capitan, A., Pausch, H., Stothard, P., van Binsbergen, R., Brøndum, R.F., Liao, X., Djari, A., Rodriguez, S.C., Grohs, C., Esquerré, D., Bouchez, O., Rossignol, M.N., Klopp, C., Rocha, D., Fritz, S., Eggen, A., Bowman, P.J., Coote, D., Chamberlain, A.J., Anderson, C., VanTassell, C.P., Hulsegge, I., Goddard, M.E., Guldbrandtsen, B., Lund, M.S., Veerkamp, R.F., Boichard, D.A., Fries, R., Hayes, B.J. :
Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle. Nat Genet 46:858-65, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25017103. DOI: 10.1038/ng.3034.
2012 Nasreen, F., Malik, N.A., Qureshi, J.A., Raadsma, H.W., Tammen, I. :
Identification of a null allele in genetic tests for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle. Mol Cell Probes 26:259-62, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22374219. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2012.01.004.
2011 Sun, D.X., Fan, X.H., Xie, Y., Chu, Q., Sun, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, S.L., Gong, W.J., Chen, S.H., Li, Y.H., Shi, W.H., Zhang, Y. :
Short communication: Distribution of recessive genetic defect carriers in Chinese Holstein. J Dairy Sci 94:5695-8, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22032394. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2011-4345.
VanRaden, P.M., Olson, K.M., Null, D.J., Hutchison, J.L. :
Harmful recessive effects on fertility detected by absence of homozygous haplotypes. J Dairy Sci 94:6153-61, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22118103. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2011-4624.
2010 Meydan, H., Yildiz, MA., Agerholm, JS. :
Screening for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, bovine citrullinaemia, and factor XI deficiency in Holstein cows reared in Turkey. Acta Vet Scand 52:56, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20929557. DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-52-56.
2009 Nasreen, F., Altaf Malik, N., Naeem Riaz, M., Anver Qureshi, J. :
Detection and screening of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistan using molecular methods. Hereditas 146:74-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19490168. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5223.2009.02093.x.
2008 Cítek, J., Rehout, V., Schröffelová, D., Hradecká, E. :
Frequency of BLAD and CVM alleles in sires and elite heifers of Czech Holstein cattle. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 115:475-7, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19113030.
Schütz, E., Scharfenstein, M., Brenig, B. :
Implication of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency DNA-based testing on disease frequency in the Holstein population. J Dairy Sci 91:4854-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19038961. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1154.
2007 Czarnik, U., Grzybowski, G., Kamiński, S., Prusak, B., Zabolewicz, T. :
Effectiveness of a program aimed at the elimination of BLAD-carrier bulls from Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. J Appl Genet 48:375-7, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17998595. DOI: 10.1007/BF03195235.
Li, YH., Zhang, SL., Han, GW., Xue, JH., Zhao, P. :
[A method for detecting bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein calves using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis] Yi Chuan 29:1471-4, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18065382.
Patel, RK., Singh, KM., Soni, KJ., Chauhan, JB., Sambasiva Rao, KR. :
Low incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds. J Appl Genet 48:153-5, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17495349.
2006 Akyuz, B., Ertugrul O :
Detection of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Turkish native and Holstein cattle. Acta Vet Hung 54:173-8, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16841755. DOI: 10.1556/AVet.54.2006.2.4.
Ma, JZ., Cui, YD., Zhu, ZB., Cao, HW., Piao, FZ. :
[Investigation on bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency] Yi Chuan 28:1233-6, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17035180.
2005 Norouzy, A., Nassiry, MR., Eftekhari Shahrody, F., Javadmanesh, A., Mohammad Abadi, MR., Sulimova, GE. :
Identification of bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Holstein and Brown Swiss AI bulls in Iran. Genetika 41:1697-701, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16396457.
2004 Gu, YC., Bauer, TR., Ackermann, MR., Smith, CW., Kehrli, ME., Starost, MF., Hickstein, DD. :
The genetic immunodeficiency disease, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, in humans, dogs, cattle, and mice. Comp Med 54:363-72, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15357315.
