OMIA 000944-9940 : Spongiform encephalopathy in Ovis aries

In other species: domestic cat , cattle , goat , pig , American mink , golden hamster , blue antelope , white-tufted-ear marmoset , eland , domestic ferret , greater kudu , Arabian oryx , , puma , Eastern wapiti , cheetah , chicken , crab-eating macaque , Rhesus monkey , macaques , black-tailed deer , , rabbit , dog , water buffalo , , Manchurian Wapiti , deer , domestic guinea pig , , Western roe deer , fallow deer , ,

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 176640

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 1990

Cross-species summary: Spongiform encephalopathies are a class of fatal neurological diseases. Clinical signs are characteristic of a progressive degeneration of the central nervous system; they include pruritis, abnormalities of gait and recumbency. Death is inevitable. On post-mortem, brain histopathology shows a characteristic spongy appearance. The infectious agent is a modified form of a protein encoded by a gene in the host. The name given to this infectious particle is prion. The host gene is called the prion protein (PrP) gene, which is a normal part of the genome of mammals and chickens. Its polypeptide product, called cellular PrP(superscript C), is a naturally-occurring protein attached to the outer surface of neurones and some other cells. PrP(superscript C) appears to play a role in maintaining the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, which are essential for balance and muscular function. The infectious agent, called scrapie PrP(superscript Sc), is a modifed form of PrP(superscript C), where the modifications involve glycosylation and the creation of intra-strand di-sulphide bonds. It is important to realise that these modifications involve no change in amino acid sequence. When PrP(superscript Sc) molecules enter a previously uninfected host, they convert the naturally occurring PrP(superscript C) molecules, produced by the host gene, into infectious PrP(superscript Sc) particles, which ultimately cause clinical signs in that animal, and which can spread to other animals, both horizontally (by infection) and vertically (by maternal transmission).

Species-specific name: Scrapie

Species-specific description: This disease has been recognised in sheep for many centuries. The name arises from the common practice of affected sheep rubbing (scraping) against fence posts. In sheep, the PrP gene is about 20 kb long, consisting of three exons encoding a peptide comprising approximately 250 amino acids. Extensive polymorphism has been discovered in codons 136, 154 and 171, giving rise to amino-acid substitutions at these sites. There is substantial evidence that at least some of this polymorphism is strongly associated with susceptibility/resistance to scrapie. The most likely explanation for this association is that some amino-acid sequences are able to form themselves into the infectious agent, PrP(superscript Sc), without the intervention of other PrP(superscript Sc) particles. Although having been studied for decades, scrapie has been the centre of intense scientific and political attention since 1988, when bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease) was recognised as a new disease, apparently having arisen from the practice of feeding insufficiently-heated sheep offal to cattle. On the strength of the associations mentioned above, The National Scrapie Plan for Britain commenced in January 2002 (Arnold et al., 2002). This is a large program that involves genotyping breeding stock for the three polymorphims within the PrP gene, and issuing certificates on the basis of the genotyping. Similar schemes are underway in France and the Netherlands [FN 13 Jan 2003]

Inheritance: Parry (1960, 1962) provided substantial evidence of autosomal recessive inheritance of susceptibility to naturally-occurring scrapie. Dickinson and Outram (1988) and Foster and Dickinson (1988) reported the same type of single-gene inheritance for incubation time in experimentally-infected sheep, and named the gene Sip (Scrapie incubation time), with two alleles sA (short incubation, i.e. susceptible) and pA (long incubation).

Markers: Hunter et al. (1989) reported linkage between the Sip gene and the PrP gene encoding prion protein. Goldman et al. (1991) provided supporting evidence.

Molecular basis: Goldmann et al. (1990) cloned and sequenced the sheep PrP gene, identified the p.R171Q variant, and provided evidence that it "may be related to the alleles of the scrapie incubation-control gene in this species".

Laplanche et al. (1993) identified variants p.A136V and p.R154H, reporting the former being strongly associated with susceptibility.

The p.171 results were confirmed and extended by Goldmann et al. (1994) and O'Rourke et al. (1994). Westaway et al. (1994) also cloned and sequenced the sheep PrP gene, and provided strong evidence that homozygosity for the 171Q variant "is necessary but not sufficient for the development of natural scrapie".

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
PRNP prion protein Ovis aries 13 NC_019470.2 (46143605..46164433) PRNP Homologene, Ensembl, NCBI gene

Variants

By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective.

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Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
Ile de France Romanov Spongiform encephalopathy (scrapie) PRNP V missense Oarv3.1 13 g.46225660C>T c.407C>T p.A136V rs591379086 1993 8094373 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool
Norwegian breeds Spongiform encephalopathy (scrapie), Nor98 type PRNP F missense Oarv3.1 13 g.46225674C>T c.421C>T p.L141F rs598580733 2005 15604451 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool
Ile de France Romanov Spongiform encephalopathy (scrapie) PRNP H missense Oarv3.1 13 g.46225714G>A c.461G>A p.R154H rs605048948 1993 8094373 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool
Suffolk Spongiform encephalopathy (scrapie) PRNP Q missense Oarv3.1 13 g.46225765G>A c.512G>A p.R171Q rs160575103 1990 1969635 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool

