OMIA 000944-9913 : Spongiform encephalopathy, susceptibility/resistance to in Bos taurus

In other species: domestic cat , goat , pig , sheep , American mink , golden hamster , blue antelope , white-tufted-ear marmoset , eland , domestic ferret , greater kudu , Arabian oryx , , puma , Eastern wapiti , cheetah , chicken , crab-eating macaque , Rhesus monkey , macaques , black-tailed deer , , rabbit , dog , water buffalo , , Manchurian Wapiti , deer , domestic guinea pig , , Western roe deer , fallow deer , , , horse , white-tailed deer , chital , American bison , Eurasian elk , nyala , gemsbok , scimitar-horned oryx , reindeer , Arabian camel , red deer , Mallard

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) (MIM number): 176640 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2008

Cross-species summary: Spongiform encephalopathies are a class of fatal neurological diseases. Clinical signs are characteristic of a progressive degeneration of the central nervous system; they include pruritis, abnormalities of gait and recumbency. Death is inevitable. On post-mortem, brain histopathology shows a characteristic spongy appearance. The infectious agent is a modified form of a protein encoded by a gene in the host. The name given to this infectious particle is prion. The host gene is called the prion protein (PrP) gene, which is a normal part of the genome of mammals and chickens. Its polypeptide product, called cellular PrP(superscript C), is a naturally-occurring protein attached to the outer surface of neurones and some other cells. PrP(superscript C) appears to play a role in maintaining the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, which are essential for balance and muscular function. The infectious agent, called scrapie PrP(superscript Sc), is a modifed form of PrP(superscript C), where the modifications involve glycosylation and the creation of intra-strand di-sulphide bonds. It is important to realise that these modifications involve no change in amino acid sequence. When PrP(superscript Sc) molecules enter a previously uninfected host, they convert the naturally occurring PrP(superscript C) molecules, produced by the host gene, into infectious PrP(superscript Sc) particles, which ultimately cause clinical signs in that animal, and which can spread to other animals, both horizontally (by infection) and vertically (by maternal transmission).

Species-specific name: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy; Mad Cow Disease

Species-specific symbol: BSE

Molecular basis: Richt and Hall (2008) "identified a novel mutation in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp), called E211K, of a confirmed BSE positive cow from Alabama, United States of America. This mutation is identical to the E200K pathogenic mutation found in humans with a genetic form of CJD. This finding represents the first report of a confirmed case of BSE with a potential pathogenic mutation within the bovine Prnp gene. We hypothesize that the bovine Prnp E211K mutation most likely has caused BSE in “the approximately 10-year-old cow” carrying the E221K mutation."

Won et al. (2020) "found a high rate of K211 somatic mutations of the bovine PRNP gene in the medulla oblongata of three Holsteins (10% ± 4.4%, 28% ± 2%, and 19.55% ± 3.1%). In addition, in silico programs showed that the K211 somatic mutation was damaging. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate K211 somatic mutations of the bovine PRNP gene that are associated with potential BSE progression."

Prevalence: Heaton et al. (2008): "The K211 allele was not detected in 6062 cattle, including those from five commercial beef processing plants (3892 carcasses) and 2170 registered cattle from 42 breeds. Multiple nearby polymorphisms in Prnp coding sequence of 1456 diverse purebred cattle (42 breeds) did not interfere with scoring E211 or K211 alleles. Based on these results, the upper bounds for prevalence of the E211K variant was estimated to be extremely low, less than 1 in 2000 cattle (Bayesian analysis based on 95% quantile of the posterior distribution with a uniform prior)."

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
PRNP prion protein Bos taurus 13 NC_037340.1 (47039937..47060168) PRNP Homologene, Ensembl, NCBI gene

Variants

By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Inferred EVA rsID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
Numerous breeds Spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) PRNP missense UMD3.1 13 g.47415059G>A c.631G>A p.(E211K) 2008 18787697 Genomic coordinates obtained from EBI's VEP

References


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2021 Chong, A., Foster, J.D., Goldmann, W., Gonzalez, L., Jeffrey, M., O'Connor, M.J., Bishop, K., Maddison, B.C., Houston, E.F., Gough, K.C., Hunter, N. :
BSE can propagate in sheep co-infected or pre-infected with scrapie. Sci Rep 11:11931, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34099797. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-91397-8.
Kim, Y.C., Park, K.J., Hwang, J.Y., Park, H.C., Kang, H.E., Sohn, H.J., Jeong, B.H. :
In-depth examination of PrP^Sc in Holstein cattle carrying the E211K somatic mutation of the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP). Transbound Emerg Dis :, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34470082. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.14309.
Orge, L., Lima, C., Machado, C., Tavares, P., Mendonça, P., Carvalho, P., Silva, J., Pinto, M.L., Bastos, E., Pereira, J.C., Gonçalves-Anjo, N., Gama, A., Esteves, A., Alves, A., Matos, A.C., Seixas, F., Silva, F., Pires, I., Figueira, L., Vieira-Pinto, M., Sargo, R., Pires, M.D.A. :
Neuropathology of animal prion diseases. Biomolecules 11:, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33801117. DOI: 10.3390/biom11030466.
Singh, P., Ali, S.A. :
Impact of CRISPR-Cas9-based genome engineering in farm animals. Vet Sci 8:, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34209174. DOI: 10.3390/vetsci8070122.