Nagahata, H. :
Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): a review. J Vet Med Sci 66:1475-82, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15644595.
Nagahata, H., Takahashi, K., Inanami, O., Kuwabara, M. :
Decreased apoptosis of beta 2- integrin-deficient bovine neutrophils. Immunol Cell Biol 82:32-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14984592. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1711.2004.01202.x.
2003 Diez-Fraile, A., Meyer, E., Duchateau, L., Burvenich, C. :
L-selectin and beta2-integrin expression on circulating bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes during endotoxin mastitis. J Dairy Sci 86:2334-42, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12906050. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73826-0.
2002 Arrayet, J.L., Oberbauer, A.M., Famula, T.R., Garnett, I., Oltjen, J.W., Imhoof, J., Kehrli, M.E., Graham, T.W. :
Growth of Holstein calves from birth to 90 days: The influence of dietary zinc and BLAD status Journal of Animal Science 80:545-552, 2002. Pubmed reference: 11890391.
Nagahata, H., Hagiwara, K., Kasamatsu, M., Higuchi, H., Kurosawa, T. :
Cytokine profile of a Holstein calf with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency during the acute-phase inflammatory response Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 64:1141-1143, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12520109.
2001 Santos, R.L., Zhang, S., Tsolis, R.M., Kingsley, R.A., Adams, L.G., Bäumler, A.J. :
Animal models of Salmonella infections: enteritis versus typhoid fever. Microbes Infect 3:1335-44, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11755423.
2000 Deptula, W., Czurlowska, M., Medrala, D. :
Inborn deficit of adhesion receptors: a new type of disease in cattle, dogs and humans [Review] [Polish] Medycyna Weterynaryjna 56:150-153, 2000.
Mukhopadhyaya, P.N., Mehta, H.H., Rathod, R.N. :
A method for the simulation of normal, carrier and affected controls for PCR-RFLP screening of a genetic disease in dairy cattle Molecular & Cellular Probes 14:381-384, 2000.
Nagahata, H., Higuchi, H., Kasamatsu, M. :
Analysis of cell-mediated cytotoxicity of CD18-deficient bovine neutrophils Comparative Haematology International 10:102-104, 2000.
Ribeiro, L.A., Baron, E.E., Martinez, M.L., Coutinho, L.L. :
PCR screening and allele frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein and Gir cattle in Brazil Genetics & Molecular Biology 23:831-834, 2000.
Taniyama, H., Yamamoto, S., Sako, T., Hirayama, K., Higuchi, H., Nagahata, H. :
Systemic kappa AL amyloidosis associated with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency Veterinary Pathology 37:98-100, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10643989.
1999 Fesus, L., Zsolnai, A., Anton, I., Barany, I., Bozo, S. :
BLAD genotypes and cow production traits in Hungarian Holsteins Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics-Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 116:169-174, 1999.
Janosa, A., Baranyai, B., Dohy, J. :
Comparison of milk production of the progeny of BLAD-carrier and healthy Holstein bulls in Hungary Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 47:283-289, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10497821. DOI: 10.1556/AVet.47.1999.3.1.
Nagahata, H., Matsuki, S., Higuchi, H., Inanami, O., Kuwabara, M., Kobayashi, K. :
Bone marrow transplantation in a Holstein heifer with bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (vol 156, pg 15, 1998) Veterinary Journal 157:107, 1999.
Padeeri, M., Vijaykumar, K., Grupe, S., Narayan, M.P., Schwerin, M., Kumar, M.H. :
Incidence of hereditary Citrullinemia and bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome in Indian dairy cattle (Bos taurus, Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) population Archiv fur Tierzucht-Archives of Animal Breeding 42:347-352, 1999.
Sipes, K.M., Edens, H.A., Kehrli, M.E., Miettinen, H.M., Cutler, J.E., Jutila, M.A., Quinn, M.T. :
Analysis of surface antigen expression and host defense function in leukocytes from calves heterozygous or homozygous for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency American Journal of Veterinary Research 60:1255-1261, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10791939.
Wanner, J.M., Rogers, G.W., Kehrli, M.E., Cooper, J.B. :
Clinical mastitis in primiparous Holsteins: Comparisons of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers and noncarriers Journal of Dairy Science 82:2517-2523, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10575620. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75504-9.