References


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2018 Adams, D.B. :
Evolutionary biology and the risk of scrapie disease in sheep. Open Vet J 8:282-294, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30148080. DOI: 10.4314/ovj.v8i3.7.
Greenlee, J.J. :
Review: Update on Classical and Atypical Scrapie in Sheep and Goats. Vet Pathol :300985818794247, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30200819. DOI: 10.1177/0300985818794247.
Hagenaars, T.J., Melchior, M.B., Windig, J.J., Bossers, A., Davidse, A., van Zijderveld, F.G. :
Modelling of strategies for genetic control of scrapie in sheep: The importance of population structure. PLoS One 13:e0195009, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29584772. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195009.
2017 Konold, T., Phelan, L.J., Donnachie, B.R., Chaplin, M.J., Cawthraw, S., González, L. :
Codon 141 polymorphisms of the ovine prion protein gene affect the phenotype of classical scrapie transmitted from goats to sheep. BMC Vet Res 13:122, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28472956. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1036-1.
Lacroux, C., Cassard, H., Simmons, H., Yves Douet, J., Corbière, F., Lugan, S., Costes, P., Aron, N., Huor, A., Tillier, C., Schelcher, F., Andreoletti, O. :
Classical scrapie transmission in ARR/ARR genotype sheep. J Gen Virol :, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28721847. DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000861.
Peggion, C., Bertoli, A., Sorgato, M.C. :
Almost a century of prion protein(s): From pathology to physiology, and back to pathology. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 483:1148-1155, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27581199. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.07.118.
Vázquez-Fernández, E., Young, H.S., Requena, J.R., Wille, H. :
The Structure of Mammalian Prions and Their Aggregates. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 329:277-301, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28109330. DOI: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2016.08.013.
Zabavnik, J., Cotman, M., Juntes, P., Ambrozic, I. :
A decade of using small-to-medium throughput allele discrimination assay to determine prion protein gene ( Prnp) genotypes in sheep in Slovenia. J Vet Diagn Invest :1040638717723946, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28906181. DOI: 10.1177/1040638717723946.
2016 Chapuis, J., Moudjou, M., Reine, F., Herzog, L., Jaumain, E., Chapuis, C., Quadrio, I., Boulliat, J., Perret-Liaudet, A., Dron, M., Laude, H., Rezaei, H., Béringue, V. :
Emergence of two prion subtypes in ovine PrP transgenic mice infected with human MM2-cortical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions. Acta Neuropathol Commun 4:10, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26847207. DOI: 10.1186/s40478-016-0284-9.
Dassanayake, R.P., Madsen-Bouterse, S.A., Truscott, T.C., Zhuang, D., Mousel, M.R., Davis, W.C., Schneider, D.A. :
Classical scrapie prions are associated with peripheral blood monocytes and T-lymphocytes from naturally infected sheep. BMC Vet Res 12:27, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26847623. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0651-6.
Hedman, C., Bolea, R., Marín, B., Cobrière, F., Filali, H., Vazquez, F., Pitarch, J.L., Vargas, A., Acín, C., Moreno, B., Pumarola, M., Andreoletti, O., Badiola, J.J. :
Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs. Vet Res 47:14, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26742788. DOI: 10.1186/s13567-015-0295-8.
Konold, T., Thorne, L., Simmons, H.A., Hawkins, S.A., Simmons, M.M., González, L. :
Evidence of scrapie transmission to sheep via goat milk. BMC Vet Res 12:208, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27640200. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0807-4.
Martemucci, G., Iamartino, D., Blasi, M., Selvaggi, M., D'Alessandro, A.G. :
Evaluation of genetic variability within PrP genotyped sheep of endangered Italian Altamurana breed. Prev Vet Med 123:90-6, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26708253. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.11.014.
McGovern, G., Martin, S., Jeffrey, M., Dexter, G., Hawkins, S.A., Bellworthy, S.J., Thurston, L., Algar, L., González, L. :
Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection. PLoS One 11:e0151440, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26968011. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151440.
Van der Rest, G., Rezaei, H., Halgand, F. :
Monitoring Conformational Landscape of Ovine Prion Protein Monomer Using Ion Mobility Coupled to Mass Spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom :, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27757822. DOI: 10.1007/s13361-016-1522-x.
2015 Aguilar-Calvo, P., García, C., Espinosa, J.C., Andreoletti, O., Torres, J.M. :
Prion and prion-like diseases in animals. Virus Res 207:82-93, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25444937. DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2014.11.026.
Greenlee, J.J., Greenlee, M.H. :
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock. ILAR J 56:7-25, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25991695. DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilv008.
Houston, F., Goldmann, W., Foster, J., González, L., Jeffrey, M., Hunter, N. :
Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie. PLoS One 10:e0143251, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26587837. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143251.
Wang, C., Zhao, C.L., Liu, L., Wu, R., Zhang, X.L. :
Expression patterns of Doppel in differential ovine PRNP genotypes: quantification using real-time RT-PCR. Genet Mol Res 14:12152-8, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26505363. DOI: 10.4238/2015.October.9.3.
2014 Barria, M.A., Ironside, J.W., Head, M.W. :
Exploring the zoonotic potential of animal prion diseases: In vivo and in vitro approaches. Prion 8:, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24549113.
2013 Acquatella-Tran Van Ba, I., Imberdis, T., Perrier, V. :
From Prion Diseases to Prion-Like Propagation Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases. Int J Cell Biol 2013:975832, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24222767. DOI: 10.1155/2013/975832.
Campbell, L., Gill, A.C., McGovern, G., Jalland, C.M., Hopkins, J., Tranulis, M.A., Hunter, N., Goldmann, W. :
The PrP(C) C1 fragment derived from the ovine A136R154R171PRNP allele is highly abundant in sheep brain and inhibits fibrillisation of full-length PrP(C) protein in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta 1832:826-36, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23474307. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.02.020.
Foster, J.D., Goldmann, W., Hunter, N. :
Evidence in Sheep for Pre-Natal Transmission of Scrapie to Lambs from Infected Mothers. PLoS One 8:e79433, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24260219. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079433.
González, L., Pitarch, J.L., Martin, S., Thurston, L., Moore, J., Acín, C., Jeffrey, M. :
Identical Pathogenesis and Neuropathological Phenotype of Scrapie in Valine, Arginine, Glutamine/Valine, Arginine, Glutamine Sheep Infected Experimentally by the Oral and Conjunctival Routes. J Comp Pathol :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24035191. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.06.006.
González, L., Pitarch, J.L., Martin, S., Thurston, L., Simmons, H., Acín, C., Jeffrey, M. :
Influence of Polymorphisms in the Prion Protein Gene on the Pathogenesis and Neuropathological Phenotype of Sheep Scrapie after Oral Infection. J Comp Pathol :, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24342584. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.10.001.
Kretzschmar, H., Tatzelt, J. :
Prion disease: a tale of folds and strains. Brain Pathol 23:321-32, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23587138. DOI: 10.1111/bpa.12045.
Lee, J., Kim, S.Y., Hwang, K.J., Ju, Y.R., Woo, H.J. :
Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases. Osong Public Health Res Perspect 4:57-66, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24159531. DOI: 10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.008.
Lloyd, S.E., Mead, S., Collinge, J. :
Genetics of prion diseases. Curr Opin Genet Dev 23:345-51, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23518043. DOI: 10.1016/j.gde.2013.02.012.
Maestrale, C., Di Guardo, G., Cancedda, M.G., Marruchella, G., Masia, M., Sechi, S., Macciocu, S., Santucciu, C., Petruzzi, M., Ligios, C. :
A lympho-follicular microenvironment is required for pathological prion protein deposition in chronically inflamed tissues from scrapie-affected sheep. PLoS One 8:e62830, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23658779. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062830.
2012 Boden, L., Handel, I., Hawkins, N., Houston, F., Fryer, H., Kao, R. :
An economic evaluation of preclinical testing strategies compared to the compulsory scrapie flock scheme in the control of classical scrapie. PLoS One 7:e32884, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22412943. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032884.
Gonzalez, L., Jeffrey, M., Dagleish, M.P., Goldmann, W., Siso, S., Eaton, S.L., Martin, S., Finlayson, J., Stewart, P., Steele, P., Pang, Y., Hamilton, S., Reid, H.W., Chianini, F. :
Susceptibility to scrapie and disease phenotype in sheep: cross-Prnp genotype experimental transmissions with natural sources. Vet Res 43:55, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22748008. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-55.
Greenlee, J.J., Zhang, X., Nicholson, E.M., Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N. :
Prolonged incubation time in sheep with prion protein containing lysine at position 171. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:554-8, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22529124. DOI: 10.1177/1040638712440993.
Hautaniemi, M., Tapiovaara, H., Korpenfelt, S.L., Sihvonen, L. :
Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep. BMC Vet Res 8:122, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22831168. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-122.
Meydan, H., Yüceer, B., Degirmenci, R., Özkan, M.M., Yildiz, M.A. :
Prion protein gene polymorphism and genetic risk evaluation for scrapie in all Turkish native sheep breeds. Virus Genes 45:169-75, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22528641. DOI: 10.1007/s11262-012-0744-7.
Murayama, Y., Imamura, M., Masujin, K., Shimozaki, N., Yoshioka, M., Mohri, S., Yokoyama, T. :
Ultrasensitive detection of scrapie prion protein derived from ARQ and AHQ homozygote sheep by interspecies in vitro amplification. Microbiol Immunol 56:541-7, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22548476. DOI: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2012.00472.x.
Traoré, A., Royo, L.J., Kaboré, A., Pérez-Pardal, L., Alvarez, I., Fernández, I., Sawadogo, L., Tamboura, H.H., Goyache, F. :
Prion protein gene polymorphism in four West African sheep populations. Trop Anim Health Prod :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22290502. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-012-0088-2.
Vrentas, C.E., Greenlee, J.J., Tatum, T.L., Nicholson, E.M. :
Relationships between PrP(Sc) Stability and Incubation Time for United States Scrapie Isolates in a Natural Host System. PLoS One 7:e43060, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22916207. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043060.
White, S.N., Reynolds, J.O., Waldron, D.F., Schneider, D.A., O'Rourke, K.I. :
Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222. Gene 501:49-51, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22516690. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.03.068.
Windl, O., Dawson, M. :
Animal prion diseases. Subcell Biochem 65:497-516, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23225014. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5416-4_18.
Zhao, C.L., Wu, R., Liu, L., Li, F.D., Zhang, X.L., Wang, C., Wang, F., Diao, X.L., Guan, H.W., Wang, X., Zhou, L. :
Ovine prion protein genotype frequencies in northwestern China. Genet Mol Res 11:1671-81, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22782587. DOI: 10.4238/2012.June.21.2.
2011 Andréoletti, O., Orge, L., Benestad, S.L., Beringue, V., Litaise, C., Simon, S., Le Dur, A., Laude, H., Simmons, H., Lugan, S., Corbière, F., Costes, P., Morel, N., Schelcher, F., Lacroux, C. :