2020 Ayers, J.I., Paras, N.A., Prusiner, S.B. :
Expanding spectrum of prion diseases. Emerg Top Life Sci 4:155-167, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32803268. DOI: 10.1042/ETLS20200037.
Kim, Y.C., Kim, S.K., Won, S.Y., Jeong, B.H. :
Polymorphisms of shadow of prion protein gene (SPRN) in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein cattle. Sci Rep 10:15272, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32943703. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-72225-x.
Won, S.Y., Kim, Y.C., Jeong, B.H. :
First Report of the Potential Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)-Related Somatic Mutation E211K of the Prion Protein Gene (<i>PRNP</i>) in Cattle. Int J Mol Sci 21:, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32549191. DOI: 10.3390/ijms21124246.
2019 Hagiwara, K., Sato, Y., Yamakawa, Y., Hara, H., Tobiume, M., Okemoto-Nakamura, Y., Sata, T., Horiuchi, M., Shibata, H., Ono, F. :
Tracking and clarifying differential traits of classical- and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions after transmission from cattle to cynomolgus monkeys. PLoS One 14:e0216807, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31095605. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216807.
Huor, A., Espinosa, J.C., Vidal, E., Cassard, H., Douet, J.Y., Lugan, S., Aron, N., Marín-Moreno, A., Lorenzo, P., Aguilar-Calvo, P., Badiola, J., Bolea, R., Pumarola, M., Benestad, S.L., Orge, L., Thackray, A.M., Bujdoso, R., Torres, J.M., Andreoletti, O. :
The emergence of classical BSE from atypical/Nor98 scrapie. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A :, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31843908. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915737116.
Kumagai, S., Daikai, T., Onodera, T. :
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy 
- A Review from the Perspective of Food Safety. Food Saf (Tokyo) 7:21-47, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31998585. DOI: 10.14252/foodsafetyfscj.2018009.
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Four types of scrapie in goats differentiated from each other and bovine spongiform encephalopathy by biochemical methods. Vet Res 50:97, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31767033. DOI: 10.1186/s13567-019-0718-z.
2018 Gielbert, A., Thorne, J.K., Plater, J.M., Thorne, L., Griffiths, P.C., Simmons, M.M., Cassar, C.A. :
Molecular characterisation of atypical BSE prions by mass spectrometry and changes following transmission to sheep and transgenic mouse models. PLoS One 13:e0206505, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30408075. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206505.
Houston, F., Andréoletti, O. :
Animal prion diseases: the risks to human health. Brain Pathol 29:248-262, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30588682. DOI: 10.1111/bpa.12696.
2017 Kim, Y.C., Jeong, B.H. :
Lack of germline mutation at codon 211 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Korean native cattle - Short communication. Acta Vet Hung 65:147-152, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28244340. DOI: 10.1556/004.2017.015.
Peggion, C., Bertoli, A., Sorgato, M.C. :
Almost a century of prion protein(s): From pathology to physiology, and back to pathology. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 483:1148-1155, 2017. Pubmed reference: 27581199. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.07.118.
Serra, F., Müller, J., Gray, J., Lüthi, R., Dudas, S., Czub, S., Seuberlich, T. :
PrP-C1 fragment in cattle brains reveals features of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy associated PrP(sc). Brain Res 1659:19-28, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28119056. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2017.01.015.
Simmons, M., Ru, G., Casalone, C., Iulini, B., Cassar, C., Seuberlich, T. :
Discontools: Identifying gaps in controlling bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Transbound Emerg Dis :, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28795509. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12671.
Vázquez-Fernández, E., Young, H.S., Requena, J.R., Wille, H. :
The Structure of Mammalian Prions and Their Aggregates. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 329:277-301, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28109330. DOI: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2016.08.013.
Vrentas, C.E., Greenlee, J.J., Foster, G.H., West, J., Jahnke, M.M., Schmidt, M.T., Nicholson, E.M. :
Effects of a naturally occurring amino acid substitution in bovine PrP: a model for inherited prion disease in a natural host species. BMC Res Notes 10:759, 2017. Pubmed reference: 29262866. DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-3085-8.
2016 Bevacqua, R.J., Fernandez-Martín, R., Savy, V., Canel, N.G., Gismondi, M.I., Kues, W.A., Carlson, D.F., Fahrenkrug, S.C., Niemann, H., Taboga, O.A., Ferraris, S., Salamone, D.F. :
Efficient edition of the bovine PRNP prion gene in somatic cells and IVF embryos using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Theriogenology 86:1886-1896.e1, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27566851. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.06.010.
Brunelle, B.W., O'Grady, A.M., Nicholson, E.M., Seabury, C.M. :
Disparate Modes of Evolution Shaped Modern Prion (PRNP) and Prion-Related Doppel (PRND) Variation in Domestic Cattle. PLoS One 11:e0155924, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27224046. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155924.
Davenport, K.A., Henderson, D.M., Mathiason, C.K., Hoover, E.A. :
Assessment of the PrPc amino-terminal domain in prion species barriers. J Virol :, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27654299. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01121-16.
Hedman, C., Bolea, R., Marín, B., Cobrière, F., Filali, H., Vazquez, F., Pitarch, J.L., Vargas, A., Acín, C., Moreno, B., Pumarola, M., Andreoletti, O., Badiola, J.J. :
Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs. Vet Res 47:14, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26742788. DOI: 10.1186/s13567-015-0295-8.