1998 Nagahata, H., Matsuki, S., Higuchi, H., Inanami, O., Kuwabara, M., Kobayashi, K. :
Bone marrow transplantation in a Holstein heifer with bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency Veterinary Journal 156:15-21, 1998.
Nagahata, H., Sakurai, N., Matsuki, S., Miura, T., Nioka, K., Kociba, G.J. :
Survival of transfused CD18-POSITIVE granulocytes and their chemiluminescent response in a heifer with leukocyte adhesion deficiency Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 60:261-262, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9524955.
Taralik, K. :
Association between BLAD carrier and non-BLAD carrier of Holstein-Friesian bulls and the production of their daughters Archiv fur Tierzucht-Archives of Animal Breeding 41:339-344, 1998.
Wanner, J.M., Rogers, G.W., Kehrli, M.E., Cooper, J.B. :
Intramammary infections in primiparous Holsteins: Heritabilities and comparisons of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers and noncarriers Journal of Dairy Science 81:3293-3299, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9891275. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75894-1.
1997 Cox, E., Mast, J., Machugh, N., Schwenger, B., Goddeeris, B.M. :
Expression of beta-2 integrins on blood leukocytes of cows with or without bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 58:249-263, 1997.
Heckert, HP., Wittstatt, U., Hofmann, W. :
[Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD)--a hereditary disease in cattle] Tierarztl Prax 25:344-50, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9312893.
Jorgensen, J.N., Madsen, P. :
Genetic parameters for and BLAD effects on beef production traits and disease frequency Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A-Animal Science 47:1-8, 1997.
Kriegesmann, B., Jansen, S., Baumgartner, B.G., Brenig, B. :
Partial genomic structure of the bovine CD18 gene and the refinement of test for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency Journal of Dairy Science 80:2547-2549, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9361228. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76209-X.
Meylan, M., Abegg, R., Sager, H., Jungi, T.W., Martig, J. :
Case report - bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) syndrome in Switzerland [German] Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 139:277-281, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9411734.
Muller, K.E., Hoek, A., Rutten, V.P.M.G., Bernadina, W.E., Wentink, G.H. :
Antigen-specific immune responses in cattle with inherited beta(2)-integrin deficiency Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 58:39-53, 1997.
Nagahata, H., Masuyama, A., Masue, M., Yuki, M., Higuchi, H., Ohtsuka, H., Kurosawa, T., Sato, H., Noda, H. :
Leukocyte emigration in normal calves and calves with leukocyte adhesion deficiency Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59:1143-1147, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9450245.
Nagahata, H., Miura, T., Tagaki, K., Ohtake, M., Noda, H., Yasuda, T., Nioka, K. :
Prevalence and allele frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Japan Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59:233-238, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9152929.
Zsolnai, A., Fesus, L. :
Enhancement of PCR-RFLP typing of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency Biotechniques 23:380-382, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9298201.
1996 Ackermann, M.R., Kehrli, M.E., Laufer, J.A., Nusz, L.T. :
Alimentary and respiratory tract lesions in eight medically fragile Holstein cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) Veterinary Pathology 33:273-281, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8740700.
Andrews, A.H., Fishwick, J., Waters, R.J. :
Bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in a one year old Holstein Friesian bull - the first report in the United Kingdom British Veterinary Journal 152:347-351, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8762611.
Gerardi, A.S. :
Bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency - a review of a modern disease and its implications Research in Veterinary Science 61:183-186, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8938844.
Gerardi, A.S. :
Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency - a brief overview of a modern disease and its implications Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44:1-8, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8826696.
Hochman, D., Zaron, Y., Dekel, I., Feldmesser, E., Medrano, J.F., Shani, M., Ron, M. :
Multiple genotype analysis and sexing of ivf bovine embryos Theriogenology 46:1063-1075, 1996.
Nagahata, H., Higuchi, H., Goji, N., Noda, H., Kuwabara, M. :
Functional characteristics of enhanced Fc receptor expression of beta(2) integrin-deficient bovine mononuclear phagocytes Microbiology & Immunology 40:389-395, 1996.