Atypical/Nor98 scrapie infectivity in sheep peripheral tissues. PLoS Pathog 7:e1001285, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21347349. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001285.
Guan, F., Pan, L., Li, J., Tang, H., Zhu, C., Shi, G. :
Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene and their effects on litter size and risk evaluation for scrapie in Chinese Hu sheep. Virus Genes 43:147-52, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21556743. DOI: 10.1007/s11262-011-0609-5.
Ianella, P., McManus, C.M., Paiva, S.R., Caetano, A.R. :
Adaptation of a low-cost medium-throughput genotyping system for ovine prion protein gene polymorphims associated with scrapie. Genet Mol Res 10:3180-5, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22194174. DOI: 10.4238/2011.December.20.2.
Lloyd, S., Mead, S., Collinge, J. :
Genetics of prion disease. Top Curr Chem 305:1-22, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21528440. DOI: 10.1007/128_2011_157.
Oner, Y., Yesilbag, K., Tuncel, E., Elmaci, C. :
Prion protein gene (PrP) polymorphisms in healthy sheep in Turkey. Animal 5:1728-33, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22440412. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731111000942.
Psifidi, A., Basdagianni, Z., Dovas, C.I., Arsenos, G., Sinapis, E., Papanastassopoulou, M., Banos, G. :
Characterization of the PRNP gene locus in Chios dairy sheep and its association with milk production and reproduction traits. Anim Genet 42:406-14, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21749423. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02159.x.
2009 Harrington, RD., Herrmann-Hoesing, LM., White, SN., O'Rourke, KI., Knowles, DP. :
Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock. Genet Sel Evol 41:17, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19284685. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-41-17.
Orrú, C.D., Wilham, J.M., Hughson, A.G., Raymond, L.D., McNally, K.L., Bossers, A., Ligios, C., Caughey, B. :
Human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and sheep scrapie PrP(res) detection using seeded conversion of recombinant prion protein. Protein Eng Des Sel 22:515-21, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19570812. DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzp031.
Saunders, G.C., Lantier, I., Cawthraw, S., Berthon, P., Moore, S.J., Arnold, M.E., Windl, O., Simmons, M.M., Andréoletti, O., Bellworthy, S., Lantier, F. :
Protective effect of the T112 PrP variant in sheep challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Gen Virol 90:2569-74, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19587133. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.012724-0.
Serrano, C., Lyahyai, J., Bolea, R., Varona, L., Monleón, E., Badiola, J.J., Zaragoza, P., Martín-Burriel, I. :
Distinct spatial activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in natural scrapie: association with prion-related lesions. Vet Res 40:42, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19401142. DOI: 10.1051/vetres/2009024.
2008 Dawson, M., Moore, R.C., Bishop, S.C. :
Progress and limits of PrP gene selection policy. Vet Res 39:25, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18258168. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2007064.
Evoniuk, JM., Johnson, ML., Borowicz, PP., Caton, JS., Vonnahme, KA., Reynolds, LP., Taylor, JB., Stoltenow, CL., O'Rourke, KI., Redmer, DA. :
Effects of nutrition and genotype on prion protein (PrPC) gene expression in the fetal and maternal sheep placenta. Placenta 29:422-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18358531. DOI: 10.1016/j.placenta.2008.02.003.
Georgsson, G., Olafsson, E., Gudmundsson, G. :
[Scrapie of sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Iceland] Laeknabladid 94:541-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18591729.
Konold, T., Bone, G., Vidal-Diez, A., Tortosa, R., Davis, A., Dexter, G., Hill, P., Jeffrey, M., Simmons, MM., Chaplin, MJ., Bellworthy, SJ., Berthelin-Baker, C. :
Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent. BMC Veterinary Research 4:16, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18445253. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-4-16.
Konold, T., Moore, SJ., Bellworthy, SJ., Simmons, HA. :
Evidence of scrapie transmission via milk. BMC Veterinary Research 4:14, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18397513. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-4-14.
McIntyre, KM., del Rio Vilas, VJ., Gubbins, S. :
No temporal trends in the prevalence of atypical scrapie in British sheep, 2002-2006. BMC Veterinary Research 4:13, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18384678. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-4-13.
Schneider, K., Fangerau, H., Michaelsen, B., Raab, W.H. :
The early history of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies exemplified by scrapie. Brain Res Bull 77:343-55, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18951958. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2008.09.012.
Sejvar, JJ., Schonberger, LB., Belay, ED. :
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Wang, Y., Qin, Z., Qiao, J., Zhao, D. :
Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene in sheep of Inner Mongolia, China. Virus Genes 37:128-30, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18521732. DOI: 10.1007/s11262-008-0244-y.
van Keulen, LJ., Bossers, A., van Zijderveld, F. :
TSE pathogenesis in cattle and sheep. Vet Res 39:24, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18258167. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2007061.
2007 Cosseddu, GM., Agrimi, U., Pinto, J., Schudel, AA. :
Advances in scrapie research. Rev Sci Tech 26:657-68, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18293614.
Sawalha, RM., Brotherstone, S., Conington, J., Villanueva, B. :
Lambs with scrapie susceptible genotypes have higher postnatal survival. PLoS ONE 2:e1236, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18043743. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001236.
2006 Doherr, MG. :
Brief review on the epidemiology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). Vaccine :, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17126962. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.10.059.
Falanga, PB., Blom-Potar, MC., Bittoun, P., Goldberg, ME., Hontebeyrie, M. :
Selection of ovine PrP high-producer subclones from a transfected epithelial cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 340:309-17, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16364256. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.11.153.
Isler, BJ., Freking, BA., Thallman, RM., Heaton, MP., Leymaster, KA. :
Evaluation of associations between prion haplotypes and growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in a Dorset x Romanov sheep population. J Anim Sci 84:783-8, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16543554.
McKeown, B., Rowan, P., Sung, R., Derbyshire, R. :
Intramolecular controls for the generation of clinical-quality SNP genotypes and the assessment of normal heterozygote imbalance. Electrophoresis 27:1725-31, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16645948. DOI: 10.1002/elps.200500015.
Sharpe, A., McElroy, M., Bassett, H., Sweeney, T. :
Clinical and pathological features of experimental scrapie in Irish Blackface Mountain sheep. Res Vet Sci 80:71-8, 2006. Pubmed reference: 15961130. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2005.04.005.
Tongue, SC., Pfeiffer, DU., Warner, R., Elliott, H., Del Rio Vilas, V. :
Estimation of the relative risk of developing clinical scrapie: the role of prion protein (PrP) genotype and selection bias. Vet Rec 158:43-50, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16415231.
2005 Bellworthy, SJ., Dexter, G., Stack, M., Chaplin, M., Hawkins, SA., Simmons, MM., Jeffrey, M., Martin, S., Gonzalez, L., Hill, P. :
Natural transmission of BSE between sheep within an experimental flock. Vet Rec 157:206, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16100373.
Bragason, BT., Palsdottir, A. :
Processing of ovine PrP(ARQ)C-EGFP chimeras containing Asn138 and Cys151 polymorphisms. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336:544-53, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16143302. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.08.124.
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In vivo detection of scrapie cases from blood by infrared spectroscopy. J Gen Virol 86:3425-31, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16298990. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.81097-0.
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Pathological prion protein in the tongues of sheep infected with naturally occurring scrapie. J Virol 79:5847-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15827199. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.79.9.5847-5849.2005.
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Genotype-level variation in lifetime breeding success, litter size and survival of sheep in scrapie-affected flocks. J Gen Virol 86:1229-38, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15784917. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80277-0.
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Why don't humans get scrapie from eating sheep? A possible explanation based on secondary structure predictions. Med Hypotheses 64:919-24, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15780485. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2004.11.021.
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Analysis of associations between the prion protein genotypes and production traits in East Friesian milk sheep. J Dairy Sci 88:392-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15591404. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72699-0.
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Polygenic variation and transmission factors involved in the resistance/susceptibility to scrapie in a Romanov flock. J Gen Virol 86:849-57, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15722548. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80412-0.
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Frequencies of PrP genotypes in 38 breeds of sheep sampled in the National Scrapie Plan for Great Britain. Vet Rec 156:433-7, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15828723.
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Prevalence of scrapie in sheep in Great Britain estimated from abattoir surveys during 2002 and 2003. Vet Rec 157:418-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16199778.
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Atypical scrapie in the Falkland Islands. Vet Rec 157:667-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16299372.
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Mapping PrPSc propagation in experimental and natural scrapie in sheep with different PrP genotypes. Vet Pathol 42:258-74, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15872372. DOI: 10.1354/vp.42-3-258.
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Assessment of the genetic risk and impact of lateral transmission in a valine-associated scrapie outbreak in sheep. Am J Vet Res 66:1302-7, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16173469.
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Selection of ovine housekeeping genes for normalisation by real-time RT-PCR; analysis of PrP gene expression and genetic susceptibility to scrapie. BMC Vet Res 1:3, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16188044. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-1-3.
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A possible pharmacological explanation for quinacrine failure to treat prion diseases: pharmacokinetic investigations in a ovine model of scrapie. Br J Pharmacol 144:386-93, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15655516. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706072.
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Frequencies of PrP gene haplotypes in British sheep flocks and the implications for breeding programmes. J Appl Microbiol 98:1294-302, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15916643. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02568.x.
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Diagnosis of preclinical scrapie in samples of rectal mucosa. Vet Rec 156:846-7, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15980141.
