OMIA:000944-9850 : Spongiform encephalopathy, susceptibility/resistance to in Cervidae (deer)

In other species: Mallard , chicken , Ring-necked pheasant , white-tufted-ear marmoset , macaques , crab-eating macaque , Rhesus monkey , dog , domestic ferret , domestic cat , puma , horse , pig , Arabian camel , Eurasian elk , Western roe deer , red deer , Eastern wapiti , sika deer , Manchurian Wapiti , reindeer , black-tailed deer , white-tailed deer , American bison , taurine cattle , goat , mouflon , sheep , eland , greater kudu , gemsbok , rabbit , golden hamster , domestic guinea pig , domestic yak , chital , fallow deer , cheetah , raccoon dog , bighorn sheep , blue antelope , Arabian oryx , scimitar-horned oryx , nyala , Spanish ibex , water buffalo , Japanese quail , Pyrenean chamois , Iberian red deer , Bank vole , American mink

Categories: Nervous system phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 176640 (gene) , 245300 (trait)

Links to relevant human diseases in MONDO:

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Cross-species summary: Spongiform encephalopathies are a class of fatal neurological diseases. Clinical signs are characteristic of a progressive degeneration of the central nervous system; they include pruritis, abnormalities of gait and recumbency. Death is inevitable. On post-mortem, brain histopathology shows a characteristic spongy appearance. The infectious agent is a modified form of a protein encoded by a gene in the host. The name given to this infectious particle is prion. The host gene is called the prion protein (PrP) gene, which is a normal part of the genome of mammals and chickens. Its polypeptide product, called cellular PrP(superscript C), is a naturally-occurring protein attached to the outer surface of neurones and some other cells. PrP(superscript C) appears to play a role in maintaining the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, which are essential for balance and muscular function. The infectious agent, called scrapie PrP(superscript Sc), is a modifed form of PrP(superscript C), where the modifications involve glycosylation and the creation of intra-strand di-sulphide bonds. It is important to realise that these modifications involve no change in amino acid sequence. When PrP(superscript Sc) molecules enter a previously uninfected host, they convert the naturally occurring PrP(superscript C) molecules, produced by the host gene, into infectious PrP(superscript Sc) particles, which ultimately cause clinical signs in that animal, and which can spread to other animals, both horizontally (by infection) and vertically (by maternal transmission). In ruminants the disease has been called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids.