Nagahata, H., Higuchi, H., Nochi, H., Tamoto, K., Araiso, T., Noda, H., Kociba, G.J. :
Biosynthesis of B-2-integrin, intracellular calcium signalling and functional responses of normal and CD18-deficient bovine neutrophils Research in Veterinary Science 61:95-101, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8880976.
Nagahata, H., Higuchi, H., Noda, H., Tamoto, K., Kuwabara, M. :
Adhesiveness for extracellular matrices and lysosomal enzyme release from normal and beta(2) integrin-deficient bovine neutrophils Microbiology & Immunology 40:783-786, 1996.
Poli, M.A., Dewey, R., Semorile, L., Lozano, M.E., Albarino, C.G., Romanowski, V., Grau, O. :
PCR screening for carriers of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) and uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) in Argentine Holstein cattle Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin - Reihe A 43:163-168, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8693839.
Powell, R.L., Norman, H.D., Cowan, C.M. :
Relationship of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency with genetic merit for performance traits Journal of Dairy Science 79:895-899, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8792288. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76438-X.
Rutten, V.P.M.G., Hoek, A., Muller, K.E. :
Identification of monoclonal antibodies with specificity to alpha- or beta-chains of BETA(2)-INTEGRINS using peripheral blood leucocytes of normal and bovine leucocyte adhesion deficient (blad) cattle Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 52:341-345, 1996.
Stober, M. :
Clinical symptomatology of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) [Hungarian] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 51:152-154, 1996.
Tammen, I., Klippert, H., Kuczka, A., Treviranus, A., Pohlenz, J., Stober, M., Simon, D., Harlizius, B. :
An improved DNA test for bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency Research in Veterinary Science 60:218-221, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8735510.
Zsolnai, A., Fesus, L. :
Simultaneous analysis of bovine kappa-casein and BLAD alleles by multiplex PCR followed by parallel digestion with two restriction enzymes Animal Genetics 27:207-209, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8759124.
1995 Healy, P.J., Dennis, J.A., Moule, J.F. :
Use of hair root as a source of DNA for the detection of heterozygotes for recessive defects in cattle Australian Veterinary Journal 72:392, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8599573.
Mirck, M.H., Vonbannissehtwijsmuller, T., Timmermansbesselink, W.J.H., Vanluijk, J.H.L., Bunter, J.B. :
Optimization of the PCR test for the mutation causing bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency Cellular and Molecular Biology 41:695-698, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7580848.
Muller, K.E., Rutten, V.P.M.G., Becker, C.K., Hoek, A., Bernadina, W.E., Wentink, G.H., Figdor, C.G. :
Allograft rejection in cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 48:55-63, 1995.
Nagahata, H., Nochi, H., Tamoto, K., Yamashita, K., Noda, H., Kociba, G.J. :
Characterization of functions of neutrophils from bone marrow of cattle with leukocyte adhesion deficiency American Journal of Veterinary Research 56:167-171, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7717579.
Nagahata, H., Taniyama, H., Izumisawa, Y., Kotani, T., Noda, H., Kociba, G.J. :
Radiographic and immunohistochemical analysis of leukocyte adhesion deficiency in holstein heifers Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 59:316-318, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8548695.
Ryncarz, R.E., Dietz, A.B., Kehrli, M.E. :
Recognition of leukochimerism during genotyping for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (blad) by polymerase-chain-reaction-amplified dna extracted from blood Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 7:569-572, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8580190.
Schilcher, F., Hotter, H., Tammen, I., Schuh, M. :
Occurrence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) of Holstein Friesian in Austria [German] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 82:207-212, 1995.
Tainturier, D., Grobet, L., Brouwers, B., Bruyas, J.F., Fieni, F., Battut, I., Lecoanet, J., Douart, A., Breyton, I., Duclos, P. :
Diagnosis of a genetic disease, the bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 146:189-193, 1995.
Worku, M., Paape, M.J., Dicarlo, A., Kehrli, M.E., Marquardt, W.W. :
Complement component C3b and immunoglobulin Fc receptors on neutrophils from calves with leukocyte adhesion deficiency American Journal of Veterinary Research 56:435-439, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7785817.