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Phenotype of disease-associated PrP accumulation in the brain of bovine spongiform encephalopathy experimentally infected sheep. J Gen Virol 86:827-38, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15722546. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80299-0.
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A modelling framework to describe the spread of scrapie between sheep flocks in Great Britain. Prev Vet Med 67:143-56, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15737428. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.08.007.
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Simulation of the options for a national control programme to eradicate scrapie from Great Britain. Prev Vet Med 69:175-87, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15907568. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.12.009.
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Expression of PrPC on cellular components of sheep blood. J Gen Virol 86:1571-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15831971. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80561-0.
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Experimental transmission of sheep scrapie by intracerebral and oral routes to genetically susceptible Suffolk sheep in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest 17:3-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15690944.
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PrP genotyping of sheep breeds in Slovakia. Vet Rec 157:628, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16284332.
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Comparison of protease-resistant prion protein inhibitors in cell cultures infected with two strains of mouse and sheep scrapie. Neurosci Lett 388:106-11, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16039063. DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2005.06.053.
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A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16031-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16239348. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0502296102.
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PrP(Sc) in mammary glands of sheep affected by scrapie and mastitis. Nat Med 11:1137-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16270061. DOI: 10.1038/nm1105-1137.
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Use of a new immunoassay to measure PrP Sc levels in scrapie-infected sheep brains reveals PrP genotype-specific differences. J Immunol Methods 298:119-28, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15847802. DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2005.01.012.
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Polymorphisms at codons 141 and 154 in the ovine prion protein gene are associated with scrapie Nor98 cases. J Gen Virol 86:231-5, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15604451. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80437-0.
Paul, R. :
National Scrapie Plans - the Flock Register. Vet Rec 156:749-50, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15937246.
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Sheep feed and scrapie, France. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1274-9, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16102318.
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Fate of prions in soil: trapped conformation of full-length ovine prion protein induced by adsorption on clays. Biochim Biophys Acta 1724:367-74, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15950385. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2005.05.005.
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Sequential generation of two structurally distinct ovine prion protein soluble oligomers displaying different biochemical reactivities. J Mol Biol 347:665-79, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15755458. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2005.01.043.
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Sheep scrapie susceptibility-linked polymorphisms do not modulate the initial binding of cellular to disease-associated prion protein prior to conversion. J Gen Virol 86:2627-34, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16099922. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80901-0.
Sabuncu, E., Paquet, S., Chapuis, J., Moudjou, M., Lai, TL., Grassi, J., Baron, U., Laude, H., Vilette, D. :
Prion proteins from susceptible and resistant sheep exhibit some distinct cell biological features. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 337:791-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16214113. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.114.
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Rapid PrP(Sc) detection in lymphoid tissue and application to scrapie surveillance of fallen stock in Japan: variable PrP(Sc) accumulation in palatal tonsil in natural scrapie. Microbiol Immunol 49:801-4, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16113510.
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Molecular evolution of the sheep prion protein gene. Proc Biol Sci 272:2371-7, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16243700. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2005.3259.
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PrP genotypes of rare breeds of sheep in Great Britain. Vet Rec 156:131-4, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15715003.
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Proteolytic processing of the ovine prion protein in cell cultures. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 337:232-40, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16182247. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.031.
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Clinical characterisation of natural scrapie in a native Spanish breed of sheep. Vet Rec 156:318-20, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15786923.
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Diagnosis and PrP genotype target of scrapie in clinically healthy sheep of Massese breed in the framework of a scrapie eradication programme. Arch Virol 150:1959-76, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15931459. DOI: 10.1007/s00705-005-0564-3.
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Using genotype probabilities in survival analysis: a scrapie case. Genet Sel Evol 37:403-15, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15943919. DOI: 10.1051/gse:2005008.
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Scrapie in ancient China? Science 309:874, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16081716. DOI: 10.1126/science.309.5736.874b.
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Prevalence of scrapie in sheep: results from fallen stock surveys in Great Britain in 2002 and 2003. Vet Rec 157:744-5, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16326969.
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A case study of capture-recapture methodology using scrapie surveillance data in Great Britain. Prev Vet Med 67:303-17, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15748758. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.12.003.
2004 Acín, C., Martín-Burriel, I., Monleón, E., Rodellar, C., Badiola, J.J., Zaragoza, P. :
PrP polymorphisms in Spanish sheep affected with natural scrapie. Vet Rec 155:370-2, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15493607.
Baylis, M., Chihota, C., Stevenson, E., Goldmann, W., Smith, A., Sivam, K., Tongue, S., Gravenor, M.B. :
Risk of scrapie in British sheep of different prion protein genotype. J Gen Virol 85:2735-40, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15302967. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.79876-0.
Baylis, M., Goldmann, W. :
The genetics of scrapie in sheep and goats. Curr Mol Med 4:385-96, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15354869.
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Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: scrapie control under new strain. Nature 432:810-1, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15602534. DOI: 10.1038/432810a.
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A robust, low- to medium-throughput prnp genotyping system in sheep. BMC Infect Dis 4:30, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15345029. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-4-30.
Caplazi, P., O'Rourke, K., Wolf, C., Shaw, D., Baszler, TV. :
Biology of PrPsc accumulation in two natural scrapie-infected sheep flocks. J Vet Diagn Invest 16:489-96, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15586562.
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Raman analysis of prion protein in blood cell membranes from naturally affected scrapie sheep. Chem Biol 11:759-64, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15217609. DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2004.04.005.
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Scrapie case similar to Nor98 diagnosed in Belgium via active surveillance. Vet Rec 155:707-8, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15605538.
De Vries, F., Hamann, H., Drögemüller, C., Andrzejewski, M., Ganter, M., Distl, O. :
[Influence of prion protein gene polymorphisms on performance traits in German meat sheep breeds]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 111:349-54, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15503534.
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Breeding German sheep for resistance to scrapie. Vet Rec 154:257-60, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15029963.
Ecroyd, H., Sarradin, P., Dacheux, JL., Gatti, JL. :
Compartmentalization of prion isoforms within the reproductive tract of the ram. Biol Reprod 71:993-1001, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15163617. DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod.104.029801.
Gavier-Widen, D., Noremark, M., Benestad, S., Simmons, M., Renstrom, L., Bratberg, B., Elvander, M., af Segerstad, CH. :
Recognition of the Nor98 variant of scrapie in the Swedish sheep population. J Vet Diagn Invest 16:562-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15586572.
Gombojav, A., Ishiguro, N., Horiuchi, M., Shinagawa, M. :
Unique amino acid polymorphisms of PrP genes in Mongolian sheep breeds. J Vet Med Sci 66:1293-5, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15528869.
Healy, AM., Morgan, KL., Hannon, D., Collins, JD., Weavers, E., Doherty, ML. :
Postal questionnaire survey of scrapie in sheep flocks in Ireland. Vet Rec 155:493-4, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15537145.
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Distribution of vascular amyloid in scrapie-affected sheep with different genotypes. J Comp Pathol 131:271-6, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15511535. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2003.10.008.
Madec, JY., Simon, S., Lezmi, S., Bencsik, A., Grassi, J., Baron, T. :
Abnormal prion protein in genetically resistant sheep from a scrapie-infected flock. J Gen Virol 85:3483-6, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15483266. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80220-0.
Megy, S., Bertho, G., Kozin, SA., Debey, P., Hoa, GH., Girault, JP. :
Possible role of region 152-156 in the structural duality of a peptide fragment from sheep prion protein. Protein Sci 13:3151-60, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15537751. DOI: 10.1110/ps.04745004.
Norton, AM. :
Selecting for scrapie-resistant sheep. Vet Rec 155:467, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15518412.
Onnasch, H., Gunn, HM., Bradshaw, BJ., Benestad, SL., Bassett, HF. :
Two Irish cases of scrapie resembling Nor98. Vet Rec 155:636-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15573787.
Orge, L., Galo, A., Machado, C., Lima, C., Ochoa, C., Silva, J., Ramos, M., Simas, JP. :
Identification of putative atypical scrapie in sheep in Portugal. J Gen Virol 85:3487-91, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15483267. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.80246-0.
Viguie, C., Chilliard, Y., Gayrard, V., Picard-Hagen, N., Monget, P., Dutour, A., Toutain, PL. :
Alterations of somatotropic function in prion disease in sheep. J Endocrinol 183:427-35, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15531730. DOI: 10.1677/joe.1.05683.
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PRNP polymorphisms in Chinese ovine, caprine and bovine breeds. Anim Genet 35:457-61, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15566469. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2004.01204.x.