Jaumain, E., Quadrio, I., Herzog, L., Reine, F., Rezaei, H., Andréoletti, O., Laude, H., Perret-Liaudet, A., Haïk, S., Béringue, V. :
Absence of evidence for a causal link between L-BSE and known forms of sporadic CJD in human PrP transgenic mice. J Virol :, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27681129. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01383-16.
Moore, S.J., West Greenlee, M.H., Smith, J.D., Vrentas, C.E., Nicholson, E.M., Greenlee, J.J. :
A Comparison of Classical and H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated with E211K Prion Protein Polymorphism in Wild-Type and EK211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation. Front Vet Sci 3:78, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27695695. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2016.00078.
Xerxa, E., Barbisin, M., Chieppa, M.N., Krmac, H., Vallino Costassa, E., Vatta, P., Simmons, M., Caramelli, M., Casalone, C., Corona, C., Legname, G. :
Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. PLoS One 11:e0153425, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27073865. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153425.
Yang, Q., Zhang, S., Liu, L., Cao, X., Lei, C., Qi, X., Lin, F., Qu, W., Qi, X., Liu, J., Wang, R., Chen, H., Lan, X. :
Application of mathematical expectation (ME) strategy for detecting low frequency mutations: An example for evaluating 14-bp insertion/deletion (indel) within the bovine PRNP gene. Prion :0, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27580010. DOI: 10.1080/19336896.2016.1211593.
2015 Aguilar-Calvo, P., García, C., Espinosa, J.C., Andreoletti, O., Torres, J.M. :
Prion and prion-like diseases in animals. Virus Res 207:82-93, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25444937. DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2014.11.026.
Budka, H., Will, R.G. :
The end of the BSE saga: do we still need surveillance for human prion diseases? Swiss Med Wkly 145:w14212, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26715203. DOI: 10.4414/smw.2015.14212.
Choi, W., Kim, E., Yum, S.Y., Lee, C., Lee, J., Moon, J., Ramachandra, S., Malaweera, B.O., Cho, J., Kim, J.S., Kim, S., Jang, G. :
Efficient PRNP deletion in bovine genome using gene-editing technologies in bovine cells. Prion 9:278-91, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26217959. DOI: 10.1080/19336896.2015.1071459.
Dudas, S., James, J., Anderson, R., Czub, S. :
Exploring the cause of initially reactive bovine brains on rapid tests for BSE. Prion 9:429-43, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26689488. DOI: 10.1080/19336896.2015.1115945.
Greenlee, J.J., Greenlee, M.H. :
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock. ILAR J 56:7-25, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25991695. DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilv008.
Quimby, A.E., Shamy, M.C. :
The Canadian Management of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Historical and Scientific Perspective, 1990-2014. Can J Neurol Sci 42:472-81, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26357946. DOI: 10.1017/cjn.2015.286.
Zhao, H., Du, Y., Chen, S., Qing, L., Wang, X., Huang, J., Wu, D., Zhang, Y. :
The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo. Infect Genet Evol 36:531-8, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26319996. DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2015.08.031.
2014 Barria, M.A., Ironside, J.W., Head, M.W. :
Exploring the zoonotic potential of animal prion diseases: In vivo and in vitro approaches. Prion 8:, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24549113.
Vernerova, K., Tothova, L., Mikova, A., Vodrazka, P., Simek, B., Hanusova, L., Citek, J. :
BSE-associated polymorphisms in the prion protein gene: an investigation. J Anim Breed Genet 131:403-8, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24720684. DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12090.
2013 Acquatella-Tran Van Ba, I., Imberdis, T., Perrier, V. :
From Prion Diseases to Prion-Like Propagation Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases. Int J Cell Biol 2013:975832, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24222767. DOI: 10.1155/2013/975832.
Hueston, W.D. :
BSE and variant CJD: emerging science, public pressure and the vagaries of policy-making. Prev Vet Med 109:179-84, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23287715. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2012.11.023.
Kretzschmar, H., Tatzelt, J. :
Prion disease: a tale of folds and strains. Brain Pathol 23:321-32, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23587138. DOI: 10.1111/bpa.12045.
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Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases. Osong Public Health Res Perspect 4:57-66, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24159531. DOI: 10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.008.
Lloyd, S.E., Mead, S., Collinge, J. :
Genetics of prion diseases. Curr Opin Genet Dev 23:345-51, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23518043. DOI: 10.1016/j.gde.2013.02.012.
Vidal, E., Fernández-Borges, N., Pintado, B., Ordóñez, M., Márquez, M., Fondevila, D., Eraña, H., Torres, J.M., Pumarola, M., Castilla, J. :
Exploring the risks of a putative transmission of BSE to new species. Prion 7:, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24184875.
2012 Choi, S., Woo, H.J., Lee, J. :
Sequence variations of the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) in native Korean Hanwoo cattle. J Vet Sci 13:127-37, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22705734.
Guldimann, C., Gsponer, M., Drögemüller, C., Oevermann, A., Seuberlich, T. :
Atypical H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a cow born after the reinforced feed ban on meat-and-bone meal in Europe. J Clin Microbiol 50:4171-4, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23035195. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02178-12.
