OMIA 000944-9796 : Spongiform encephalopathy in Equus caballus
In other species: chicken , white-tufted-ear marmoset , macaques , crab-eating macaque , Rhesus monkey , dog , domestic ferret , domestic cat , puma , pig , deer , Western roe deer , Eastern wapiti , Manchurian Wapiti , black-tailed deer , , cattle , goat , , sheep , eland , greater kudu , rabbit , golden hamster , domestic guinea pig , fallow deer , cheetah , blue antelope , Arabian oryx , , water buffalo , , , American mink , Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 176640 Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown Considered a defect: no Cross-species summary: Spongiform encephalopathies are a class of fatal neurological diseases. Clinical signs are characteristic of a progressive degeneration of the central nervous system; they include pruritis, abnormalities of gait and recumbency. Death is inevitable. On post-mortem, brain histopathology shows a characteristic spongy appearance. The infectious agent is a modified form of a protein encoded by a gene in the host. The name given to this infectious particle is prion. The host gene is called the prion protein (PrP) gene, which is a normal part of the genome of mammals and chickens. Its polypeptide product, called cellular PrP(superscript C), is a naturally-occurring protein attached to the outer surface of neurones and some other cells. PrP(superscript C) appears to play a role in maintaining the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, which are essential for balance and muscular function. The infectious agent, called scrapie PrP(superscript Sc), is a modifed form of PrP(superscript C), where the modifications involve glycosylation and the creation of intra-strand di-sulphide bonds. It is important to realise that these modifications involve no change in amino acid sequence. When PrP(superscript Sc) molecules enter a previously uninfected host, they convert the naturally occurring PrP(superscript C) molecules, produced by the host gene, into infectious PrP(superscript Sc) particles, which ultimately cause clinical signs in that animal, and which can spread to other animals, both horizontally (by infection) and vertically (by maternal transmission).
|2018||Sanchez-Garcia, J., Fernandez-Funez, P. :|
|D159 and S167 are protective residues in the prion protein from dog and horse, two prion-resistant animals. Neurobiol Dis 119:1-12, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30010001. DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2018.07.011.|
- Created by Frank Nicholas on 20 Sep 2019