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Associations between the prion protein genotype and performance traits of meat breeds of sheep. Vet Rec 155:140-3, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15338706.
2003 Dawson, M., Warner, R., Nolan, A., McKeown, B., Thomson, J. :
'Complex' PrP genotypes identified by the National Scrapie Plan Veterinary Record 152:754-5, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12833938.
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Sub-cellular pathology of scrapie: coated pits are increased in PrP codon 136 alanine homozygous scrapie-affected sheep Acta Neuropathologica 106:17-28, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12669239. DOI: 10.1007/s00401-003-0690-5.
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Accumulation of pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) in nervous and lymphoid tissues of sheep with subclinical scrapie Veterinary Pathology 40:164-74, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12637756.
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Distinct profiles of PrP(d) immunoreactivity in the brain of scrapie- and BSE-infected sheep: implications for differential cell targeting and PrP processing Journal of General Virology 84:1339-50, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12692301.
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Searching for BSE in sheep: interpreting the results so far Veterinary Record 152:298-9, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12650473.
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Disease-associated PrP in the enteric nervous system of scrapie-affected Suffolk sheep Journal of General Virology 84:1327-38, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12692300.
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Detection of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues of lambs experimentally exposed to the scrapie agent Journal of Comparative Pathology 128:172-81, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12634095.
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The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:23-36, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793772.
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2002 Aguzzi, A.A. :
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National Scrapie Plan extended Veterinary Record 150:91, 2002.
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National Scrapie Plan: further measures announced Veterinary Record 151:646, 2002.
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SEAC considers areas of research for the National Scrapie Plan Veterinary Record 150:702-703, 2002.
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New legislation on TSEs Veterinary Record 150:526, 2002.
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The BSE-susceptible proportion of UK sheep Veterinary Record 151:481-482, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12418532.
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The signature of scrapie: differences in the PrP genotype profile of scrapie-affected and scrapie-free UK sheep flocks Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences 267:2029-2035, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11416905. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1245.
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Did cannibalisin and spongiform encephalopathy contribute to the demise of the Neanderthals? Mankind Quarterly 41:175-180, 2000.
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The transmission dynamics of the aetiological agent of scrapie in a sheep flock Mathematical Biosciences 168:117-135, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11121561.
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PrPc mRNA, but not PrPSc is found in the salivary glands of scrapie-infected sheep Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Protein Structure & Molecular Enzymology 1479:147-154, 2000.
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Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease EMBO Journal 19:4425-4430, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10970836. DOI: 10.1093/emboj/19.17.4425.
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Prions: strategies for control of BSE and scrapie Irish Journal of Agricultural & Food Research 39:229-234, 2000.
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Prion biology and diseases Nature 402:581-582, 1999.
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The basic reproduction number for scrapie Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences 266:1085-1090, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10380685. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1999.0747.
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PrP gene polymorphism and natural scrapie in Icelandic sheep Journal of General Virology 80:2527-2534, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10501510.
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Prion protein gene polymorphisms in sheep with natural scrapie and healthy controls in Norway Journal of General Virology 80:1073-1077, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10211978.
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An autoimmune response causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Medical Hypotheses 50:259-264, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9578331.
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Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in food animals - human food safety and animal feed safety concerns for veterinarians Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice 14:49 ff., 1998.
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Comparative FISH-mapping of the prion protein gene (PrnP) on cattle, river buffalo, sheep and goat chromosomes Cytogenetics & Cell Genetics 81:202-204, 1998.
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Rapid analysis of allelic variants of the sheep PrP gene by oligonucleotide probes Microbiology & Immunology 42:579-582, 1998.
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Determination of the frequency and distribution of vascular and parenchymal amyloid with polyclonal and n-terminal-specific prp antibodies in scrapie-affected sheep and mice Veterinary Record 142:534-537, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9637378.
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [Review] New England Journal of Medicine 339:1994-2004, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9869672. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199812313392707.
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Genotyping of German sheep with respect to scrapie susceptibility Veterinary Record 143:340-341, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9795405.
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The environmental dependency of protein folding best explains prion and amyloid diseases Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95:930-932, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9448261.
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The diagnosis of prion diseases Parasitology 117:S3-S11, 1998. Pubmed reference: 10660928.
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Characterization of the sheep apolipoprotein e (apoe) gene and allelic variations of the apoe gene in scrapie suffolk sheep Gene 208:131-138, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9524247.
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Prions progress - patterns and rates of molecular evolution in relation to spongiform disease Journal of Molecular Evolution 47:133-145, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9694662.
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Molecular analysis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie strain variation Journal of Infectious Diseases 178:693-699, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9728537.
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Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 250:187-193, 1998.
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Concerns regarding retrospective study of reported scrapie in sheep Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212:1537, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9604014.
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An antibody raised against a conserved sequence of the prion protein recognizes pathological isoforms in human and animal prion diseases, including creutzfeldt-jakob-disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy American Journal of Pathology 152:1415-1420, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9626045.
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A diagnostic test for scrapie-infected sheep using a capillary electrophoresis immunoassay with fluorescent-labeled peptides Electrophoresis 19:409-414, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9551793. DOI: 10.1002/elps.1150190308.
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Britain cautiously optimistic on lifting BSE ban Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211:145, 1997.
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USDA supports scrapie, BSE control in sheep Large Animal Practice 18:7, 1997.
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Britain extends controls to combat risk to sheep Nature 387:749, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9194548. DOI: 10.1038/42784.
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Mammalian protein in sheep and cattle feed prohibited Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211:146, 1997.
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Advocate of prion hypothesis wins Nobel prize Veterinary Record 141:483, 1997.
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Nobel panel rewards prion theory after years of heated debate Nature 389:529, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9335476. DOI: 10.1038/39120.
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Antigenic features of prion proteins of sheep and of other mammalian species Journal of Immunological Methods 207:89-101, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9328590.
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Is scrapie solely a genetic disease Nature 386:137, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9062185. DOI: 10.1038/386137a0.
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Natural scrapie and PrP genotype - case-control studies in British sheep Veterinary Record 141:137-140, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9280041.
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Association between natural scrapie and PrP genotype in a flock of Suffolk sheep in Scotland Veterinary Record 140:59-63, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9023905.
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Structural biology and genetics of prions Journal of Neurovirology 3:S 21, 1997.
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Molecular assessment of the potential transmissibilities of bse and scrapie to humans Nature 388:285-288, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9230438. DOI: 10.1038/40876.
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Use of capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis to detect the prion protein extracted from scrapie-infected sheep Journal of Chromatography-Biomedical Applications 697:223-229, 1997.
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Comparison of detergent and protease enzyme combinations for the detection of scrapie-associated fibrils from the central nervous system of sheep naturally affected with scrapie Journal of Comparative Pathology 116:181-189, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9131433.
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Australian surveillance program for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Australian Veterinary Journal 75:918-919, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9469231.
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Nobel prize - Prusiner recognized for once-heretical prion theory Science 278:214, 1997. Pubmed reference: 9340766.
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1996 Aldhous, P. :
Scrapie theory fed BSE complacency New Scientist 150:4, 1996.
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Test could pin down mad sheep risk New Scientist 152:4, 1996. Pubmed reference: 11657402.