Gurgul, A., Czarnik, U., Urszula, C., Larska, M., Polak, M.P., Strychalski, J., Słota, E. :
Polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish cattle affected by classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Mol Biol Rep 39:5211-7, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22170597. DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-1318-9.
Gurgul, A., Polak, M.P., Larska, M., Słota, E. :
PRNP and SPRN genes polymorphism in atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases diagnosed in Polish cattle. J Appl Genet 53:337-42, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22723200. DOI: 10.1007/s13353-012-0102-4.
Imran, M., Mahmood, S., Babar, M.E., Hussain, R., Yousaf, M.Z., Abid, N.B., Lone, K.P. :
PRNP gene variation in Pakistani cattle and buffaloes. Gene 505:180-5, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22634099. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.05.038.
Jeong, B.H., Jin, H.T., Carp, R.I., Kim, Y.S. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-associated polymorphisms of the prion protein (PRNP) gene in Korean native cattle. Anim Genet :, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23134411. DOI: 10.1111/age.12004.
Seuberlich, T., Gsponer, M., Drögemüller, C., Polak, M.P., McCutcheon, S., Heim, D., Oevermann, A., Zurbriggen, A. :
Novel prion protein in BSE-affected cattle, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis 18:158-9, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22261120. DOI: 10.3201/eid1801.111225.
Thomson, J.M., Bowles, V., Choi, J.W., Basu, U., Meng, Y., Stothard, P., Moore, S. :
The identification of candidate genes and SNP markers for classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility. Prion 6:461-9, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22918267. DOI: 10.4161/pri.21866.
Windl, O., Dawson, M. :
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2011 Czarnik, U., Strychalski, J., Zabolewicz, T., Pareek, C.S. :
Populationwide investigation of two indel polymorphisms at the prion protein gene in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. Biochem Genet 49:303-12, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21221760. DOI: 10.1007/s10528-010-9408-2.
Hamir, A.N., Kehrli, M.E., Kunkle, R.A., Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Richt, J.A., Miller, J.M., Cutlip, R.C. :
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Msalya, G., Shimogiri, T., Ohno, S., Okamoto, S., Kawabe, K., Minezawa, M., Maeda, Y. :
Evaluation of PRNP expression based on genotypes and alleles of two indel loci in the medulla oblongata of Japanese Black and Japanese Brown cattle. PLoS One 6:e18787, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21611160. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018787.
Qin, L.H., Zhao, Y.M., Bao, Y.H., Bai, W.L., Chong, J., Zhang, G.L., Zhang, J.B., Zhao, Z.H. :
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2010 Adkin, A., Webster, V., Arnold, ME., Wells, GA., Matthews, D. :
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Molecular analysis of carbohydrate N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O sulfotransferase 8 (CHST8) as a candidate gene for bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility. Anim Genet 41:85-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19744145. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01951.x.
Msalya, G., Shimogiri, T., Nishitani, K., Okamoto, S., Kawabe, K., Minesawa, M., Maeda, Y. :
Indels within promoter and intron 1 of bovine prion protein gene modulate the gene expression levels in the medulla oblongata of two Japanese cattle breeds. Anim Genet 41:218-21, 2010. Pubmed reference: 19917050. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01983.x.
Murdoch, BM., Clawson, ML., Laegreid, WW., Stothard, P., Settles, M., McKay, S., Prasad, A., Wang, Z., Moore, SS., Williams, JL. :
A 2cM genome-wide scan of European Holstein cattle affected by classical BSE. BMC Genet 11:20, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20350325. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-11-20.
Shimogiri, T., Msalya, G., Myint, SL., Okamoto, S., Kawabe, K., Tanaka, K., Mannen, H., Minezawa, M., Namikawa, T., Amano, T., Yamamoto, Y., Maeda, Y. :
Allele Distributions and Frequencies of the Six Prion Protein Gene (PRNP) Polymorphisms in Asian Native Cattle, Japanese Breeds, and Mythun (Bos frontalis). Biochem Genet :, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20623331. DOI: 10.1007/s10528-010-9364-x.
Zhao, H., Wang, XY., Zou, W., Zhang, YP. :
Prion protein gene (PRNP) polymorphisms in native Chinese cattle. Genome 53:138-45, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20140032. DOI: 10.1139/g09-087.
2009 Ferguson-Smith, MA., Richt, JA. :
Rare BSE mutation raises concerns over risks to public health. Nature 457:1079, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19242452. DOI: 10.1038/4571079b.
Harman, JL., Silva, CJ. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234:59-72, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19119967. DOI: 10.2460/javma.234.1.59.
Lefrère, J.J., Hewitt, P. :
From mad cows to sensible blood transfusion: the risk of prion transmission by labile blood components in the United Kingdom and in France. Transfusion 49:797-812, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19170997. DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.02044.x.
Nau, JY. :
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Nomura, S., Miyasho, T., Maeda, N., Doh-Ura, K., Yokota, H. :
Autoantibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein in the sera of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Proteomics 9:4029-35, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19658106. DOI: 10.1002/pmic.200900066.
Tang, Y., Xiang, W., Hawkins, SA., Kretzschmar, HA., Windl, O. :
Transcriptional changes in the brains of cattle orally infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent precede detection of infectivity. J Virol 83:9464-73, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19587050. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00352-09.