1994 Batt, C.A., Wagner, P., Wiedmann, M., Luo, J.Y., Gilbert, R. :
Detection of Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency by Nonisotopic Ligase Chain Reaction Animal Genetics 25:95-98, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7912052.
Lienau, A., Stober, M., Kehrli, M.E., Tammen, I., Schwenger, B., Kuczka, A., Pohlenz, J. :
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency - Clinical Syndrome and Differential Diagnosis Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 101:405-406, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7851303.
Moser, M., Pfister, H., Bruckmaier, R.M., Rehage, J., Blum, J.W. :
Blood serum transferrin concentration in cattle in various physiological states, in veal calves fed different amounts of iron, and in cattle affected by infectious and non-infectious diseases Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe A - Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 41:413-420, 1994.
Muller, K.E., Bernadina, W.E., Kalsbeek, H.C., Hoek, A., Rutten, V.P.M.G., Wentink, G.H. :
Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency clinical course and laboratory findings in eight affected animals Veterinary Quarterly 16:65-71, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7985357.
Muller, K.E., Bernadina, W.E., Kalsbeek, H.C., Hoek, A., Rutten, V.P.M.G., Wentink, G.H. :
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency - Clinical Course and Laboratory Findings in 8 Affected Animals Veterinary Quarterly 16:27-33, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8009815.
Nagahata, H., Hatakeyama, K., Izumisawa, Y., Noda, H., Nochi, H., Tamoto, K. :
2 Cases of Holstein Calves with Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (Blad) - (Case Report) Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 101:53-56, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8149901.
Nagahata, H., Kehrli, M.E., Murata, H., Okada, H., Noda, H., Kociba, G.J. :
Neutrophil Function and Pathologic Findings in Holstein Calves with Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency American Journal of Veterinary Research 55:40-48, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7908182.
Nagahata, H., Nochi, H., Sanada, Y., Tamoto, K., Noda, H., Kociba, G.J. :
Analysis of mononuclear cell functions in Holstein cattle with leukocyte adhesion deficiency American Journal of Veterinary Research 55:1101-1106, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7978649.
Nagahata, H., Tanaka, S., Oba, M., Minami, S., Noda, H. :
Serum Biochemical Changes and Chemiluminescent Responses of Whole Blood in Holstein Cattle with Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 56:657-660, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7999886.
Olchowy, T.W.J., Bochsler, P.N., Neilsen, N.R., Welborn, M.G., Slauson, D.O. :
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency - In Vitro Assessment of Neutrophil Function and Leukocyte Integrin Expression Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire 58:127-133, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7911733.
Olchowy, T.W.J., Bochsler, P.N., Welborn, M.G. :
Clinicopathological Findings in a Holstein Calf with Peripheral Leukocytosis and Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 35:242-243, 1994.
Vangarderen, E., Muller, K.E., Wentink, G.H., Vandeningh, T.S.G.A.M. :
Post-Mortem Findings in Calves Suffering from Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) Veterinary Quarterly 16:24-26, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7912019.
1993 Ackermann, M.R., Kehrli, M.E., Hawkins, H.K., Amenson, J.L., Gallagher, J.E. :
Identification of beta-2-Integrins in Bovine Neutrophils by Scanning Electron Microscopy in the Backscatter Mode and Transmission Electron Microscopy Veterinary Pathology 30:296-298, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8101403.
Ackermann, M.R., Kehrli, M.E., Morfitt, D.C. :
Ventral Dermatitis and Vasculitis in a Calf with Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202:413-415, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8440633.
Agerholm, J.S., Houe, H., Jorgensen, C.B., Basse, A. :
Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Danish Holstein-Friesian cattle. 2. Patho-anatomical description of affected calves Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 34:237-243, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8310896.
Bernadina, W.E., Duits, A.J., Kalsbeek, H.C., Wensing, T., Leibold, W., Elving, L., Wentink, G.H. :
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency in a Dutch Holstein Calf - A Case with a Clear-Cut Family History Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 37:295-308, 1993. Pubmed reference: 7901936.