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Public health issues and clinical and neurological characteristics of the new variant of creutzfeldt-jakob disease and other human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies - memorandum from two who meetings Bulletin of the World Health Organization 74:453-463, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9002325.
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Dutch workers suggest an approach to the preclinical diagnosis of scrapie Veterinary Record 138:602-603, 1996.
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BSE - standing veterinary committee to consider ovine offal ban Veterinary Record 139:78, 1996.
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BSE research results suggest enhanced risk of maternal transmission Veterinary Record 139:126-127, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8863399.
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Government proposes precautionary controls on ovine offals Veterinary Record 139:102, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8856884.
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Immunohistochemical detection of prion protein in lymphoid tissues of sheep, cattle, and humans Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34:2639, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8880543.
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PrP genotype contributes to determining survival times of sheep with natural scrapie Journal of General Virology 77:2669-2673, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8887505.
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Live scrapie test raises CJD hopes New Scientist 150:5, 1996.
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New pre-clinical test for scrapie - the Netherlands and England work together to combat bovine-spongiform-encephalitis [Dutch] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 121:433-434, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8765805.
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Detection of BSE infectivity in brain and spleen of experimentally infected sheep Veterinary Record 138:546-548, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8782362.
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Observations on the transmission of scrapie in experiments using embryo transfer Veterinary Record 138:559-562, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8795182.
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Immunolocalisation of the prion protein (PrP) in the brains of sheep with scrapie Veterinary Record 139:512-515, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8953691.
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Studies on the spongiform encephalopathies of cattle, sheep and cats (BSE, scrapie, FSE) in the Hungarian diagnostic institutes [Hungarian] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 51:529-531, 1996.
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Prion phylogeny revisited Nature 382:32-33, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8657301. DOI: 10.1038/382032b0.
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Scrapie genotyping for Suffolk sheep Veterinary Record 138:215-216, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8686159.
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Natural scrapie in a closed flock of Cheviot sheep occurs only in specific PrP genotypes Archives of Virology 141:809-824, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8678828.
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Scrapie - the risk of its introduction and effects on trade Australian Veterinary Journal 73:161-164, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8660236.
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The prion hypotheses New Zealand Veterinary Journal 44:119, 1996.
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Prions - putting prions to the test Science 273:184 ff., 1996.
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Prusiner and the press Science 273:188, 1996.
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The nature of the scrapie agent - the virus theory .2. [Review] Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology & Medicine 212:208-224, 1996.
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Allelic frequencies of an ovine scrapie susceptibility gene Animal Biotechnology 7:155-162, 1996.
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Prions and the new molecular phenetics Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11:487-488, 1996.
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Scapie theory fed BSE complacency ... now fears grow for unborn babies New Scientist 150:5, 1996.
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Prion biology and diseases - laughing cannibals, mad cows, and scientific heresy [Review] Medicinal Research Reviews 16:487-505, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8865151. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1128(199609)16:5<487::AID-MED4>3.0.CO;2-R.
Prusiner, S.B. :
Molecular biology and genetics of prion diseases Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 61:473-493, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9246475.
Prusiner, S.B., Telling, G., Cohen, F.E., Dearmond, S.J. :
Prion diseases of humans and animals [Review] Seminars in Virology 7:159-173, 1996.
Ridley, R.M., Baker, H.F. :
To what extent is strain variation evidence for an independent genome in the agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Neurodegeneration 5:219-231, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8910900.
Schmerr, M.J., Goodwin, K.R., Cutlip, R.C., Jenny, A.L. :
Improvements in a competition assay to detect scrapie prion protein by capillary electrophoresis Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Applications 681:29-35, 1996.
Schreuder, B.E.C., Vankeulen, L.J.M., Vromans, M.E.W., Langeveld, J.P.M., Smits, M.A. :
Preclinical test for prion diseases Nature 381:563, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8637589. DOI: 10.1038/381563a0.
Stack, M.J., Aldrich, A.M., Kitching, A.D., Scott, A.C. :
Comparison of biochemical extraction techniques for the detection of scrapie-associated fibrils in the central nervous system of sheep naturally affected with scrapie Journal of Comparative Pathology 115:175-184, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8910745.
Steinmuller, R. :
9 diseases, 1 cause - prion diseases [German] Ernahrungs-Umschau 43:242-248, 1996.
Vanbekkum, J.G. :
Prion-related diseases in man and animal [Dutch] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 121:166, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8629272.
Vankeulen, L.J.M., Schreuder, B.E.C., Meloen, R.H., Mooijharkes, G., Vromans, M.E.W., Langeveld, J.P.M. :
Immunohistochemical detection of prion protein in lymphoid tissues of sheep with natural scrapie Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34:1228-1231, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8727908.
Vanlimborgh, C.L. :
Contaminated feed and BSE [Dutch] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 121:726-727, 1996.
Weissmann, C., Fischer, M., Raeber, A., Sailer, A., Shmerling, D., Rulicke, T., Brandner, S., Aguzzi, A. :
The role of prp in pathogenesis of experimental scrapie Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 61:511-522, 1996. Pubmed reference: 9246477.
Wisniewski, H.M., Sigurdarson, S., Rubenstein, R., Kascsak, R.J., Carp, R.I. :
Mites as vectors for scrapie Lancet 347:1114, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8602080.
1995 Beekes, M., Baldauf, E., Cassens, S., Diringer, H., Keyes, P., Scott, A.C., Wells, G.A.H., Brown, P., Gibbs, C.J., Gajdusek, D.C. :
Western blot mapping of disease-specific amyloid in various animal species and humans with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies using a high-yield purification method Journal of General Virology 76:2567-2576, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7595360.
Belt, P.B.G.M., Muileman, I.H., Schreuder, B.E.C., Bosderuijter, J., Gielkens, A.L.J., Smits, M.A. :
Identification of five allelic variants of the sheep PrP gene and their association with natural scrapie Journal of General Virology 76:509-517, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7897344.
Brugerepicoux, J., Chatelain, J. :
Scrapie in sheep and transmissible mink encephalopathy. Pathologie Biologie 43:81-90, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7777384.
Clouscard, C., Beaudry, P., Elsen, J.M., Milan, D., Dussaucy, M., Bounneau, C., Schelcher, F., Chatelain, J., Launay, J.M., Laplanche, J.L. :
Different allelic effects of the codons 136 and 171 of the prion protein gene in sheep with natural scrapie Journal of General Virology 76:2097-2101, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7636494.
Darcel, C. :
Reflections on scrapie and related disorders, with consideration of the possibility of a viral aetiology - Discussion paper Veterinary Research Communications 19:231-252, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7571397.
Diringer, H. :
Proposed link between transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of man and animals Lancet 346:1208-1210, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7475665.
Horiuchi, M., Yamazaki, N., Ikeda, T., Ishiguro, N., Shinagawa, M. :
A cellular form of prion protein (PrPC) exists in many non-neuronal tissues of sheep Journal of General Virology 76:2583-2587, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7595362.
Ikeda, T., Horiuchi, M., Ishiguro, N., Muramatsu, Y., Kaiuwe, G.D., Shinagawa, M. :
Amino acid polymorphisms of PrP with reference to onset of scrapie in Suffolk and Corriedale sheep in Japan Journal of General Virology 76:2577-2581, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7595361.
Katz, J.B., Shafer, A.L., Miller, J.M. :
Production of antiserum for the diagnosis of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy using a baculovirus- expressed prion protein antigen Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 7:245-247, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7619908.
Lefrancois, T., Tardy, M. :
Astrocyte as the key cell in the pathogenesis of spongiform encephalopathy Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire 171:29-32, 1995.
Ridley, R.M., Baker, H.F. :
The myth of maternal transmission of spongiform encephalopathy British Medical Journal 311:1071-1075, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7580668.
Stack, M.J., Aldrich, A.M., Kitching, A.D., Scott, A.C. :
Comparative study of electron microscopical techniques for the detection of scrapie-associated fibrils Research in Veterinary Science 59:247-254, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8588101.
Vankeulen, L.J.M., Schreuder, B.E.C., Meloen, R.H., Poelenvandenberg, M., Mooijharkes, G., Vromans, M.E.W., Langeveld, J.P.M. :
Immunohistochemical detection and localization of prion protein in brain tissue of sheep with natural scrapie Veterinary Pathology 32:299-308, 1995. Pubmed reference: 7604497.
Will, R.G. :
The myth of maternal transmission of spongiform encephalopathy - commentary - scrapie revisited British Medical Journal 311:1075-1076, 1995.
Ye, X., Carp, R.I. :
The pathological changes in peripheral organs of scrapie-infected animals [Review] Histology & Histopathology 10:995-1021, 1995.
1994 Andresbarquin, P.J., Leprince, G., Fages, C., Dejalon, J.A.G., Perezmartos, A., Tardy, M., Lopezperez, M.J. :
Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase genes in the natural scrapie of sheep Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology 22:57-65, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7916768.
Bjornsson, J., Skarphedinsson, S., Carp, R.I., Johannsdottir, R., Love, A., Gudmundsson, P., Wisniewski, H.M., Sigurdarson, S., Georgsson, G. :
PrP-Sc in Icelandic sheep naturally infected with scrapie Slow Infections of the Central Nervous System 724:304-309, 1994.
Clark, A.M., Dawson, M., Scott, A.C. :
Scrapie associated fibrils in found dead sheep Veterinary Record 134:650-651, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7975058.
Cutlip, R.C., Miller, J.M., Race, R.E., Jenny, A.L., Katz, J.B., Lehmkuhl, H.D., Debey, B.M., Robinson, M.M. :
Intracerebral transmission of scrapie to cattle Journal of Infectious Diseases 169:814-820, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8133096.
Fairbairn, D.W., Carnahan, K.G., Thwaits, R.N., Grigsby, R.V., Holyoak, G.R., O'Neill, K.L. :
Detection of Apoptosis Induced DNA Cleavage in Scrapie- Infected Sheep Brain FEMS Microbiology Letters 115:341-346, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8138146.