Tester, S., Juillerat, V., Doherr, MG., Haase, B., Polak, M., Ehrensperger, F., Leeb, T., Zurbriggen, A., Seuberlich, T. :
Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE. Virol J 6:64, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19470160. DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-6-64.
2008 Brunelle, BW., Greenlee, JJ., Seabury, CM., Brown, CE., Nicholson, EM. :
Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle. BMC Vet Res 4:36, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18808703. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-4-36.
Ducrot, C., Arnold, M., de Koeijer, A., Heim, D., Calavas, D. :
Review on the epidemiology and dynamics of BSE epidemics. Vet Res 39:15, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18187031. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2007053.
Heaton, M.P., Keele, J.W., Harhay, G.P., Richt, J.A., Koohmaraie, M., Wheeler, T.L., Shackelford, S.D., Casas, E., King, D.A., Sonstegard, T.S., Van Tassell, C.P., Neibergs, H.L., Chase, C.C., Kalbfleisch, T.S., Smith, T.P., Clawson, M.L., Laegreid, W.W. :
Prevalence of the prion protein gene E211K variant in U.S. cattle. BMC Vet Res 4:25, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18625065. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-4-25.
Juling, K., Schwarzenbacher, H., Frankenberg, U., Ziegler, U., Groschup, M., Williams, JL., Fries, R. :
Characterization of a 320-kb region containing the HEXA gene on bovine chromosome 10 and analysis of its association with BSE susceptibility. Anim Genet 39:400-6, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18513278. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2008.01743.x.
Nicholson, EM., Brunelle, BW., Richt, JA., Kehrli, ME., Greenlee, JJ. :
Identification of a heritable polymorphism in bovine PRNP associated with genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: evidence of heritable BSE. PLoS ONE 3:e2912, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18698343. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002912.
Panza, G., Stöhr, J., Dumpitak, C., Papathanassiou, D., Weiss, J., Riesner, D., Willbold, D., Birkmann, E. :
Spontaneous and BSE-prion-seeded amyloid formation of full length recombinant bovine prion protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 373:493-7, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18585368. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.06.059.
Richt, JA., Hall, SM. :
BSE case associated with prion protein gene mutation. PLoS Pathog 4:e1000156, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18787697. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000156.
Sejvar, JJ., Schonberger, LB., Belay, ED. :
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:1705-12, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19046027. DOI: 10.2460/javma.233.11.1705.
Simmons, MM., Spiropoulos, J., Hawkins, SA., Bellworthy, SJ., Tongue, SC. :
Approaches to investigating transmission of spongiform encephalopathies in domestic animals using BSE as an example. Vet Res 39:34, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18284911. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2008011.
van Keulen, LJ., Bossers, A., van Zijderveld, F. :
TSE pathogenesis in cattle and sheep. Vet Res 39:24, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18258167. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2007061.
Vidal, E., Marquez, M., Raeber, AJ., Meissner, K., Oesch, B., Pumarola, M. :
Applicability of a rapid chromatographic immunoassay for analysis of the distribution of PrPBSE in confirmed BSE cases. Vet J 177:448-51, 2008. Pubmed reference: 17689993. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.05.026.
Yoshikawa, Y. :
Epidemiological study on BSE outbreak in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 70:325-36, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18460825.
2007 Crozet, C., Lehmann, S. :
[Prions: where do we stand 20 years after the appearance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy?] Med Sci (Paris) 23:1148-57, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18154718. DOI: 10.1051/medsci/200723121148.
Czarnik, U., Zabolewicz, T., Strychalski, J., Grzybowski, G., Bogusz, M., Walawski, K. :
Deletion/insertion polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. J Appl Genet 48:67-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17272863. DOI: 10.1007/BF03194659.
Gurgul, A., Słota, E. :
Effect of bovine PRNP gene polymorphisms on BSE susceptibility in cattle. Folia Biol (Krakow) 55:81-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18274249.
Haase, B., Doherr, M.G., Seuberlich, T., Drögemüller, C., Dolf, G., Nicken, P., Schiebel, K., Ziegler, U., Groschup, M.H., Zurbriggen, A., Leeb, T. :
PRNP promoter polymorphisms are associated with BSE susceptibility in Swiss and German cattle. BMC Genet 8:15, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17437640. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-8-15.
Morris, C.A. :
A review of genetic resistance to disease in Bos taurus cattle. Vet J 174:481-91, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17095270. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.09.006.
Saunders, G.C., Griffiths, P.C., Cawthraw, S., Tout, A.C., Wiener, P., Woolliams, J.A., Williams, J.L., Windl, O. :
Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene coding region in born-after-the-reinforced-ban (BARB) bovine spongiform encephalopathy cattle in Great Britain. J Gen Virol 88:1374-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17374784. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.82507-0.
2006 Doherr, MG. :
Brief review on the epidemiology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). Vaccine :, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17126962. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.10.059.
Juling, K., Schwarzenbacher, H., Williams, JL., Fries, R. :
A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility. BMC Biol 4:33, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17014722. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-4-33.
Pennington, H. :
Origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Lancet 367:298; author reply 298-9, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16139661. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67218-2.
2005 Abrial, D., Calavas, D., Jarrige, N., Ducrot, C. :
Spatial heterogeneity of the risk of BSE in France following the ban of meat and bone meal in cattle feed. Prev Vet Med 67:69-82, 2005.