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:000944-9850: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Bartz, J.C., Benavente, R., Caughey, B., Christensen, S., Herbst, A., Hoover, E.A., Mathiason, C.K., McKenzie, D., Morales, R., Schwabenlander, M.D., Walsh, D.P. :
Chronic wasting disease: State of the science. Pathogens 13:138, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38392876. DOI: 10.3390/pathogens13020138.
Groveman, B.R., Williams, K., Race, B., Foliaki, S., Thomas, T., Hughson, A.G., Walters, R.O., Zou, W., Haigh, C.L. :
Lack of transmission of chronic wasting disease prions to human cerebral organoids. Emerg Infect Dis 30:1193-1202, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38781931. DOI: 10.3201/eid3006.231568.
Mori, J., Rivera, N., Novakofski, J., Mateus-Pinilla, N. :
A review of chronic wasting disease (CWD) spread, surveillance, and control in the United States captive cervid industry. Prion 18:54-67, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38648377. DOI: 10.1080/19336896.2024.2343220.
2023 Mathiason, C.K. :
Large animal models for chronic wasting disease. Cell Tissue Res 392:21-31, 2023. Pubmed reference: 35113219. DOI: 10.1007/s00441-022-03590-4.
Napper, S., Schatzl, H.M. :
Oral vaccination as a potential strategy to manage chronic wasting disease in wild cervid populations. Front Immunol 14:1156451, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37122761. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1156451.
Orge, L., Lurdes Pinto, M., Cristovão, P., Mendonça, P., Carvalho, P., Lima, C., Santos, H., Alves, A., Seixas, F., Pires, I., Gama, A., Dos Anjos Pires, M. :
Detection of abnormal prion protein by immunohistochemistry. J Vis Exp , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37212578. DOI: 10.3791/64560.
Tranulis, M.A., Tryland, M. :
The zoonotic potential of chronic wasting disease - A review. Foods 12:824, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36832899. DOI: 10.3390/foods12040824.
2021 Gallardo, M.J., Delgado, F.O. :
Animal prion diseases: A review of intraspecies transmission. Open Vet J 11:707-723, 2021. Pubmed reference: 35070868. DOI: 10.5455/OVJ.2021.v11.i4.23.
Lambert, Z.J., Greenlee, J.J., Cassmann, E.D., West Greenlee, M.H. :
Differential accumulation of misfolded prion strains in natural hosts of prion diseases. Viruses 13, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34960722. DOI: 10.3390/v13122453.
Moazami-Goudarzi, K., Andréoletti, O., Vilotte, J.L., Béringue, V. :
Review on PRNP genetics and susceptibility to chronic wasting disease of Cervidae. Vet Res 52:128, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34620247. DOI: 10.1186/s13567-021-00993-z.
Orge, L., Lima, C., Machado, C., Tavares, P., Mendonça, P., Carvalho, P., Silva, J., Pinto, M.L., Bastos, E., Pereira, J.C., Gonçalves-Anjo, N., Gama, A., Esteves, A., Alves, A., Matos, A.C., Seixas, F., Silva, F., Pires, I., Figueira, L., Vieira-Pinto, M., Sargo, R., Pires, M.D.A. :
Neuropathology of animal prion diseases. Biomolecules 11:466, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33801117. DOI: 10.3390/biom11030466.
Otero, A., Velásquez, C.D., Aiken, J., McKenzie, D. :
Chronic wasting disease: a cervid prion infection looming to spillover. Vet Res 52:115, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34488900. DOI: 10.1186/s13567-021-00986-y.
2020 Zink, R.M., Najar, N., Vázquez-Miranda, H., Buchanan, B.L., Loy, D., Brodersen, B.W. :
Geographic variation in the PRNP gene and its promoter, and their relationship to chronic wasting disease in North American deer. Prion 14:185-192, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32715865. DOI: 10.1080/19336896.2020.1796250.
2018 Houston, F., Andréoletti, O. :
Animal prion diseases: the risks to human health. Brain Pathol 29:248-262, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30588682. DOI: 10.1111/bpa.12696.
Moreno, J.A., Telling, G.C. :
Molecular mechanisms of chronic wasting disease prion propagation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 8, 2018. Pubmed reference: 28193766. DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a024448.
Pitarch, J.L., Raksa, H.C., Arnal, M.C., Revilla, M., Martínez, D., Fernández de Luco, D., Badiola, J.J., Goldmann, W., Acín, C. :
Low sequence diversity of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in wild deer and goat species from Spain. Vet Res 49:33, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29631620. DOI: 10.1186/s13567-018-0528-8.
2017 Vázquez-Fernández, E., Young, H.S., Requena, J.R., Wille, H. :
The Structure of Mammalian Prions and Their Aggregates. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 329:277-301, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28109330. DOI: 10.1016/bs.ircmb.2016.08.013.
2016 Davenport, K.A., Henderson, D.M., Mathiason, C.K., Hoover, E.A. :
Assessment of the PrPc amino-terminal domain in prion species barriers. J Virol , 2016. Pubmed reference: 27654299. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01121-16.
2015 Brandt, A.L., Kelly, A.C., Green, M.L., Shelton, P., Novakofski, J., Mateus-Pinilla, N.E. :
Prion protein gene sequence and chronic wasting disease susceptibility in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Prion 9:449-62, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26634768. DOI: 10.1080/19336896.2015.1115179.
Greenlee, J.J., Greenlee, M.H. :
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock. ILAR J 56:7-25, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25991695. DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilv008.
2014 Barria, M.A., Ironside, J.W., Head, M.W. :
Exploring the zoonotic potential of animal prion diseases: In vivo and in vitro approaches. Prion 8, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24549113.
2012 Robinson, S.J., Samuel, M.D., O'Rourke, K.I., Johnson, C.J. :
The role of genetics in chronic wasting disease of North American cervids. Prion 6:153-62, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22460693. DOI: 10.4161/pri.19640.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 05 Jan 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 15 May 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 16 Oct 2023