Ferry, G. :
Mad Brains and the Prion Heresy New Scientist 142:32-37, 1994.
Georgsson, G., Bjornsson, J., Carp, R.I., Kascsak, R.J., Love, A., Wisniewski, H.M. :
Cerebral amyloidosis in natural scrapie of Icelandic sheep is of rare occurrence Slow Infections of the Central Nervous System 724:344-346, 1994.
Goldmann, W., Bjornsson, J., Hunter, N., Carp, R.I., Smith, G., Love, A., Foster, J., Wisniewski, H.M., Hope, J. :
PrP genotypes and the Sip gene in Cheviot sheep form the basis for scrapie strain typing in sheep Slow Infections of the Central Nervous System 724:296-299, 1994.
Goldmann, W., Hunter, N., Smith, G., Foster, J., Hope, J. :
PRP Genotype and Agent Effects in Scrapie - Change in Allelic Interaction with Different Isolates of Agent in Sheep, a Natural Host of Scrapie Journal of General Virology 75:989-995, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7909834.
Groschup, M.H., Langeveld, J., Pfaff, E. :
The major species specific epitope in prion proteins of ruminants Archives of Virology 136:423-431, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7518226.
Groschup, M.H., Weiland, F., Straub, O.C. :
Diagnosis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie - Possibilities and Limitations of the Diagnosis Tierarztliche Umschau 49:137-142, 1994.
Hope, J., Chong, A. :
Scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy - The Key Role of a Nerve Membrane Protein (PRP) Biochemical Society Transactions 22:159-163, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7911437.
Hunter, N., Bjornsson, J., Carp, R.I., Manson, J.C., Love, A., Charleson, F.C., Hope, J., Wisniewski, H.M. :
Comparison of expression patterns of PrP mRNA in the developing sheep and mouse Slow Infections of the Central Nervous System 724:353-354, 1994.
Hunter, N., Goldmann, W., Smith, G., Hope, J. :
The association of a codon 136 PrP gene variant with the occurrence of natural scrapie Archives of Virology 137:171-177, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7979991.
Lefrancois, T., Fages, C., Brugerepicoux, J., Tardy, M. :
Astroglial reactivity in natural scrapie of sheep Microbial Pathogenesis 17:283-289, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7723656. DOI: 10.1006/mpat.1994.1074.
Muramatsu, Y., Onodera, A., Horiuchi, M., Ishiguro, N., Shinagawa, M. :
Detection of PRP(SC) in Sheep at the Preclinical Stage of Scrapie and Its Significance for Diagnosis of Insidious Infection Archives of Virology 134:427-432, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7907466.
Onodera, A., Ikeda, T., Horiuchi, M., Ishiguro, N., Onuma, M., Hirano, N., Mikami, T., Honda, E., Hirai, K., Kai, K., Yugi, H., Muramatsu, Y., Shinagawa, M. :
Survey of Natural Scrapie in Japan - Analysis of RFLP Types of the PRP Gene and Detection of Prpsc Mainly in Suffolk Sheep Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 56:627-632, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7999881.
Prusiner, S.B. :
Biology and genetics of prion diseases Annual Review of Microbiology 48:655-686, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7826022. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.mi.48.100194.003255.
Prusiner, S.B. :
Inherited prion diseases Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91:4611-4614, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8197105.
Ridley, R.M. :
Defining the limits of prion disease Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 20:339-343, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7808583.
Schmerr, M.J., Goodwin, K.R., Cutlip, R.C. :
Capillary electrophoresis of the scrapie prion protein from sheep brain Journal of Chromatography A 680:447-453, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7981826.
Schreuder, B.E. :
Animal spongiform encephalopathies--an update. Part 1. Scrapie and lesser known animal spongiform encephalopathies. Vet Q 16:174-81, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7871704. DOI: 10.1080/01652176.1994.9694444.
Weiland, F., Groschup, M.H., Roth, M., Straub, O.C. :
Diagnosis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie .2. Management of Suspected Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Scrapie Tierarztliche Umschau 49:469-471, 1994.
Westaway, D., Zuliani, V., Cooper, C.M., Dacosta, M., Neuman, S., Jenny, A.L., Detwiler, L., Prusiner, S.B. :
Homozygosity for Prion Protein Alleles Encoding Glutamine-171 Renders Sheep Susceptible to Natural Scrapie Genes & Development 8:959-969, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7926780.
1993 Agrimi, U., Diguardo, G. :
Amyloid, Amyloid-Inducers, Cytokines and Heavy Metals in Scrapie and Other Human and Animal Subacute Spongiform Encephalopathies - Some Hypotheses Medical Hypotheses 40:113-116, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8297402.
Anon. :
The Prion Protein Enigma of Slow Viruses 6:18-46, 1993.
Anon. :
Natural Scrapie Enigma of Slow Viruses 6:111-112, 1993.
Austin, A.R., Simmons, M.M. :
Reduced Rumination in Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie Veterinary Record 132:324-325, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8480399.
Baker, H.F., Ridley, R.M., Wells, G.A.H. :
Experimental Transmission of BSE and Scrapie to the Common Marmoset Veterinary Record 132:403-406, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8488658.
Dearmond, S.J. :
Overview of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies - Prion Protein Disorders British Medical Bulletin 49:725-737, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8137126.
Dearmond, S.J., Prusiner, S.B. :
The Neurochemistry of Prion Diseases Journal of Neurochemistry 61:1589-1601, 1993. Pubmed reference: 7901326.
Detwiler, L.A. :
Scrapie Control in the United-States - A Review of the Past with an Emphasis on the Present Flock Certification Program Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies - Impact on Animal and Human Health 80:109, 1993.
Diedrich, J.F., Carp, R.I., Haase, A.T. :
Increased Expression of Heat Shock Protein, Transferrin, and beta-2-Microglobulin in Astrocytes During Scrapie Microbial Pathogenesis 15:1-6, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8412623. DOI: 10.1006/mpat.1993.1051.
Foote, W.C., Clark, W., Maciulis, A., Call, J.W., Hourrigan, J., Evans, R.C., Marshall, M.R., Decamp, M. :
Prevention of Scrapie Transmission in Sheep, Using Embryo Transfer American Journal of Veterinary Research 54:1863-1868, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8291764.
Foster, J.D., Hope, J., Fraser, H. :
Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Sheep and Goats Veterinary Record 133:339-341, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8236676.
Fraser, H. :
Diversity in the Neuropathology of Scrapie-Like Diseases in Animals British Medical Bulletin 49:792-809, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8137129.
Georgsson, G., Gisladottir, E., Arnadottir, S. :
Quantitative Assessment of the Astrocytic Response in Natural Scrapie of Sheep Journal of Comparative Pathology 108:229-240, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8315052.
Goldmann, W. :
PrP Gene and Its Association with Spongiform Encephalopathies British Medical Bulletin 49:839-859, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8137132.
Groschup, M.H., Pfaff, E. :
Studies on a Species-Specific Epitope in Murine, Ovine and Bovine Prion Protein Journal of General Virology 74:1451-1456, 1993. Pubmed reference: 7687651.
Harpster, D.A. :
Scrapie Control in the United-States Veterinary and Human Toxicology 35:8-9, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8236771.
Hughes, J.T. :
Prion Diseases British Medical Journal 306:288, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8096414.
Hunter, N. :
Genetic Control of Scrapie Incidence in Sheep and Its Relevance for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle Reviews in Medical Virology 3:195-200, 1993.
Hunter, N., Goldmann, W., Benson, G., Foster, J.D., Hope, J. :
Swaledale Sheep Affected by Natural Scrapie Differ Significantly in PrP Genotype Frequencies from Healthy Sheep and Those Selected for Reduced Incidence of Scrapie Journal of General Virology 74:1025-1031, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8099602.
Jarrett, J.T., Lansbury, P.T. :
Seeding One-Dimensional Crystallization of Amyloid - A Pathogenic Mechanism in Alzheimer's Disease and Scrapie Cell 73:1055-1058, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8513491.
Kristensson, K., Feuerstein, B., Taraboulos, A., Hyun, W.C., Prusiner, S.B., Dearmond, S.J. :
Scrapie Prions Alter Receptor-Mediated Calcium Responses in Cultured Cells Neurology 43:2335-2341, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8232952.
Laplanche, J.L., Chatelain, J., Westaway, D., Thomas, S., Dussaucy, M., Brugerepicoux, J., Launay, J.M. :
PrP Polymorphisms Associated with Natural Scrapie Discovered by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Genomics 15:30-37, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8094373. DOI: 10.1006/geno.1993.1006.
Liberski, P.P. :
Subacute Spongiform Encephalopathies - The Transmissible Brain Amyloidoses - A Comparison with the Non-Transmissible Brain Amyloidoses of Alzheimer Type - Review Journal of Comparative Pathology 109:103-127, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8245229.
Miller, J.M., Jenny, A.L., Taylor, W.D., Marsh, R.F., Rubenstein, R., Race, R.E. :
Immunohistochemical Detection of Prion Protein in Sheep with Scrapie Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 5:309-316, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8104039.
Narang, H.K. :
Evidence That Scrapie-Associated Tubulofilamentous Particles Contain a Single-Stranded DNA Intervirology 36:1-10, 1993. Pubmed reference: 7755662.
Onodera, T., Ikeda, T., Muramatsu, Y., Shinagawa, M. :
Isolation of Scrapie Agent from the Placenta of Sheep with Natural Scrapie in Japan Microbiology and Immunology 37:311-316, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8350771.
Pan, K.M., Baldwin, M., Nguyen, J., Gasset, M., Serban, A., Groth, D., Mehlhorn, I., Huang, Z.W., Fletterick, R.J., Cohen, F.E., Prusiner, S.B. :
Conversion of alpha-Helices into beta-Sheets Features in the Formation of the Scrapie Prion Proteins Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90:10962-10966, 1993. Pubmed reference: 7902575.
Price, D.L., Borchelt, D.R., Sisodia, S.S. :
Alzheimer Disease and the Prion Disorders Amyloid beta- Protein and Prion Protein Amyloidoses Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90:6381-6384, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8101988.
Prusiner, S.B. :
Genetic and Infectious Prion's Diseases Archives of Neurology 50:1129-1153, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8105771.
Prusiner, S.B. :
Prion Encephalopathies of Animals and Humans Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies - Impact on Animal and Human Health 80:31-44, 1993.
Prusiner, S.B., Groth, D., Serban, A., Stahl, N., Gabizon, R. :
Attempts to Restore Scrapie Prion Infectivity After Exposure to Protein Denaturants Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90:2793-2797, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8464892.
Rogers, M., Yehiely, F., Scott, M., Prusiner, S.B. :
Conversion of Truncated and Elongated Prion Proteins into the Scrapie Isoform in Cultured Cells Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90:3182-3186, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8475059.
Ryan, A.M., Womack, J.F. :
Somatic Cell Mapping of the Bovine Prion Protein Gene and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Studies in Cattle and Sheep Animal Genetics 24:23-26, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8098922.
Schreuder, B.E.C., Dejong, M.C.M., Pekelder, J.J., Vellema, P., Broker, A.J.M., Betcke, H. :
Prevalence and Incidence of Scrapie in the Netherlands - A Questionnaire Survey Veterinary Record 133:211-214, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8236724.
Shinagawa, M., Muramatsu, Y., Onodera, A., Matsui, T., Horiuchi, M., Ishiguro, N., Nakagawa, M. :
Familial Scrapie Cases with Shortened Incubation Periods Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 55:665-667, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8104506.
Stack, M.J., Scott, A.C., Done, S.H., Dawson, M. :
Scrapie Associated Fibril Detection on Decomposed and Fixed Ovine Brain Material Research in Veterinary Science 55:173-178, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8235083.
Stahl, N., Baldwin, M.A., Teplow, D.B., Hood, L., Gibson, B.W., Burlingame, A.L., Prusiner, S.B. :
Structural Studies of the Scrapie Prion Protein Using Mass Spectrometry and Amino Acid Sequencing Biochemistry 32:1991-2002, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8448158.