Abrial, D., Calavas, D., Jarrige, N., Ducrot, C. :
Spatial heterogeneity of the risk of BSE in France following the ban of meat and bone meal in cattle feed. Prev Vet Med 67:69-82, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15698909. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.10.004.
Abrial, D., Calavas, D., Jarrige, N., Ducrot, C. :
Poultry, pig and the risk of BSE following the feed ban in France--a spatial analysis. Vet Res 36:615-28, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15955285. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2005020.
Balbus, N., Humeny, A., Kashkevich, K., Henz, I., Fischer, C., Becker, CM., Schiebel, K. :
DNA polymorphisms of the prion doppel gene region in four different German cattle breeds and cows tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Mamm Genome 16:884-92, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16284804. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-005-0052-9.
Baron, T., Calavas, D. :
[Bovine spongiform encephalopathy] Pathol Biol (Paris) 53:229-36, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15850957. DOI: 10.1016/j.patbio.2004.09.009.
Buschmann, A., Groschup, MH. :
Highly bovine spongiform encephalopathy-sensitive transgenic mice confirm the essential restriction of infectivity to the nervous system in clinically diseased cattle. J Infect Dis 192:934-42, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16088845. DOI: 10.1086/431602.
Campbell, PN. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy--some surprises for biochemists. IUBMB Life 57:273-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16036610. DOI: 10.1080/15216540500097152.
Castilla, J., Brun, A., Diaz-San Segundo, F., Salguero, FJ., Gutierrez-Adan, A., Pintado, B., Ramirez, MA., del Riego, L., Torres, JM. :
Vertical transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions evaluated in a transgenic mouse model. J Virol 79:8665-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15956610. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.79.13.8665-8668.2005.
Castilla, J., Gutiérrez-Adán, A., Brun, A., Pintado, B., Salguero, F.J., Parra, B., Segundo, F.D., Ramírez, M.A., Rábano, A., Cano, M.J., Torres, J.M. :
Transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP with a four extra repeat octapeptide insert mutation show a spontaneous, non-transmissible, neurodegenerative disease and an expedited course of BSE infection. FEBS Lett 579:6237-46, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16253245. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.09.099.
Colchester, AC., Colchester, NT. :
The origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the human prion disease hypothesis. Lancet 366:856-61, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16139641. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67193-0.
Ducrot, C., Abrial, D., Calavas, D., Carpenter, T. :
A spatio-temporal analysis of BSE cases born before and after the reinforced feed ban in France. Vet Res 36:839-53, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16120257. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2005037.
Ebringer, A., Rashid, T., Wilson, C. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, and creutzfeldt-jakob disease are probably autoimmune diseases evoked by Acinetobacter bacteria. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1050:417-28, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16014559. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1313.093.
Gibbens, N. :
Surveillance for BSE. Vet Rec 156:718, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15923559.
Gibbens, N. :
Link between feed bins and BSE cases born after July 1996. Vet Rec 157:782-3, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16339984.
Grobben, AH., Steele, PJ., Somerville, RA., Taylor, DM., Schreuder, BE. :
Inactivation of the BSE agent by the heat and pressure process for manufacturing gelatine. Vet Rec 157:277-81, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16157568.
Head, M.W., Ironside, J.W. :
Mad cows and monkey business: the end of vCJD? Lancet 365:730-1, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15733699. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17997-5.
Hejazi, R., Danyluk, AJ. :
Brainstem removal using compressed air for subsequent bovine spongiform encephalopathy testing. Can Vet J 46:436-7, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16018564.
Jeong, BH., Sohn, HJ., Lee, JO., Kim, NH., Kim, JI., Lee, SY., Cho, IS., Joo, YS., Carp, RI., Kim, YS. :
Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) and Holstein cattle. Genes Genet Syst 80:303-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16284424.
Kim, TY., Kim, YS., Kim, JK., Shon, HJ., Lee, YH., Kang, CB., Park, JS., Kang, KS., Lee, YS. :
Risk analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Korea. J Vet Med Sci 67:743-52, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16141660.
O'Rourke, K. :
The Canada debate. USDA sends team to Canada to investigate BSE situation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:504-5, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15742683.
Paisley, LG., Hostrup-Pedersen, J. :
A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark. Prev Vet Med 68:263-75, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15820119. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.01.010.
Polak, MP., Zmudzinski, JF. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Poland. Vet Rec 157:56-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16006643.
Roma, AA., Prayson, RA. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: how safe is eating beef? Cleve Clin J Med 72:185-6, 189-90, 192-4, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15825799.
Sander, P., Hamann, H., Drögemüller, C., Kashkevich, K., Schiebel, K., Leeb, T. :
Bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) promoter polymorphisms modulate PRNP expression and may be responsible for differences in bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility. J Biol Chem 280:37408-14, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16141216. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M506361200.
Scheier, LM. :
The safety of beef in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 105:339-40, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15746815. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2005.01.014.
Schutz, E., Urnovitz, HB., Lakoubov, L., Schulz-Schaeffer, W., Wemheuer, W., Brenig, B. :
Bov-tA short interspersed nucleotide element sequences in circulating nucleic acids from sera of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and sera of cattle exposed to BSE. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:814-20, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16002628. DOI: 10.1128/CDLI.12.7.814-820.2005.
Scicchitano, L. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: background and implications for nursing practice. Insight 29:17, 19-21, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15693468.