Cox, E., Kuczka, A., Tammen, I., Schwenger, B., Bonte, P., Goddeeris, B. :
Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency in Cattle and Dogs - A Genetic Defect of the Immune System Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 62:71-79, 1993.
Gilbert, R.O., Rebhun, W.C., Kim, C.A., Kehrli, M.E., Shuster, D.E., Ackermann, M.R. :
Clinical Manifestations of Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency in Cattle - 14 Cases (1977-1991) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202:445-449, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8095042.
Grobet, L., Charlier, C., Hanset, R. :
Diagnosis of Bovine Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) at the DNA Level Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 137:27-31, 1993.
Jorgensen, C.B., Agerholm, J.S., Pedersen, J., Thomsen, P.D. :
Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Danish Holstein-Friesian cattle. 1. PCR screening and allele frequency estimation Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 34:231-236, 1993. Pubmed reference: 7906090.
Kuwabara, M., Nishimura, Y., Sato, F., Takahashi, T., Tajima, M., Takahashi, K., Nagahata, H. :
Spin-Trapping and Chemiluminescence Studies of Neutrophils from a Holstein-Friesian Calf with Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Free Radical Research Communications 18:309-318, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8396554.
Muller, K., Bernadina, W.E., Kalsbeek, H.C., Wensing, T., Elving, L., Verbeek, B., Wentink, G.H. :
Blad - Bovine Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 118:183-184, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8096659.
Nagahata, H., Nochi, H., Tamoto, K., Taniyama, H., Noda, H., Morita, M., Kanamaki, M., Kociba, G.J. :
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency in Holstein Cattle Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire 57:255-261, 1993. Pubmed reference: 7903594.
Scott, D., Tizard, I. :
Primary Immunodeficiencies of Food Animals Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice 9:65-75, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8457931.
Stadler, P., Vanamstel, S.R., Vanrensburg, I.B.J., Williams, E.M.C. :
Suspected Inherited Granulocytopathy in 4 Holstein-Friesian Calves Journal of the South African Veterinary Association - Tydskrif Van Die Suid - Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging 64:172-177, 1993.
Tajima, M., Irie, M., Kirisawa, R., Hagiwara, K., Kurosawa, T., Takahashi, K. :
The Detection of a Mutation of CD18 Gene in Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 55:145-146, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8096402.
1992 Healy, P.J. :
Bovine Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) - Another Genetic Defect of Holstein/Friesians Australian Veterinary Journal 69:190, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1530554.
Kehrli, M.E., Ackermann, M.R., Shuster, D.E., Vandermaaten, M.J., Schmalstieg, F.C., Anderson, D.C., Hughes, B.J. :
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency beta2 Integrin Deficiency in Young Holstein Cattle American Journal of Pathology 140:1489-1492, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1605311.
Kehrli, M.E., Shuster, D.E., Ackermann, M.R. :
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Among Holstein Cattle Cornell Veterinarian 82:103-109, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1623723.
Shuster, D.E., Bosworth, B.T., Kehrli, M.E. :
Sequence of the Bovine CD18-Encoding cDNA - Comparison with the Human and Murine Glycoproteins Gene 114:267-271, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1351021.
Shuster, D.E., Kehrli, M.E., Ackermann, M.R., Gilbert, R.O. :
Identification and Prevalence of a Genetic Defect That Causes Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency in Holstein Cattle Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 89:9225-9229, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1384046.
1991 Stober, M., Kuczka, A., Pohlenz, J. :
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD = Hagemoser- Takahashi-Syndrome) - Clinical, Pathoanatomical and Pathohistological Findings Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 98:443, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1790762.
1990 Kehrli, M.E., Schmalstieg, F.C., Anderson, D.C., Vandermaaten, M.J., Hughes, B.J., Ackermann, M.R., Wilhelmsen, C.L., Brown, G.B., Stevens, M.G., Whetstone, C.A. :
Molecular Definition of the Bovine Granulocytopathy Syndrome - Identification of Deficiency of the Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) Glycoprotein American Journal of Veterinary Research 51:1826-1836, 1990. Pubmed reference: 1978618.

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