Tateishi, J., Kitamoto, T. :
Developments in Diagnosis for Prion Diseases British Medical Bulletin 49:971-979, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8137138.
Taylor, D.M. :
Inactivation of SE Agents British Medical Bulletin 49:810-821, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8137130.
Vanopdenbosch, E., Bertels, G., Petroff, K., Blondeel, H., Charlier, G. :
Scrapie - An Outbreak in a Belgian Sheep Flock and Brief Review Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 62:10-16, 1993.
Weissmann, C., Bueler, H., Sailer, A., Fischer, M., Aguet, M., Aguzzi, A. :
Role of PrP in Prion Diseases British Medical Bulletin 49:995-1011, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8137140.
1992 Alper, T. :
The Infectivity of Spongiform Encephalopathies - Does a Modified Membrane Hypothesis Account for Lack of Immune Response FEMS Microbiology Immunology 89:235-242, 1992.
Banissisabourdy, C., Planques, B., David, J.P., Jeannin, C., Potel, M., Bizien, A., Dimenza, C., Brugerepicoux, J., Brugere, H., Chatelain, J., Buvet, R. :
Electroanalytical Characterization of Alzheimer's Disease and Ovine Spongiform Encephalopathy by Repeated Cyclic Voltammetry at a Capillary Graphite Paste Electrode Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 28:127-147, 1992.
Borchelt, D.R., Taraboulos, A., Prusiner, S.B. :
Evidence for Synthesis of Scrapie Prion Proteins in the Endocytic Pathway Journal of Biological Chemistry 267:16188-16199, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1353761.
Brugerepicoux, J., Chatelain, J., Laplanche, J.L. :
Aspects of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Ruminants Tierarztliche Umschau 47:330, 1992.
Chatelain, J., Millot, P., Bourdon, R., Callebert, J., Faudon, R., Grolleau, D., Trouillet, D. :
Diverse Biological Parameters in Clinically Healthy Sheep from a Flock with Scrapie - Variations, and Correlations with OLA Antigens Experimental and Clinical Immunogenetics 9:86-94, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1489554.
Clark, A.M., Moar, J.A.E. :
Scrapie - A Clinical Assessment Veterinary Record 130:377-378, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1604786.
Dimartino, A., Safar, J., Ceroni, M., Gibbs, C.J. :
Purification of Non-Infectious Ganglioside Preparations from Scrapie-Infected Brain Tissue Archives of Virology 124:111-121, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1571012.
Ellison, D. :
Prion Diseases Conference, London, September 1991 Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 18:89, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1336815.
Foster, J.D., Mckelvey, W.A.C., Mylne, M.J.A., Williams, A., Hunter, N., Hope, J., Fraser, H. :
Studies on Maternal Transmission of Scrapie in Sheep by Embryo Transfer Veterinary Record 130:341-343, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1350694.
Fraser, H., Bruce, M.E., Chree, A., Mcconnell, I., Wells, G.A.H. :
Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie to Mice Journal of General Virology 73:1891-1897, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1645134.
Hunter, N., Foster, J.D., Hope, J. :
Natural Scrapie in British Sheep - Breeds, Ages and PrP Gene Polymorphisms Veterinary Record 130:389-392, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1351694.
Hunter, N., Speedy, A.W. :
Scrapie in Sheep and Goats Progress in Sheep and Goat Research :131-151, 1992.
Johnson, R.T. :
Prion Disease New England Journal of Medicine 326:486-487, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1346339. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199202133260711.
Katz, J.B., Pedersen, J.C., Jenny, A.L., Taylor, W.D. :
Assessment of Western Immunoblotting for the Confirmatory Diagnosis of Ovine Scrapie and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 4:447-449, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1457549.
Kellings, K., Meyer, N., Mirenda, C., Prusiner, S.B., Riesner, D. :
Further Analysis of Nucleic Acids in Purified Scrapie Prion Preparations by Improved Return Refocusing Gel Electrophoresis Journal of General Virology 73:1025-1029, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1353106.
Lantos, P.L. :
Invited Review - From Slow Virus to Prion - A Review of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Histopathology 20:1-11, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1531331.
Lowe, J., Fergusson, J., Kenward, N., Laszlo, L., Landon, M., Farquhar, C., Brown, J., Hope, J., Mayer, R.J. :
Immunoreactivity to Ubiquitin Protein Conjugates Is Present Early in the Disease Process in the Brains of Scrapie- Infected Mice Journal of Pathology 168:169-177, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1334140. DOI: 10.1002/path.1711680204.
Maciulis, A., Hunter, N., Wang, S.Q., Goldmann, W., Hope, J., Foote, W.C. :
Polymorphisms of a Scrapie-Associated Fibril Protein (PrP) Gene and Their Association with Susceptibility to Experimentally Induced Scrapie in Cheviot Sheep in the United-States American Journal of Veterinary Research 53:1957-1960, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1360777.
Mohri, S., Farquhar, C.F., Somerville, R.A., Jeffrey, M., Foster, J., Hope, J. :
Immunodetection of a Disease Specific PrP Fraction in Scrapie- Affected Sheep and BSE-Affected Cattle Veterinary Record 131:537-539, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1362015.
Muramatsu, Y., Tanaka, K., Horiuchi, M., Ishiguro, N., Shinagawa, M., Matsui, T., Onodera, T. :
A Specific RFLP Type Associated with the Occurrence of Sheep Scrapie in Japan Archives of Virology 127:1-9, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1360795.
Petit, F., Boucrautbaralon, C. :
From Slow Virus to Prion - Molecular Biology of Transmissible Neurodegenerative Diseases Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 143:595-605, 1992.
Race, R., Ernst, D., Jenny, A., Taylor, W., Sutton, D., Caughey, B. :
Diagnostic Implications of Detection of Proteinase K- Resistant Protein in Spleen, Lymph Nodes, and Brain of Sheep American Journal of Veterinary Research 53:883-889, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1352664.
Raeber, A.J., Borchelt, D.R., Scott, M., Prusiner, S.B. :
Attempts to Convert the Cellular Prion Protein into the Scrapie Isoform in Cell-Free Systems Journal of Virology 66:6155-6163, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1356161.
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Chimeric Prion Protein Expression in Cultured Cells and Transgenic Mice Protein Science 1:986-997, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1338978. DOI: 10.1002/pro.5560010804.
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Glycosylinositol Phospholipid Anchors of the Scrapie and Cellular Prion Proteins Contain Sialic Acid Biochemistry 31:5043-5053, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1350920.
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The Occurrence of Scrapie in 2 Flocks of Sheep in Germany Tierarztliche Umschau 47:338, 1992.
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Regional Mapping of Prion Proteins in Brain Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 89:7620-7624, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1354357.
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Recently Described Scrapie-Like Encephalopathies of Animals - Case Definitions - Review Article Research in Veterinary Science 53:1-10, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1410804.
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The Natural Occurrence of Scrapie in Moufflon Veterinary Record 130:25-27, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1542978.
1991 Adams, D.H. :
Does the Infective Agent of Scrapie Replicate Without Nucleic Acid? - An Assessment Medical Hypotheses 35:253-264, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1943871.
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Spread of Unconventional Viruses Through Sheep-Brain Rabies Vaccines Vaccine 9:70, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2008804.
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Scrapie in Prince-Edward-Island Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 32:438, 1991.
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Survival of Scrapie Virus After Three Years' Internment Lancet 337:269-270, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1671114.
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More on Scrapie - Reply Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 199:681-682, 1991.
Diringer, H., Blode, H., Oberdieck, U. :
Virus-Induced Amyloidosis in Scrapie Involves a Change in Covalent Linkages in the Preamyloid Archives of Virology 118:127-131, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1675561.
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Acceleration of Scrapie in Trisomy-16<->Reversible-Diploid Aggregation Chimeras Annals of Neurology 29:95-97, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1996884. DOI: 10.1002/ana.410290117.
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Partial Dominance of the sA Allele of the Sip Gene for Controlling Experimental Scrapie Veterinary Record 128:548-549, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1679574.
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Some Problems of Diagnosis of the Spongiform Encephalopathies in Ruminants European Journal of Epidemiology 7:526-531, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1761111.
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Different Scrapie-Associated Fibril Proteins (PrP) Are Encoded by Lines of Sheep Selected for Different Alleles of the Sip Gene Journal of General Virology 72:2411-2417, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1681027.
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Scrapie and GSS - The Importance of Protein Trends in Neurosciences 14:389-390, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1720577.
Hunter, N., Foster, J.D., Benson, G., Hope, J. :
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of the Scrapie- Associated Fibril Protein (PrP) Gene and Their Association with Susceptibility to Natural Scrapie in British Sheep Journal of General Virology 72:1287-1292, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1675248.
Ikegami, Y., Ito, M., Isomura, H., Momotani, E., Sasaki, K., Muramatsu, Y., Ishiguro, N., Shinagawa, M. :
Pre-Clinical and Clinical Diagnosis of Scrapie by Detection of PrP Protein in Tissues of Sheep Veterinary Record 128:271-275, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1674826.
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The Ultrastructural Diversity of Scrapie-Associated Fibrils Isolated from Experimental Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Journal of Comparative Pathology 105:377-386, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1770176.
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Scrapie in Sheep Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 13:511, 1991.
Mckinley, M.P., Meyer, R.K., Kenaga, L., Rahbar, F., Cotter, R., Serban, A., Prusiner, S.B. :
Scrapie Prion Rod Formation Invitro Requires Both Detergent Extraction and Limited Proteolysis Journal of Virology 65:1340-1351, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1704926.
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Molecular Biology of Prions Causing Infectious and Genetic Encephalopathies of Humans as Well as Scrapie of Sheep and BSE of Cattle International Symposium on Virological Aspects of the Safety of Biological Products 75:55-74, 1991.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics of Prions - Implications for Sheep Scrapie, Mad Cows and the BSE Epidemic Cornell Veterinarian 81:85-101, 1991. Pubmed reference: 2029844.
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A Unified Theory of Prion Propagation Nature 352:679-683, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1876183. DOI: 10.1038/352679a0.
1990 Aiken, J.M., Marsh, R.F. :
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Permethylation and Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Oligosaccharides Having Free Hexosamine - Analysis of the Glycoinositol Phospholipid Anchor Glycan from the Scrapie Prion Protein Analytical Biochemistry 191:174-182, 1990. Pubmed reference: 1981823.
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1989 Carp, R.I., Kim, Y.S., Kascsak, R.J., Merz, P.A., Rubenstein, R. :
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1981 Kimberlin, R.H. :
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1977 Parry, H.B., Livett, B.G. :
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