Setbon, M., Raude, J., Fischler, C., Flahault, A. :
Risk perception of the "mad cow disease" in france: determinants and consequences. Risk Anal 25:813-26, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16268931. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2005.00634.x.
Sheridan, HA., Mcgrath, G., White, P., Fallon, R., Shoukri, MM., Martin, SW. :
A temporal-spatial analysis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Irish cattle herds, from 1996 to 2000. Can J Vet Res 69:19-25, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15745218.
Sniehotta, FF., Luszczynska, A., Scholz, U., Hoffmann, KP., Lippke, S., Epplen, JT. :
Discontinuity patterns in stages of the precaution adoption process model: meat consumption during a livestock epidemic. Br J Health Psychol 10:221-35, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15969851. DOI: 10.1348/135910705X26137.
Stevenson, MA., Morris, RS., Lawson, AB., Wilesmith, JW., Ryan, JB., Jackson, R. :
Area-level risks for BSE in British cattle before and after the July 1988 meat and bone meal feed ban. Prev Vet Med 69:129-44, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15899301. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.01.016.
Sun, G., Guo, M., Shen, A., Mei, F., Peng, X., Gong, R., Guo, D., Wu, J., Tien, P., Xiao, G. :
Bovine PrPC directly interacts with alphaB-crystalline. FEBS Lett 579:5419-24, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16198347. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.08.065.
Taylor, JD. :
What practitioners should know about bovine spongiform encephalopathy to serve clients and the cattle industry. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:1070-8, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16220665.
Wear, A., Henderson, K., Webster, K., Patel, I. :
A comparison of rapid bovine spongiform encephalopathy testing methods on autolyzed bovine brain tissue. J Vet Diagn Invest 17:99-102, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15825488.
2004 Arnold, ME., Wilesmith, JW. :
Estimation of the age-dependent risk of infection to BSE of dairy cattle in Great Britain. Prev Vet Med 66:35-47, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15579333. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.07.007.
Bailly, Y., Haeberlé, A.M., Blanquet-Grossard, F., Chasserot-Golaz, S., Grant, N., Schulze, T., Bombarde, G., Grassi, J., Cesbron, J.Y., Lemaire-Vieille, C. :
Prion protein (PrPc) immunocytochemistry and expression of the green fluorescent protein reporter gene under control of the bovine PrP gene promoter in the mouse brain. J Comp Neurol 473:244-69, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15101092. DOI: 10.1002/cne.20117.
Biacabe, AG., Laplanche, JL., Ryder, S., Baron, T. :
Distinct molecular phenotypes in bovine prion diseases. EMBO Rep 5:110-5, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14710195. DOI: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400054.
Biverståhl, H., Andersson, A., Gräslund, A., Mäler, L. :
NMR solution structure and membrane interaction of the N-terminal sequence (1-30) of the bovine prion protein. Biochemistry 43:14940-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15554701. DOI: 10.1021/bi0485070.
Braun, U., Gerspach, C., Ryhner, T., Hauri, S. :
Pacing as a clinical sign in cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vet Rec 155:420-2, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15508842.
Brink, S., Shute, N. :
Is it safe? New beef rules aim to stop mad cow disease. But they may not be enough--and there's too much we don't know. US News World Rep 136:16-21, 2004. Pubmed reference: 16116714.
Cohen-Sabas, C.H., Heim, D., Zurbriggen, A., Stärk, K.D. :
Age-period-cohort analysis of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in Switzerland. Prev Vet Med 66:19-33, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15579332. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.07.009.
Green, R., Horrocks, C., Wilkinson, A., Hawkins, SA., Ryder, SJ. :
Primary isolation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in mice: agent definition based on a review of 150 transmissions. J Comp Pathol 132:117-31, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15737338. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2004.08.002.
Grobben, AH., Steele, PJ., Somerville, RA., Taylor, DM. :
Inactivation of the bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy (BSE) agent by the acid and alkaline processes used in the manufacture of bone gelatine. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 39:329-38, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15154846. DOI: 10.1042/BA20030149.
Hornemann, S., Schorn, C., Wüthrich, K. :
NMR structure of the bovine prion protein isolated from healthy calf brains. EMBO Rep 5:1159-64, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15568016. DOI: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400297.
Kaneko, K. :
[Bovine spongiform encephalopathy/ prion diseases] Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 93:2363-8, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15624473.
Konold, T., Bone, G., Ryder, S., Hawkins, SA., Courtin, F., Berthelin-Baker, C. :
Clinical findings in 78 suspected cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Great Britain. Vet Rec 155:659-66, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15581140.
Ledoux, JM. :
Hypothesis of interference to superinfection between bovine spastic paresis and bovine spongiform encephalopathy; suggestions for experimentation, theoretical and practical interest. Med Hypotheses 62:346-53, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14975501. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2003.11.019.
Martin, TC., Moecks, J., Belooussov, A., Cawthraw, S., Dolenko, B., Eiden, M., Von Frese, J., Kohler, W., Schmitt, J., Somorjai, R., Udelhoven, T., Verzakov, S., Petrich, W. :
Classification of signatures of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in serum using infrared spectroscopy. Analyst 129:897-901, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15457319. DOI: 10.1039/b408950m.
Morignat, E., Ducrot, C., Roy, P., Cohen, C., Calavas, D. :
Prevalence of BSE in cattle found dead, euthanased or emergency slaughtered on farms in western France in 2000, 2001 and 2002. Vet Rec 155:481-5, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15537142.
O'Rourke, K. :
O.I.E. takes action at annual meeting. Agency acts on measures involving BSE, zoonoses, animal welfare, and the disease notification system. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:486-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15344347.
O'Rourke, K. :
O.I.E. takes action at annual meeting. Agency acts on measures involving BSE, zoonoses, animal welfare, and the disease notification system. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:486-7, 2004.
Oliver, SP. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Foodborne Pathog Dis 1:65-72, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15992264. DOI: 10.1089/153531404772914482.
Sander, P., Hamann, H., Pfeiffer, I., Wemheuer, W., Brenig, B., Groschup, MH., Ziegler, U., Distl, O., Leeb, T. :
Analysis of sequence variability of the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) in German cattle breeds. Neurogenetics 5:19-25, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14727152. DOI: 10.1007/s10048-003-0171-y.
Seabury, CM., Honeycutt, RL., Rooney, AP., Halbert, ND., Derr, JN. :
Prion protein gene (PRNP) variants and evidence for strong purifying selection in functionally important regions of bovine exon 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15142-7, 2004.
Seabury, CM., Honeycutt, RL., Rooney, AP., Halbert, ND., Derr, JN. :
Prion protein gene (PRNP) variants and evidence for strong purifying selection in functionally important regions of bovine exon 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15142-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15477588. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0406403101.
Seabury, CM., Womack, JE., Piedrahita, J., Derr, JN. :
Comparative PRNP genotyping of U.S. cattle sires for potential association with BSE. Mamm Genome 15:828-33, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15520885. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-004-2400-6.
Sisó, S., Ordóñez, M., Cordón, I., Vidal, E., Pumarola, M. :
Distribution of PrP(res) in the brains of BSE-affected cows detected by active surveillance in Catalonia, Spain. Vet Rec 155:524-5, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15551927.
Stack, MJ., Balachandran, A., Chaplin, M., Davis, L., Czub, S., Miller, B. :
The first Canadian indigenous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has molecular characteristics for prion protein that are similar to those of BSE in the United Kingdom but differ from those of chronic wasting disease in captive elk and deer. Can Vet J 45:825-30, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15532881.
Wang, C., Geng, X., Wang, D., Tian, B. :
Purification of recombinant bovine normal prion protein PrP(104-242) by HPHIC. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 806:185-90, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15171928. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2004.03.062.
2003 Anon. :
Federal funding intensifies prion disease research Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222:12, 2003.
Bosch, X. :
Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America The Lancet Infectious Diseases 3:463, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12906010.
Brown, D.A., Bruce, M.E., Fraser, J.R. :
Comparison of the neuropathological characteristics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in mice Neuropathology & Applied Neurobiology 29:262-72, 2003.
Cuenot, M., Calavas, D., Abrial, D., Gasqui, P., Cazeau, G., Ducrot, C. :
Temporal and spatial patterns of the clinical surveillance of BSE in France, analysed from January 1991 to May 2002 through a vigilance index Veterinary Research 34:261-72, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12791236. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2003002.
Ducrot, C., Roy, P., Morignat, E., Baron, T., Calavas, D. :
How the surveillance system may bias the results of analytical epidemiological studies on BSE: prevalence among dairy versus beef suckler cattle breeds in France Veterinary Research 34:185-92, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12657210. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2002065.
Ferguson, N.M., Donnelly, C.A. :
Assessment of the risk posed by bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle in Great Britain and the impact of potential changes to current control measures Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences 270:1579-84, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12908978. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2484.
Ghani, A.C., Ferguson, N.M., Donnelly, C.A., Anderson, R.M. :
Factors determining the pattern of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) epidemic in the UK Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences 270:689-98, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12713742. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2002.2313.
Gizzi, G., van, Raamsdonk, L.W., Baeten, V., Murray, I., Berben, G., Brambilla, G., von, Holst, C. :
An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:311-31, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793788.
Gravenor, M.B., Kao, R.R. :
Risk assessments on BSE Veterinary Record 152:816, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12862175.
Hoag, H. :
BSE case rattles Canadian officials Nature 423:467, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12774079. DOI: 10.1038/423467b.
Lasmezas, C.I. :
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:23-36, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793772.
Matthews, D., Cooke, B.C. :
The potential for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in non-ruminant livestock and fish Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:283-96, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793786.
Morley, R.S., Chen, S., Rheault, N. :
Assessment of the risk factors related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:157-78, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793778.
Mostl, K. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): the importance of the food and feed chain. Forum Nutr 56:394-6, 2003. Pubmed reference: 15806951.
Ozawa, Y. :
Risk management of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in Asia Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:237-49, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793782.
Prince, M.J., Bailey, J.A., Barrowman, P.R., Bishop, K.J., Campbell, G.R., Wood, J.M. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:37-60, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793773.
Roels, S., Walravens, K., Saegerman, C., Thelissen, M., Vanopdenbosch, E., Godfroid, J. :
Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in a cow with clinical signs of BSE Veterinary Record 152:807-8, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12862170.
Schreuder, B.E., Somerville, R.A. :
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep? Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:103-20, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793775.
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Protein nutrition for ruminants in European countries, in the light of animal feeding regulations linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy Revue Scientifique et Technique 22:259-69, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12793784.
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